Introductio to Classical Music
Introductio to Classical Music MUSI 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roosevelt Lynch on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 101 at George Mason University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/214979/musi-101-george-mason-university in Music at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
chapter 17 musical system polychoral singing involves the use of two or three choirs that either answered each other antiphonally making possible all types of echo effects An Octave is an interval spanning eight notes ofthe scale Chromatic scale is the twelve semitones that make up that octave constitute Sharp raises tone by half step and flat lowers it by half step and half step is divided into twelve equal semitones Distance between C and D is two half steps or whole step Diatonic is the music that is clearly in a major or minor key that uses seven tones ofthe respective scale Pentatonic is five note scale mostly found in african asian and native american music chapter 18 the major and minor system Triad three note chord that is built on first scale tone is tonic Dominant is fifth scale step and subdominant is triad that is built on fourth scale step Modulation is establishing the home key and changing to related key to domination Transposition is shifting all tones a uniform distance to a different level chapter 19 Baroque era 16001750 Baroque barroco an irregular shaped pearl Collegium Musicum is phrase in which middle class created a culture during a baroque era in places like home the church and university chapter 20 Baroque music monody one song Camerata group of Florentine writers artists and musicians came up with opera new expressive style can apply not only to short poems but to entire drama Figured bass notation when composers put a numerical above or below the bass note indicating a chord Basso Continuo employed two instrumentalists for accompaniment Majorminor tonality simpler style based on a singleline melody and less complex harmonies thrust to keynote become the most powerful force in music Equal temperament new tuning system that allowed instruments to play in any key adjusted the mathematically quotpurequot intervals within the octave to equalize the distance between adjacent tones making it possible to play every major and minor key without experiencing unpleasant sound Johann Sebastian Bach could write in every one ofthe twelve major and twelve minor keys The Well tempered Clavier Baroque musicians used dissonant chords more freely for emotional intensity Castrato a male singer who was castrated during boyhood in order to preserve the soprano or alto register of his voice for the rest of his life Barbara Strozzi woman in Baroque era 16191677 a prolific ltalian composer of secular and sacred vocal music is remembered as a singer and as a participant in the famous literary acacdemics of early seventeenth century Venice Woman in baroque era Faustina Bordoni Francesca Cuzzoni and a french woman ElisabethClaude Jacquet de la Guerre chapter 21 Baroque opera has listening part opera is largescale drama that is sung recitative plot and action are generally advanced through a kind of musical declamation two styles of recitative are secco accompanied by continuo instruments and moves in freedom and accompagnato accompanied by orchestra and moves more evenly Aria releases through melody the emotional tension accumulated in the course ofthe action Da capo aria or ternary ABA Overture an instrumental number heard at the beginning of most operas Sinfonias interlude Librettist who writes text of the work and libretto text or script of opera Claudio Monteverdi 15671643 composed Orfeo 1607 and Arianna 1608 and his late operas have powerful emotions that found expressions in recitations Arioso style between aria and recitative France rejected ltalian genre of Baroque and set out its own form and result was tragedie lyrique which was colorful sumptuous dance scenes and spectacular choruses in tales of courtly love and heroic adventure In England masque a type of entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dance became popular Henry Purcell 16591695 assimilated the achievements ofthe Continent the movement toward major minor tonality Produced plays such as Abdelazar the Moor39s revenge Ground bass or Ostinato a repeated idea Dido Opera in late Baroque was dominated by George Frideric Handel 16851759 works such as opera seria or serious Italian opera chapter 22 Barbara Strozzi and the Italian Secular Cantata has listening part cantana work for one or more solo vocalists with instrumental accompaniment based on three poetic genres lyric expresses personal emotion and allows the music to dominate story dramatic which is written for performance in play a comedy or tragedy or narrative which tells story following character through plot Strozzi39s work shows