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Major World Regions

by: Bertrand Weissnat DVM

Major World Regions GGS 101

Bertrand Weissnat DVM
GPA 3.82

Ian Ward

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Ian Ward
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This 60 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bertrand Weissnat DVM on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GGS 101 at George Mason University taught by Ian Ward in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/214982/ggs-101-george-mason-university in Geography at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 09/28/15
Final Exam Review GGS 101003 12102011 20700 PM 1 Meteorology History of Cartography Europe What is geography o The study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere What are the 7 ways that determine temperature in a particular location o The angle at which the sun s rays strike the earth o of daylight hours o Amount of water vapor in the air tropic vs deserts o Degree of cloud cover o Nature of the earth s surface inland vs coastal o Elevation altitude relative to sea o Degree of air removement What is temperature inversion c When rapid radiation causes temperature to be higher above the earth s surface than at the surface itself What is meant by lapse rate How is it important to climatology o The rate of change in temperature with altitude averaging 64C per 1000 meters o Determine if a rising liquid will be high enough to form clouds What causes circulatory motion of air pressure systems How do different air pressure systems respond to this force o The coriolis effect causes circulatory motion of air pressure systems o In the northern hemisphere high pressure systems go clockwise and low pressure goes counterclockwise opposite in southern hemisphere Identify the characteristics of Warm Fronts and Cold Fronts o Warm Front 0 Slow moving 0 Usually generates drawn out periods of steady light precipitation 0 Usually followed by a low pressure system c Cold Front 0 Fast moving covering an average of 600 miles a day 0 Usually followed by a high pressure system Identify and explain the 3 common types of precipitation o Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation o Precipitation result of lifting of air converging into a low pressure area o Convectional Precipitation 0 Rising heated moistureladen air 0 Exemplified by a typical summer afternoon Tstorm o Orographic Precipitation 0 Warm moist air forced up a mountain where is cools and condenses at higher altitudes Who were the following people and how does history recognize their contribution to geography o Eratosthenes 0 Used simple geometric calculations to measure the distance between Alexandria and Syene to be 500 miles 0 Syene located on the extreme edge of the tropic of cancer 0 Discovered the circumference of the earth to be 25000 miles o Claudius Ptolemy o Writes A Geographyquot first real instructions on map making 0 Nothing compares to it influenced Columbus to explore a sphere world o KonradPeutinger o The Peutinger Table 0 Roman Road Map 1 foot high 20 feet long 0 Originally rolled map now 12 pieces 0 Controversy on when he made it possibly 1St century Abraham Ortelius 0 Not academic highly regarded in Europe 0 Born in Antwerp 1527 o Cartographer amp Collector 0 May 20 1570 first edition of atlas complied and edited by Abraham Ortelius Gerard Mercator o Intrigued by Hooftman s problem of finding maps 0 Planned a map book with 30 banded maps for Hooftman o 1569 Major navigational problem how to polot a course with a straight line on curved surface Mercator Projection O Considered Genius First to put North and South America on a map Italic lettering Ortelius success inspired Mercator to create an original set of maps for his own book Alfred Weber 0 Agglomeration and Deglommeration Von Thunen 0 Von Thunen Isolated State Model James Watt 0 Steam Engine Mark Jefferson 0 American Association of Geographers Alexander von Humboldt o Biogeography O O O O What were some of the lasting contributions of the Roman Empire to the rest of Europe The Groma Forma Urbis Romae Map of Rome Definitions Polder lowlying tract of land enclosed by embankments Nationstates a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity amp unity Also expressed as a political unit wherein the territorial state coincides with the area settled by a certain national group or people Coriolis Effect deflective force arising from the rotation of the earth on its axis Cumulonimbus Clouds 12 miles high indicates storm Agglomeration Industry will locate to take advantage of availability of specialized equipment an established market amp a magically sophisticated labor force TO Map Europe and Africa at bottom Asia on top Jerusalem at center Karst topography mass amounts of limestone in area Greece Shatter Belt Zone of chronic political splintering and fractioning Balkans Area located in triangular region around Yugoslavia The Groma a roman tool for mapping Irredentism A policy of cultural extension amp potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nationals living a neighboring state Fjord Narrow steepsided inundated coastal valley created by glaciers that have retreated Benelux economic union in western Europe Conurbation a region comprising of a number of cities large towns and other urban areas Ancona Line one of the main trading lines in the Adriatic Sea Devolutionary Force force that causes physical social or economic status to go form a higher level to a lower level Supranationalism method of decisionmaking in multinational political communities is transferred to a higher authority Cartogram thematic map 2 12102011 20700 PM Subsaharan Africa through North America DefineExplain the following NamesTerms Rift Valley Formed when huge parallel cracksfaults appear in the Earth s crust area between faults sinks or is pushed down forming linear valleys Shia Shi ite 0 Supported Ali as First Legitimate Caliph o Comprises 14 Muslims worldwide 0 Constantly in search for divinely inspired hero 0 Found in Iran Azerbaijan Western Pakistan Western Afghanistan and Southern Iraq Sunni o Comprises 86 of all Muslims behavior 0 Saw Muhammad as a model to follow 0 Pakistan Turkey Iraq Egypt Saudi Arabia Gentrification Wealthy people acquire property in low class areas Rest in notebook What is the situation in Cyprus Part Turkish part Cypriot Cypriot government recognized as legitimate government 5 Obstacles in the ArabIsraeli peace process Golan Heights Security Fence Jerusalem West Bank Radical groups How are the major Christian denominations distributed around the US How does this pattern reflect historic migration routes Follows physical features in the country 12102011 20700 PM 3 Latin America Define the following o Sierra MadreMaestra o Madre is northwest Mexico to pacific coastline o Maestra is a mountain range in Cuba o Middle America 0 Mexico Central America Caribbean o Mesoamerica o The cultural hearth of Middle America Mayans Aztecs o Mate 0 Argentine Tea o FARC Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia 0 Combat group 0 Colombia o Lake Gatun 0 Artificial lake in Panama Canal o Maracaibo 0 Once a place that was infested with disease now one of the worlds leading oil producing areas in Venezuela o Zambo 0 Mix of African and Amerindian o Guayaquil o Largest most populous city in Ecuador o Rest in notes Who is Hugo Chavez o New constitution written in 1999 o Disbanded congress created unicameral legislature o Took control ofjudicial branch o New constitution extends presidency from 56 years How is the Panama Canal different than the Suez Canal o Manmade canal that the US constructed Regions of Argentina o Las Pampas o Patagonia o Mesopotamia Natural disaster that set back 30 years of progress Intro 0 Air Temperature 0 Re ection 9 potentially receivable insulation is sent back into space or diffused in troposphere 9 sources clouds amp light colors 0 Radiation 9 earth absorbs shortwave energy during the day releases it back into the atmosphere night in form of long wave radiation 9 land vs water I EX coastal area moderate climate 7 England inland area d namic climate 7 Russia c H MN m M 0 Normal air pressure 147 lbs per square inch I Pressure measured by a barometer 0 Average pressure 2992 inches of mercury 0 Mountain amp Valley Breezes o Mtn breezes 9 occurs night where heavy cool air over high snow areas descends into lower valley regions I Pushes hot air up 9 sandwiched btw two layers of cold air 7 why you see smog in LA 0 Valley breezes 9 occur during day 9 warm air moves up slopes into mountain regions I EX Santa Ana Winds 0 Moisture in atmosphere 0 3 terms to know I Condensation 7 nuclei 9 anything small elevated into atmosphere by wind 0 offers base for precipitation to condense around I Saturated 9 so much moisture in atmosphere that it can t be held any longer amp must come down 0 Ways precipitation form I Cyclonic or frontal precipitation U o Stalled front 7 cold front vs warm 7 neither wins I Correctional precipitation 7 rising heated moisture 7 laden air typical summer aftemoon tstorm I Geographic precipitation 7 warm moist air forced up a mountain where it cools amp condenses high altitudes 9 why there s snow on big mountain ranges o Storms I Cyclonic 7 activity generated by low pressure system 0 Cold air inland mild ocean air moves up coasts I Hurricanes 7 winds must be over 74 mph also called typhoons o Intense warmcore oceanic cyclones originating in tropical latitudes o 9 out of 10 die from storm surges 7 ocean bulges up amp moves w hurricane 0 Usually form off west coast of Africa or Caribbean I Tornadoes o Smallest but most violent o Winds 500 mph 0 Typically lt 100 mile diameter 0 Main tornado alley midwest 0 Has cold air from north amp warm air from gulf I Lightening o Kills 1 in 6 ppl it strikes 0 90 never touches ground 0 Streak can stretch over 100 miles 0 Temp 50000o F 9 5 times hotter than sun 0 Air expands amp breaks sound barrier thunder I Hail 0 Causes by strong updraft currents o Kicking up water freezes higher elevations amp then falls bc heavier I El Ni o 0 Paci c Ocean near Peru in December 0 Unusual warming off coast of Peru 0 Fish disappear around this time bc too hot 0 Water heats more evaporation more precipitation in South America 0 Affects weather patterns in world 9 ie in years of El Ni o draughts in Australia 0 Water of coast of CA heats also 0 La Ni a 9 following year of El Ni o 7 unusual cooling of same waters 0 Generally has complimentary effects of El Ni o 0 Climate I KoppenGeiger System of Climate Classification 7 p 15 I Problems de ning climate regions 0 Records scarceshorttermoften inadequate o Weatherclimate tend to change gradually from place to place 0 Always room for argument I Regions in uenced by latitude amp longitude I Regions classified by temperature amp precipitation o Clouds I Cumulus 7 uffy amp white 7 low altitude I Stratus 7 blanketlike warm front 7 low altitude I Cirrus 7 long skinny made of ice crystals 7 high altitude 0 History of Cartography I amp Pythagoras amp Ar1stotle known to have decided Earth was round I Beta wanted to know how big Earth was I Used simple geometrical calculations 0 Measurements based on 0 Distance btw cities of Alexandria amp Syene 500 mi 0 Alexandria amp Syene on a northsouth line 0 Syene located on extreme edge on Tropic of Cancer 0 Waited til longest day of the year 0 Calculated it to be 25000 mi in diameter 0 Most thought he was crazy 7 calculation win 250 mi 0 Prehistoric Cartography I Early discoveries in 1963 in Turkey N 6200 BC 0 Art decoration o Pinpoint animal herds 0 Show geographical features I Bases rock or wood skins of animals clay tablets sticks Marshall Islands 7 show ocean currents 0 Ancient Cartogra hy v Wrote A Geography 9 lSt real instructions on map making 0 In uenced ppl like Columbus to explore a spherical world I Roman Cartography o o Impressionistic Maps of the Middle Ages I Predominate shape was Inherited skills from Greeks Produced maps on cloth stones amp bronze Used surveying instrument 7 Groma Forma Urbis Romae Map of Rome 7 btw 203 amp 208 AD 0 Extremely accurate largescale map Peutinger Table 0 000 O l i f71r71ill Exam mi air Name is from l6Lh century owner 7 Roman road map roughly 1 ft high amp 20 ft long Originally rolled map 7 later cut into 12 sections Controversy over date of creation 7 some say 1st century some say 4 Reproduced in 133911 century cartogram Orbis Terrarum Structure of map is a T inside an O Re ected power of the church the time Took step back in accuracy 0 O O o 0 Birth of the Atlas 9 I Mid 1500s rise of world econ exploration turmoil in Europe numerous wars time Maps help set routes that wouldn t be interrupted by wars I Aeqidius Hooftman Merchant 7 obsessed w maps amp charts to aid his biz Relied on maps for biz Not locational East is top of the map not north I East paradise for Europeans Outer circle ocean T 3 great waterways of the world 7 Don River Nile River Mediterranean Sea Jerusalem in the middle who invented it and why anizing them was always a problem 7 needed a solution Not an academic highly regarded by scholars Dutch 9 born in Antwerp Holland 7 major manufacturing center for paper 