new virtuosic solo style and stile concitato agitated style introduced by Monteverdi Bein occhi chapter 23 Bach and the Sacred Canata has listening part chorale is a hymn tune specifically associated with German Protestantism Luther adopted Gregorian chant Bach appointed as court organist and chamber musician to duke of Weimar accepted offer from Anhalt Cothen coegium musicum a group of university students and musicians that gave regular concerts He dedicated last expedition to Frederick the Great where Bach39s son Carl Philipp Emanuel served as accompanist Bach dedicated his workto his soninlaw Before Thy Throne My God I Stand chorale prelude a short organ piece based on the embellishment of a chorale tune Bach39s most important keyboard work is The WellTempered Clavier Bach39s last work The Art of Fugue Bach39s cantatas have five to eight movements Fugue is a polyphonic composition based on limitation chapter 24 Handel and the Oratorio has listening part oratorio one ofthe great Baroque vocal forms descended from the religious playwithmusic ofthe CounterReformation generally based on biblical stories and performed in a church without scenary constumes or acting Handel appointed to conductor of Hanover his famous opera seria serious Italian opera had sensational success with of John Gay39s The Beggar39s Opera ballad or dialogue Handel turned from opera to oratorio and his success was Israel in Egypt Messiah Judas Maccabaeus and Jephtha and performed his most famous oratorio Messiah Handel relied on diatonic wherelse Bach favored chromatic harmony and Handel39s works are based on massive pillars of sound and use tone color for atmosphere and dramatic expression French overture consists of two sections a slow somber introduction with dotted rhythms follwed by an Allegro imitative style quotRejoice greatly O daughter of Zionquot is three part or ABA form chapter 25 Instrumental Music ofthe Baroque has listening part strings of Baroque was made of gut from animal intestines yielded a softer yet more penetrating sound Composers used woodwind instruments increasingly for color Recorder flute and oboe made of wood produced pastoral scene Trumpets were played for military Three important keyboard instruments organ harpsichord and clavichord Organ was used in church Harpshichord39s strings were plucked by quills rather than struck with hammers and produced subtle dynamic nuances unlike piano Clavichord is soft has gentle tone Sonata da camera or chamber sonata group of stylized dances Sonata da chiesa or church sonata serious in tone and more contrapunctual in texture Sonata was written for one to six or eight instrumentas Trio sonatas two violins and continuo refers to three parts concerto an instrumental form based on the opposition between two dissimilar bodies of sound Two types solo concerto and concerto grosso solo concerto concert for solo instrument and accompanying instrumental group and concerto grosso was based on opposition between a small group of instruments the concertino large group and tutti and ripieno meaning full Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Vivaldi violnist music master remembered for more than 500 concertos some of 230 are for solo violin The Four Season also known as quotfather ofthe concertoquot remembered for performer rather than composer program music when each line of poem is printed above a certain passage in score The music at that point mirrors graphically the action described ritornello or refrain chapter 26 Baroque suite has listening part dance types represented German allemande quadruple meter at moderate tempo French courante a triple meter at moderate tempo and Spanish sorbande a stately dance in triple meter and English jig the suite had binary and ternary structure Water Music Suite JeanBastiste Lully court composer of Louis XIV divertissements entertainments JeanJoseph Mouret gt rondeau French form that led directly to rondo and has five part structures A B AC A chapter 27 Other Baroque instrumental forms has listening part Ground Bass line repeating bass line French overture pattern slowfast and its fast section in a loosely fugal style known as fugato ltalian overture consist of three short simple sections fastslowfast with vivaciou dancelike finale prelude is short piece based on the continuous expansion of a melodic or rhythmic figure subject or main theme ofthe fugue contrapunctual composition in which a single theme pervades the entire fabric entering one voice then another one exposition first section of fugue episodes interludes that serve as areas of relaxation classica era chapter 28 development of musical ideas theme a musical idea that is used as a building block in the construction of a composition chapter 29 classical form has listening part Absolute music there is no prescribed story or text to hold music together Story is music itself Multimovement cycle generally consists