151271594 1569 working on a major navigational problem 9 how to plot a course w a straight line on a curved surface 0 Resulted in Tit Slamss39mw M I l of the most famous projections of all time Probably most misused projection Never meant to be locational Why use it 7 Mercator superstar of 1500s lSt person to use words South America amp North America on a world map lSt to produce a map that did not show Asia amp North America joined 9 how did he know 7 Info from navigatorssurveyors Credit w being the 1st to intro italic lettering to N Euro l v o 3 part my havebeen completed by grandson 0 Creating a Map 0 I Design 0 O O O O 3 ways 0 Map Elements Title 9 know whenwhere imake sure it s current Legend 9 key7 de nes symbols on map Scale North Arrow Source Statement Graphic Element Variables Color Linework Font Symbols Texture to represent scale Representative fraction 0 ie 110000 l24000 9 unit ofmeasurements must be consistent 1 inch on map 10000 inches in real life Verbal or Equivalent statement 0 ie l250000 9 1 inch 4miles Bar scale 0 Miles ft km 9 often 3 bars on map Types of maps Locational o Thematic o Choropleth 7 shading applied to political boundaries 7 explained in legend Isopleth 7 use lines that are given some kind of increment O o Proportional System 7 symbols size differs and each size means something ie population 0 Dot Density 7 dot size is consistent amp means a or population etc 0 Aerial Photography amp Satellite Imagery Analysis I Started w Civil War 9 both sides used balloons to put ppl in the air amp spy on the other side I WWI too but moved toward fixedwing planes 9 took photos 0 Chances of being intercepted where greater 7 observerphotographer started carrying machine guns 0 Mounted cameras on planes so observer could defend planes I Space exploration furthered aerial photography even more 0 Radar 9 doesn t differenciate btw vegetation amp ground 0 Passive sensor uses re ection of sun 7false color composite 0 Can be used to see places we can t go ice caps Photos in parallelogram shape b c satellite moves 0 Chapter 1 Europe 0 What is Europe 0 Continent 9 cultural sphere o Ends 9 taught it ends in middle of Russia book draws line Russia 0 One big peninsula w lots of smaller peninsulas 0 Characteristics of Europe 0 Constitutes one of the great population clusters of world Econ development decline from west to east Population highly urbanized European agri mainly marketoriented as opposed to subsistant European econ predominately industrial Historic advantage of moderate distance Population 9 long life expectancies generally well off 0 Large range of natural environments 0 Climate o Dominated by air ow called Westerlies like US 0 Affect of continentality o Latitude amp altitude OOOOOO 0 In uence of ocean currents ie Gulf Stream 0 Landscapes amp Opportunities 0 Size 9 size is no measure of global signi cance I Slightly less than 23 ofthe US I Twice the population as the US 0 4 major landscape features I Central Uplands o Hills fertile valleys small plateaus area of immense coal fields I Alpine Mtns not synonymous with Alps o Alps Apennine Pyrenees Carpathian Mtn Ranges I Western Uplands o Rugged not part of Alpine Systems 0 Older geologic formations I Northern European Lowlands Great European Plain o Unifying factor low lying land 0 Wide variety of landscapes 0 Roman Empire 0 Greatest expansion during the 2quotd century AD 0 Extended from Britain to the Persian Gulf from Black Sea to Egypt 0 What did they contribute I Urban Tradition 7 Rome lsL city to have 1 mill ppl I Infrastructure 7 still standing today I Local functional specialization 7 each country is known for somethings I Language 7 romantic languages I Deforestation o Collapsed 9 51h century 0 Populations begin to reshape Europe 7 Dark Ages I Germanic amp Slavic populations move to current positions I AngloSaxons invade Britain I Franks move into France I Iberian Peninsula attacked amp invaded by the Moors from N Africa 7 defeated 1492 AD 0 Monarchies established 0 Renaissance 0 New progress amp rising prosper o Revolutions of Modernizing Erope o Agrarian Revolution Improvements in agri soil preparation crop rotation cultivation harvesting livestock feeding New crops introduced 0 Potato becomes a European staple 7 originates in S America I Farming 9 subsistence to commercial 0 Pro t 7 driven market econ W l umiamyail my I Hill 17 0 Industrial Revo ution I Inspired by a need to compete w Asia Coal production increases I Ocean shipping enters a new age I England forefront of revolution 9 farreaching empire 9 lots of trade good military Industrial location 0 What in uences affected industrial location 0 What were industries doing in different places AL P Not necessarily situated over rich natural resources Coal production increased bc of steam engine 0 Deglomeration o Overcrowding 0 Environmental pollution o Rising land prices 0 Political Revolutions 1780 7 present I Uprisings 0 France 7Napoleon 1799 0 Spain Italy Germany amp others I Rise of NationStates 0 Country whose population has a substantial amt of cultural homogeneity amp unity 7 also expressed as a political unit where the state coinsides w the area settled by certain group M l v i 0 European Union 9 aimed to coordinate policy in econ defense political elds 0 Est Feb 7 1992 0 Now 27 countries members 0 The Euro I One side of paper has bridges the other has doors 7 both generic I Not all countries in the EU use Euros 9 UK 0 Some countries not in the EU use Euros I Supranationalism problems 0 Loss of autonomy 7 some personal identity of country is lost Disparities in levels of econ development Technical barriers Cultural barriers Western Europe 0 Germany 0 Reuni cation in 1990 0 Strong nationstate 9 created in 1871 o Divided into 16 states Landers I Largest Bavaria 3 landers are cities 0 Core of population 7 North Rhine 7 Westphalia I Contains once capital of W Germany Bonn along w 6 major cities I Contatins the Ruhr amp Rhine Rivers 0 82 mill people 9 23 mill more than any other European Country I 1 in every 7 Europeans is German 0 Chancellor Angela Merkel 0 France 0 Some say oldest country in Europe 0 Strong nationstate 605 mill 0 Much larger than Germany in land area 0 Superior relative location compared to Germany I V few natural harbors no navigable inland waterways 0 Dominant city Paris no other city compares I 96 mill ppl 7 closest rival is Lyon w 14 mill I Located on Seine River 7 Roman outpost 2000 yrs ago 0 Divided into departments 7 not states or Landers o Econ dominated by new hightech industry 7 esp transport amp telecommunication I V productive amp varied agricultural sector 7 wide range of soils 0 Current president Nicolas Sarkozy o Benelux 9 12 size of France funi ed since 1944 econ ly 0 V densely populated 27 mill ppl in an area size of Maine 0 Netherlands I Randstad 9 Amsterdam capital Rotterdam Euro s busiest port the Hague UN world court 9 3 major cities mi HI o 27 is Polders amp below sea level 0 60 of population 0 Used to be underwater so soil is fertile 0 Biggest projected called Zuider Sea Project began in 1932 0 Lowest point in country 23 ft below sea level 0 Use windmills to pump water out of Polders o Benelux has turned to managing intemat l trade as an econ activity t i o The Alpine States 0 Switzerland I Not an EU member I Zurich largest city center Multilingual 9 French German Italian Traditionally neutral I Low range of domestic raw material I No primate city 0 Austria I Member of EU I Monolingual 9 German I Primate City Vienna I Wide range of raw material 0 The British Isles 0 United Kingdom of Great Britain amp Northern Ireland I England Scotland N Ireland and Wales I 60 mill ppl on par w France in space the size of Oregon l I Prime Minister David Cameron 0 Scotland I 5 mill ppl O O O Norden o O 0 Independent in future Resources iron coal North sea oil Manufacturingindustry shing 9 ship building 9 hightech equipment Wales 3 mill 9 50 speak Welsh Historic place of refuge for Celtic ppl Resources coal I Independence Northern Ireland 17 mill 9 16 ofthe island All of Ireland was once a Brit Colony 54 ScottishBritish 45 Catholic growing minority Historic religious tension 9 Catholics Protestants I Violence subsided in recent years I 1921 N Ireland part of UK amp rest independent Republic of Ireland I Not part of UK I Overwhelmineg Catholic I Cool moist climate 9 perfect for potatoes 42 mill ppl 9 once 8 mill in 1830s 9 fell bc offamous amp emigration to US never recovered Strong supporter of EU Econ rapidly expanding Sweden I Largest Nordic country 7 population amp territorially I Moving from raw goods to exporting finished good I Manufacturing is in dozens of small to midsized towns specializing in particular products 0 1 export music Norwa Close ties to the sea 9 strll pract1ce wha mg 9 merchant marines for cargo for hire Limited patches of cultivable soil high relief extensive forests frigid north I V low unemployment 7 3rd richest country in Europe Finland I Almost as spatially large as Germany 9 but only 5 mill ppl I Econ based on wood amp wood products 0 Also includes precision machinery amp telecommunications I Helsinki capital 9 textileproducing center I Finns not Scandinavian 0 Estonia 9 why part of Norden 7 cultural amp linguistic ties I l3 pop Russian 9 used to be part of Russia I Econ strong in Soviet time 9 now not so much 7 starting to rebound 0 Iceland I Pop almost entirely urban 9 12 pop in capital 7 Reykjavik I Econ based on sea 9 major concern overfishing I Only abovewater part of MidAtlantic Trench 0 Lots of seismic activity 0 Uses geothermal energy 0 Denmark 9 54 mill 9 2quotd in pop of Nordic area behind Sweden I Mild moist climate amp level land amp great soil great agri I 75 of land is intensive sustained agri I Capital Copenhagen 9 choke point btw two bodies of water y i 0 Depth of altic Sea smaller 0 To disseminate product to get product distributed faster 0 Entrepot 7 place where goods are imported stoned amp transhipped 0 Mediterranean Europe 0 Italy I Most populated of Medtm countries 9 60 mill I Most econ advanced of Medtm w highest GNP I Best connected to Euro core I Largest city Milan 9 7 ofpop l3 country s income factories v efficient known for this adaptable L Cor Progressive North industrial Milan skilled labor hydroelectric o Periphery Stagnant South 7 Mezzogiomo agri outdated enterprises I Basilicata 0 One of largest oil discoveries anywhere in the world in the 90s 0 Area experiencing 30 unemployment I No primate city I Biggest problems today 0 Lack of stable amp effective gov t 0 Spain 9 40 mill I Organized into 17 Autonomous Communities ACs o 2 on African continent I Basques 0 Ethnic minority 9 some interested in independence o ETA Basque Homeland amp Liberty resorted to terrorist tactics to further their cause I Catalonia 0 Pop 7 mill 9 comparable to pop of Sweden Centered around Barcelona Strong nationalism 7 unique culture amp language One of the four driving motors of Europe 25 of all exports from Barcelona 0 40 of Spain s industrial exports I Madrid 9 largest city amp capital 0 Right in center of Spain 0 Countryside 9 farmlands 9 no farmhouses 7 why 0 Farms est in medieval times amp singular houses could be attacked V easily 0 Ranked 2quotd most mountainous European country 0 Portugal 9 10 mill I 48 urban pop lowest in Western Europe I 2 major cities Lisbon amp Porto 0 Most cities on or near coast Comparatively poor country 7 bene ted a lot from EU Westemmost Euro country Azores amp Madeira Islands 7 part of Portugal 0 Formed as result of magma activity from MidAtlantic Ridge 0 Formed in similar way to Hawaiian Islands Farms small amp insufficient 0 Result is most import more than 12 of foodstuff I Export textiles wine corks fish 0 Greece 9 106 mill I Eastemmost Euro country I 2000 islands I Known as Craddle of Western Civ I Historical quarrels w Turks Albanians Macedonians Germans I Athens primate city 9 40 of pop l v I Once heavily forested but not anymore 0 Results in erosion 7 not good for farmers 0 Still considered agrarian 0 Produce includes grapes olives figs amp citrus I In terms of GNP 7 Greece remains poorest country in EU 0 Malta I Just south of Sicily I Pop 400000 9 V diverse I One of the most densely populated countries in Europe 0 Arithmetic density 9 3239 per sq mile o Physiologic density 9 10448 per sq mile 0 only take into consideration the inhabitable area Eastern Europe 0 Area synonymous w fragmentation instability amp strife 0 Area of rugged topography crucial rivers isolated lowlands amp epic battles 0 Western Europe 7 Latin amp Germanic cultures 0 Southern Europe 7 Greek amp Turkish cultures 0 Eastern Europe 7 Slavic cultures 0 Characteristics 0 Territorially amp demographically largest in Europe 19 countries 0 Contains more countries than other European regions 0 Most outside Europe s core 7 periphery o Suffered affects of being under communism 0 Includes larest state in land area 7 Ukraine l J l u Ethnic cleansing 7 slaughter amp or forced removal of an ethnic group from its homeshomelands by another more powerful ethnic group bent on taking that territory I Religious groups too I Meeting point of Asians Africans and Europeans O 0 Poland 0 38 million 0 Capital Warsaw 7 used to have much better relative