of three or four movements in prescribed forms and tempos First movement sonataallegro form is longest movement can be regarded as drama between two contrasting key ares First theme establishes home key or tonic Bridge transitional passage and its function is to modulate Conflict and action characterizes development It builds up tension and after that recapitulation happens which is restatement in psychological climax of sonataallegro form The movement ends with coda an extension ofthe closing idea that leads us to final cadence in the home key Second movement It is usually the slow movement and is in ABA form and shortened sonata form with more them variation form Melodic variation is favorite procedure in jazz where solo player embellishes a popular tune Harmonic variation is chord that accompany a melody and are replaced by others Third movement minuet gt originally a Baroque court dance whose stately triple meter embodied the ideal of an aristocratic age minuettriominuet is a symmetrical threepart structure in which each part in turn subdivides into two part or binary part aabb scherzo a quick paced dance in triple meter with same overall three part structure Fourth movement Rando form based on recurrence of musical idea chapter 30 classicism in the arts Classicism focuses on class order and view life rationally while Romanticism view it more on feelings and seek wonder and ectasy Apollo god of light and reason and Dionysus god of passion and intoxication Apollo can be seen in Classicism while Dionysus can be seen in Romanticism chapter 31 classicism in music music of veinnese masters Haydn Mozart Beethoven and Schubert was notable for their elegant lyrical melodies and its melodies are usually based on symmetrical fourbar phrases diatonic structure chord built from seven tones of major or minor scale homophonic texture a melody with accompanying harmony chapter 32 classical chamber music Chamber music is music for a small ensemble two to about ten players with one player to part string quartet consists of two violins viola and a cello duo sonata violin piano or cello and piano trio violin cello and piano and the quintet usually a combination of string or wind instruments String quartet became popular during classical era and Haydn favored a dense musical texture based on continual expansion and development of motives while Mozart was more lyrical and melodic chapter 33 Mozart and Chamber Music has listening part Mozart born in Austria had musical talent and performed at Empress Maria Theresa39s court Married Constanze Weber and produced The Magic Flute Mozart infused sense of drama which contrasts to mood ranging from lively and playful to solemn and tragic Eine Kleine Nachtmusik 1787 and favoried string quartet chapter 34 nature ofthe symphony 1st movement Allegro in sonataallegro form Mozart liked two theme with maximum contrast 2nd movement three part form ABA a theme and variation or modified sonataallegro 3rd movement minuet and trio in triple meter a graceful ABA form in tonic key 4th movement pesto in rondo faster and lighter than first with folkdance character chapter 35 Haydn and the symphony has listening part Hadyn born in Austria and liked to use folk song and dance He39s voice beauty made him a spotlight as a choirboy in St Stephen39s Cathedral in Vienna Expanded orchestra39s size and resources and appeared in England for London symphonies and his work Symphony No 94 Surprise chapter 36 Beethoven and the symphony in transition has listening part Beethoven 17701827 born in Germany during a visit to Vienna he played for Mozart and played piano He lost his hearing Beethoven39s compositional activity fell to three parts first being Classical elements he inherited from Haydn and Mozart and middle period with appearance of characteristics of stron dynamics contrasts explosive accents and coda He liked expression rather than elegance and scherzo became during his movement His third period saw the final piano sonatas and string quartets Used more chromatic harmonies cyclical form a theme or musical idea from one movement returns in a later movement chapter 37 Classical concerto has listening part candenza a fanciful solo passage in manner of improvisation that interrupts movement Firstmovement concerto form sonataallegro form with double exposition Maria Anna Mozart 17511829 pianist Barbara Von Ployer a young student of Mozart39s chapter 38 Classical sonata has listening part piano solo or two instruments became an important genre in classical era Mozart and Beethoven used two instrument as equal partners Moonlight Sonata was given title by Rellstab Beethoven dedicated this work to Countess Glueletta Guicciardi chapter 39 sacred choral music and opera has listening part Mass is musical setting of most solemn service of Roman Catholic Church Requiem musical setting of Mass for Dead
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