location I Large part of East annexed by Russia 7 large part of East German annexed by Poland 0 Perhaps most important country to enter EU in 2004 0 Traditionally agrarian o Pamerania 7 historically German 0 Silesia 7 industrial heartland under communist era I Rich in coal iron amp minerals heavy mining 0 Latvia 0 Northernmost Eastern European country 0 25 million 0 60 Latvian 30 Russian 0 Trade w Germany UK Sweden 0 Relies on Russia for gas 0 Lithuania 0 35 million 0 Traditionally bad relations w Russia 0 Fastest growing econ in EU in Eastern Europe 0 Belarus 0 10 million 0 Most closely linked to Russia win Eastern Europe 0 Included in subregionno boarder w Baltic o 80 Belarussian White Russian 7 w Slavic people 0 Prez Aleksander Lukashenko crazy 0 Former Czechoslovakia split amiably in 1992 0 Czech Republic I 103 million I Prague classic primate city I Landscape faithful to Czech traditions 7 close to nationstate status I More industrial 0 Slovakia I 54 million I Bratislava 7 capital I More agrarian I Large Hungarian minority 7 not nationstate 0 Hungary 0 Hungarians trace roots to Asia 0 Population transcends national boundaries Romania Serbia Austria Slovakia 0 Budapest 7 Primate City 0 Ukraine 0 46 million 0 Strategically important position on the Black Sea 0 Dependent on Russia for much needed raw material 22 Russian minority 0 Prez Yankovych North Africa amp Southwest Asia Chapter 7 0 De ning the Realm 0 Dry world 7 yes amp no 0 Exceptions to dry assumption I Peripheral regions of Turkey I NW section of Iran I Oases I Several great river valleys 0 Middle East 7 not really I Eurocentric term 0 Arab world 7 somewhat I People exceptions Iranians Turks I Language exceptions Hebrew Farsi Turkish I Religion exceptions Christians Jewish Islam l The Qur an holy book I Word of Allah I Qur an means recitation 7 oral tradition originally I Speaks of Jesus Moses etc in great regard o What is Jihad I endeavor or struggle not necessarily holy war I 2 meanings depending on scale 0 Global 7 endeavorstruggle against western values 0 Personal 7 personal struggle in every day life 0 Origins I Prophet Muhammad I Begins receiving series of revelations from God age 40 I Arab society in disarray o Muhammad carried message of Allah to ppl amp begins transformation of Arab culture 0 Mecca in present day Saudi Arabia 7 becomes Islam s holiest place 7 birth place of Muhammad 0 SW near Red Sea 0 Why Islam amp not Muhammadism I Muslims do not worship Muhammad 7 Allah is the deity of worship I Islam means submission 0 Islam 7the Great Split I Muhammad dies Power struggle begins 7 need a successor 7 ml i m r l l39 valll ulii su m39a u ml 0 Al husband of one of uhammad s daughters also distant cousin of Muhammad 0 Two Sects of Islam I Sunni l ul millLl 1m Mm in 0 ex Pakistan Turkey Iraq Egypt Saudi Arabia 0 different interpretations 0 Egypt less fundamentalist Oil o Ayatollah Sheik Mullah 0 ex Iran Azerbaijan W Pakistan W Afghanistan S Iraq 0 Why steady progression of Muslim down coast of Africa Countries in turmoil 7 ie Somalia Looking for alternative way of life 0 lsL productive oil eld 1859 7 Pennsylvania 7 for lamps 1913 7 Russia became biggest producer US has produced more oil than any country in history 0 Power of Oil Extremely important resource for region 0 Exceptions Morocco Syria Jordan 65 of world supply in this realm Saudi Arabia 7 undisputed leader in production amp export Oil production extremely important to rest of world Oil amp Wealth 0 High income levels created Modernized nations Regional disparities Industrialized nations foreign investment Secular republic 7 many religious amp political problems Major problem 1992 election result that was thrown out 0 Over 100000 ppl killed in resulting violence Rich in oil amp gas 346 million ppl 7 massive emigration to Europe 7 primary destination France Today several times as many Algerian immigrants in France than French colonists in Algeria height of colonial period 0 Morocco amp Western Sahara W Sahara sovereignty unresolved Morocco independent from France in 1956 W Sahara formerly known as Spanish Sahara 0 23 annexed by Morocco in 1976 o Remaining areas annexed in 79 after Mauritania wdraws o Lybia Open fighting ceased in 91 7 Morocco now invested in self 7 government for W Sahara Misc Ceuta 7 Spanish Owned Melilla 7 Part of Morocco 90 of population lies btw Tripoli amp Benghazi along Gulf of Sidra Revenues from oil have gone to 2 purposes Infrastructure Promo of ArabicIslamic causes abroad 0 Egypt amp the Lower Nile Encompasses a vast area 7 Cairo pivotal position in this realm bc of the Sinai Peninsula Egypt alone of all African countries has a foot hold in Asia Controls Suez Canal 7 a v important waterway o Lifeline of Europe 0 Large enough for nuclear aircraft carriers to pass Nile River 0 Considered one of the longest in the world 4150 miles Civilization here 7 more than 5000 years old 95 of Egypt s 74 million ppl live win 12 miles ofthe Nile Completed in January 1971 l o 364 ft tall amp 12565 ft long Twice size of Egypt Divided btw Islamic N amp Christian S Civil war begins w British wdrawal 7 gov t in Khartoum wishes to impose Islamic law in south Peace comes in mid2005 7 Darfur House of Fur in Arabic r r 7 7 t Hl Arabs in north amp central Darfur 7 mostly camel amp cattle herding people The Middle East 0 Iraq I Land area roughly size of CA 7 occupies 60 of MidEast I Population 31 million 7 40 of region s pop I More than 12 Shi ite I 3 groups 0 Shi ite o Sunni o Kurds about 4 million in Iraq 25 mill in world 0 Jordan I 61 million I Cut off from Mediterranean access by Israel I Orig formed w 400000 ppl in 1946 7 pop grew bc ofPalestinian refugees from Israel 0 Syria I Under military regime since 1963 I Ruling elite come from a small Shi ite sect the Alawites I 21 million 75 Sunni I Damascus located over oasis home to 2 million 0 Capital city 0 Considered world s oldest continuously inhabited city 0 Lebanon I About 12 size of Israel I Capital Beirut 3 L A v llnle 7 i9 7 irElf I Damascus hinterland cap 39tal I 4 million ppl 7 1A Christian 3 Muslim I CiVil war btw Christians amp Muslims in 1975 0 Israel Formed May 1948 Immediately attacked by Arab nations 7 repulsed invasion amp gained more land in process Israel captured more land in the w eek long 1967 war u 7 W J kw Norm o W Bank from Jordan 0 Gaza Strip Pop today 7 million 1 The Arabian Peninsula 0 O O O 0 Saudi Arabia I Largest known concentrations of petroleum in world I Nationstate of 266 million doubling time 24 years I State consolidated in 1920 by King Saud I Land generally rises from east to west7 some mtn in W is high as 10000 ft Ltd cash crop of coffee here where rain is more plentiful 7 minerals gold silver amp more I Tremendous gov t investment in agriculture Kuwait I Site of Iraqi invasion in 1990 Bahrain I Island state I Pop Shi ite majority I 23 work force foreign Qatar I Hostile landscape 7 lots of oil amp gas I Sunni majority I Site of largest US base main command center United Arab Emirates I 7 emirates I One time most conservative country in realm I Progressive modern city 7 Dubai 0 Tourism very important Oman I Choke point Hormuz Strait Yemen Boundary dispute w Saudi Arabia 7 now resolved Approx 60 Sunni amp 40 Shi ite o The Empire States 0 Turke y Heart of Ottoman Empire Origin of name 0 Chinese Tukiu 7 traders passing through Islam introduced in 7Lh century 76 8 million people Islam loses official status State takes over religious schools Military openly guardian of Ataturk s legacy Roman alphabet replaces Arabic Islamic law replaced by a modi ed Western code Monogamy made law Emancipation of women begins Moved capital from Constantinople Istabul to Ankara located in the center of the country 0 Multicultural society 7 historic problems w minorities Armenians amp Kurds 0 15 ofpop Kurdish 0 Cyprus Island 7 07 times size of Connecticut Located in eastern Mediterranean 0 50 miles from Turkey 275 from Greece 0 filimlmaxh I 3971 0 Strong Turkish in uence Area refers to self as Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus I 3 UL y39v quotl o trong Greek in uence 0 Recognized as legit gov t of Cyprus I a g V 5 HE Former Persian Empire 7 known as Persia until 1935 Important relative location 7 access to Caspian Sea Gulf of Oman amp Persian Gulf Shah of Iran removed from power in 1979 by party of the Ayatollah Koeini 7 US Iran relations strained ever since 90 of revenue from petroleum amp petroleum products Prez Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 0 Link to 1979 Embassy Crisis 0 Nuclear crisis 2006 7 2009 somewhat ongoing Large amt of pop in N amp NW part of country 2 H J I Kurdish pop 1n NW along Turkish amp Iraqi boarders I Azeri pop in N Turkish background 7 IndoEuropean I Persians are IndoEuropean 7 not Arab I Arab pop in S amp SW along Persian Gulf o Turkestan I Afghanistan 0 Formed as a buffer btw British Empire amp Russia 0 Little unites the people 7 war w USSR did 0 Less than 20 urbanization 0 Northern Alliance amp US Forces successfully remove Taliban from power 7 Fall of 2001 0 Agriculture product poppies Leader39 Hamid Karzai elected in 04 amp reelected in 09 U l Extreme N very fertile Extreme S very dry Central v ruggedeqprone Eastern extension Vakhan Corridor 7 heavily in uenced by Chinese 0000 I Aral Sea 0 Syr Darya amp Amu Darya Rivers ran into it but have been diverted to provide water L 1y 0 4 biggest to 8 or9 maybe 10m 0 Amt lost amt of water in Lake Eyrie amp Lake Ontario combined o KokAral dam proect o Funded by World Bank 0 Helped restore N 13 of sea s surface area I Kazakhstan 0 Christian NorthMuslim South 0 45 ethnic Kazald3 1 Russian 100 other minorities o Settled pop concentrated in the east 0 Major oil reserves I Uzbekistan 0 Blighted by Soviet economic policy 0 Vast farmlands created in Aral Sea area I Locally grown food unsafe I Drinking water polluted I High infant mortality amp cancer rates 0 75 ethnic Uzbek 0 Not many Russians 7 Subsaharan Africa Chapter 6 0 Physical Geography of Africa as a Whole 0 0 Location amp Size I Positioned squarely on the equator 7 reaches almost as far north as it does south I Lies entirely in tropical amp subtropical latitudes I 15 ofEarth s land surface I Large parts of landmass lie in latitudes where global atmospheric circulation systems produce arid conditions I 4500 miles across 4800 miles North 7 South Deserts I Sahara in north I Kalahari in south I Namib west side of Southern Africa 0 Congo Basin 7 jungle in central Africa 0 Sahel 7transition zone btw Sahara amp Congo Continental Drift amp Africa I Theorized that all the landmasses on Earth were assembled into one giant continent 7 Pangaea 0 Southern continents constituted Gondwanaland I Africa was heart of this super continent I Landmass pulled away from Africa 7 explains giant rift valleys amp escarpments we see today Mountains I Every major landmass has a mountain chain except Africa I Not even Atlas Mnts in NW Africa compares to the parallel ranges of the Alps amp Andes Mtns I Mt Kilimanjaro Tanzania tallest single mtn in Africa Rift Valleys amp Lakes l Extends from North end of the Red Sea to Swaziland visibly I Individual rifts 20 to 60 miles long Rivers I 4 major rivers o Nile White Nile amp Blue Nile 0 Congo 0 Niger 0 Zambezi 0 Climate I Around the equator hot wet climate I Outside great equatorial basin annual rainfall is less abundant less dependable I The further N amp S you go the longer the dry season becomes until deserts I Overall situation is not favorable to extensive agriculture I Staple grains corn amp millet I Crops far less capable of providing the per acre yields than those of Asia 0 The People of Subsaharan Africa it 7 MU Lowering of death rate 0 Medical advances 7 tech infrastructure meds o More food 7 more successful crop technology I Lowering of birth rate 0 Birth controlsex ed 0 Education 0 More industrial society 7 less needtime for large family 0 Population Density I Subsaharan Africa is not very densely populated I Maj or concentrations include Nigeria amp Lake Victoria 0 Health I About 70 of Africans live in rural areas I Many depend on river or well water 0 Prime area for breeding mosquitoes eas ies snails I Medical geography o Endemic o Exists in equilibrium w the population 0 Many develop an immunity of sorts o Saps energy lowers resistance shortens lives 0 Hepatitis hook worm venereal diseases I Tropical diseases 0 Malaria 7 kills 1 million children each year 0 Carrier vector mosquito 7 can t be cured I African Sleeping Sickness o Infects people amp livestock o Kills over 200000 peopleyear in Congo 0 Carrier Tsetse Fly I Yellow Fever 0 Carrier Mosquito 0 Causes liver dysfunction I Schistosomasis 0 Carrier snails o Infects 200 million ppl worldwide most in Africa 0 Person can carry the intestinal wormparasite for years and not know it o Dams irrigation ditches 7 prime snail habitats I River Blindness 0 Carrier parasitic worm o Transmitted by a y 0 In northern Ghana blinds large of adults I AIDS Has lowered life expectancies amp created neg pop growth rates in some areas Nearly 27 million HIV cases estimated in realm Estimated that 80 to 90 of cases not reported More prevalent in southern parts Ie life expectancy in Botswana 0 35 of entire pop known to have AIDS 0 1994 60 years 0 2004 39 years 0 Est 72 years by now if not for AIDS 0 Agriculture I Subsistence farming 0 Dry areas grain crops 0 Humid areas root crops I Livestock farming 0 Mostly cattle goats chickens o Famine War amp Refugees I SubSaharan Africa w less than l10 of world s pop contains 40 of world s refugees I More often than not civil war famine o Colonization amp Stolen Lands I Land alienation 7 one society or culture group taking land from another Africans believed land belonged to ancestors the living amp the yet unborn Europeans often took best land along coasts left legacy of private ownership Colonization ends in 20Lh century new countries attempt to nationalize land do away w private ownership 0 Has not worked well Colonial policies 0 Great Britain 7 Indirect Rule Ghana Nigera Kenya Zimbabwe 0 Indigenous power structures were left intact to some degree 0 Local rulers made reps of the crown 0 France 7 Assimilationist Senegal Mali Ivory Coast 0 Enforced direct rule which propagated the French culture thru language laws education and dress 0 Portugal 7 Exploitation GuineaBissau Angola Mozambique 0 1st to enslave amp colonize 7 one of last to grant independence 0 Maintained rigid control 7 raw resource oriented 0 Belgium 7 Patemalistic Rwanda Zaire o Treated Africans as children 7 needed to be tutored in western ways 0 Didn t try to make them Belgians 0 Raw resource oriented 7 ignored development of natives North America Chapter 3 Urban Geography 0 Most urbanized realm in the world 0 Interurban 7 examines cities as a system of interacting points that serve a large surrounding area macroscale o Intraurban 7 addresses internal struggle of cities microscale o Suburban downtown 7 concentration of diverse economic activities centered around a highly accessible suburban location I Usually around a large regional shopping mall 0 Ghetto 7 innercity poverty zone 7 residents often involuntarily segregated from other income amp racial u ous U ilW39H 7 w w H Jun 39d Plannin amp policy making 7 using spatial concepts amp methods to help resolve social economic amp environmental problems in cities Historical urban evolution 7 examining the birth amp death of urban spaces Historical Urban Growt m O 00 m u l L v mu v 1 0 When was highway system in the US built 1950 s 0 Why was it built 7to move military equipment across the country 0 Who was primarily responsible for construction Eisenhower I Part of convoy from DC to San Francisco in 1919 7took 2 months I When became prez focused on interstate construction 1956 o Washingt n DC 7 case stud in urban geography All 0 5000000 plus quare feet of leaseable office space w lt 40 years old f N lime Wild we lth JI x39 Allquot I On Potomac River 7half land from VA half from MD In the middle of original 13 colonies Georgetown already there 7 good place to build around Ppl lived in suburbs amp commuted into DC Public transport poor b c was planned when city was much smaller DC planned out by L Enfant in 1791 0 Had temper tantrum amp tore up plans so assistant Benjamin Banaker recited it McMillan Plan 7 1901 7 extending national mall 7 wanted to add judicial branch of mall l r Cultural Geography 0 Cultural landscape 7 imprinting of the human presence on the physical landscape 0 Cultural diffusion 7 the process of spreading amp adoption of a cultural element from its place of origin across a wider area 0 Environmental perception 7 your perception of what the culture amp h sical landscape is of a ar lace wout having been there ll l l emi 7 un tlma Manifest destiny 7 deep desire shared by many Americans to settle all 0 territory from the Atlantic west to the Pacific 1800 s 0 Cultural characteristic of importance religion I More Christian denominations in US than anywhere else 7 79 I Distribution follows historic human migration paths physical features 0 Ohio Valley amp Great Lakes area 7 Northern Europeans Mississippi River 7 French Appalachian Mtns 7 Scottish amp Irish Rocky Mtns 7 refuge Manmade features also attract inmigration cities Hz ch N H Population Geography 0 US 3027 million I 43911 largest in terms of territory minus Great Lakes 0 Canada 33 million 110 pop ofUS I 2quotd largest in terms of land territory I Languages 0 62 English 24 French 0 o 14 other 0 2 Native Indian languages 0 Every year least 1 out of every 6 individuals in North America change his or her residence 0 Ma39or provinces of Canada Newfoundland Ontario largest pop Quebec 2n largest BC Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba I 997 pop lives in these win 200 miles of border I Quebec 0 Wanted to succeed o 1980 7 40 wanted separation o 1995 7 494 wanted separation 0 Migration continues in US I Legal amp illegal immigration Certain periods when certain groups immigrated L1 A W Population center continues to move westward o 1790 7 just east of Baltimore Kent County MD 0 1980 7 passes Mississippi River 0 2001 7 Edgar Springs Missouri Approx 15 ofUS lives on Farms compared to 80 in 1790 I N America most highly urbanized of world Middle America Chapter 4 Dividing America 7 how do we do it o Culturally I Division btw Latin amp Anglo America 0 Physically I North Central amp South Middle America vs Mesoamerica De ning Characteristics Midle Americ O O O O O Ancient Civiliz Realm of intense political fragmentation Complex cultural geography 7 African European amp Native Indian Least developed of American territories 3 Common Characteristics Among Latin American Countries I Language 7 Portuguese amp Spanish also French English amp Dutch I Location 7 Western Hemisphere I Population 7 predominately urban I Also Religion 7 Roman Catholic 3 Common Differences I Size 7 physical size I Natural resources I Population 7 mixture of ethnic backgrounds I Also wealtheconomy gov t climate Population I White European 7 Uruguay amp Argentina amp Chile Locational Patterns I Most live along coastal areas 0 Some capital cities away from coast I Most live in capital exception of Brazil amp Ecuador Language I Spanish amp Portuguese Dominate 7 strong regional differences in accents exist Native Indian languages spoken widely Guianas settled by N Europeans 7 main languages English Dutch amp French ations of Middle amp South America I First arose more than 3000 years ago 4 I n1f1ed ara larger h any of the modern Middle America except for Mexico I Thought to originate in early 14111 century in presentday Mexico City Greatest contributions 7 corn sweet potato beans tomatoes squash tobacco I Civilization centered around Cuzco 7400 miles from Lima in Columbian Exchange 0 Brought horses rats pigs weeds fruit trees diseases amp more than 1000 Millions of natives died bc of diseases To Americas Bananas Malaysia coffee Africa sugar cane New Guinea horses reintroduced grapes citrus onions olives To Europe Avocados corn cocoa potatoes men 0 o o The Caribbean 0 Greater Antilles I Cuba Americans not aloud to go to Cuba legally Strong tourist industry from S America amp Europe Fidel amp Raul Castro 0 Fidel longest ruling dictator in modern history Colonial history Spain 7 under US in uence after SpanishAmerican War Fulgencio Batista 7principle political gure 1933 7 1959 Political liberties honest elections amp equality before the law did not exist Young Fidel Castro leads small band in attack on army ba1racks o Captured amp released w his brother to Mexico City where he devised an invasion plan w Che amp 80 men 0 Landed on SE coast to begin revolution 7 where mtns are 0 Most men killed 7 Fidel Raul Che amp 9 others survive amp regroup in the Sierra Maestra Recruits 2000 in 1st year 7 Batista increasingly brutal loses control of my 1959 7 Castro moves into Havana amp takes control 1960 Eisenhower orders embargo 1961 1400 USbacked Cubans defeated Bay ofPigs 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Today 0 Reforms after loss of Soviet concessions to capitalism Forms of private biz amp land Increasing ties w Hugo Chavez of Venezuela Encouragement of foreign investment amp tourism Leadership shuf e Raul Castro Relations w US 00000 I Hispanola 0 Dominican Republic o 49 agriculture 7 sugar coffee cotton cocoa tobacco o Colonial history 7 Spain 0 Haiti 0 Politics amp Us 7 intervention I Extremely close to Us invasion of Haiti I UN peacekeeping measures in place Environmental issues I Deforestation 98 deforested erosion O I Jamaica 0 Colonial history 7 UK 0 Tourism logical economic way of supporting self 0 Doubleedged sword 7 most native never see tourist dollars I Puerto Rico 0 Us territory 7 ceded to US in 1898 7 US citizenship in 1917 o 1952 constitution enacted providing internal self gov t 0 Future uncertain 0 Could maintain commonwealth status w US I Voters have chosen to do this in past years 0 Could become 51st state 0 Could become independent 0 Mexico Population 7 12 total centered around waist of Mexico in states of Veracruz amp Jalisco 7total 11 million 113911 country to pass 100 million mark 7 60 Mestizo 30 Indian 9 White 1 Other Over half of the realm s 200 million in Mexico Population doubled since 1970 but fertility rate now dropping 0 Growth guessed to stop by 2050 Acculturation 7 change that occurs in the culture of indigenous ppl when contact is made w a society that is technologically superior Transculturation 7 cultural borrowing amp 2 way exchanges that occur when different cultures of approx complexity amp technological level come into close contact 9 Mexico Physical Geography 0 Dry desert conditions in north amp west 0 Wetter more tro ical in south and southeast n ll39 10k o Isthmus of Tehuantepec 7 narrowest place in Mexico Yucatan Peninsula 7 site of Mayan civilization 0 Site of large asteroid impact 7 dinosaur extinction Urbanization o 288 million in Mexico City 14 oftotal pop 0 74 of Mexicans reside in towns amp cities US 75 Politics 0 Independence in 1821 0 First 50 years avg of 1 new ruler a year 0 Caudillo 7 military or political strongman a figure sometimes seen as a patriot Vicente Fox 7 election ended 70 years of PRI one party image in 2000 Felipe Calderon 7 current prez w PAN 7biggest challenge war on drugs Zapatista National Liberation Army ZNLA o Began guerilla war 1994 against the Mexican gov t timing coincided w birth of NAFTA North American Free Trade Association Major fighting subsided by end of 94 amp replaced w negotiations Tensions ersist O 0 Guatemala Located in Herat of the ancient Mayan Empire society strongly in uenced by Amerindian culture amp tradition Most populous of the 7 Central American Republics 7 145 million 0 58 Mestizo o 42 Amerindian Internal instability has claimed over 200000 lives since 1960 50000 ppl reported as disappeared until 1996 Most victims of Mayan descent Mestizos control gov t army amp landtenure system Fummm 11mm 1139 it Emlyn Mum About size of Massachusetts Population 300000 7 mostly African Primary language English might change Seafood industry ecotourism banking intemet gambling Stolen territory from Guatemala 0 Honduras Important relative location No strong ethnic or social divisions here however econ not strong Pop 76 million 90 7 95 Mestizo 1H AJ J39W TVl nyw M Md 7 mm f 0 El Salvador Smallest of the 7 Central American Countries Population 75 million 7 94 Mestizo 5 Amerindian Many central American countries referred to as Banana Republic 7 El Salvador known as Coffee Republic Tense relations w Honduras Con icts 7 Civil War 1980 7 92 7 75000 casualties US immigrants send back home 0 Nicaragua Middle America poorest country Highest natural rate increase in population in all of the Americas higher than even Haiti 59 million 7 69 Mestizo 17 White 9 Black 5 Amerindian mf 1 mm 11 7 HI Xi39v wi Q k untry larger in size than Cuba Only Centr er1can co 0 Costa Rica 46 million Oldest democracy in Middle amp South America since 1889 Also known as Switzerland of Central America bc of its neutrality in regional con icts Standing almy abolished in 1948 Capital San Jose virtually slumless clean v cosmopolitan 0 Highest literacy rate standard of living amp life expectancy I Deforestation 7 main reason cattle ranching I Social gap haves amp have nots I Banana production now moving to Panama b c of lower wages 0 Panama I 35 million 23 Mestizo I Once part of Columbia 7 country formed w help from US 0 After independence Panama permitted US to build Canal French tried lg US ye u control on Janua l 2000 LD 6139 lm o Opened same year WWI started 7 August of 1914 I Capital Panama City 0 Highrise skyline unlike any other city in realm 0 Only coastal capital in mainland Middle America International banking V important South America Chapter 5 Major Geographic Qualities o Physiography dominated by Andes Mtns amp the Amazon River 0 Population is concentrated along peripheryinterior sparsely populated 0 Cultural pluralism exists in most countries amp is expressed regionally 0 Regional economic interaction has been minimal in the past 7 slowly changing 0 Physical environment V diverse Northern Region 0 Columbia Bogota 7 capital of Columbia Great Hispanic Cultural Headquarters 47 million people 0 58 Mestizo o 20 White 0 14 Mulatto o 4 Black 0 3 Zambo o 1 Indian Single language One dominate religion Insurent States ov t for N 40 years o ELN 7 National Liberation Army Che Alvaro Uribe o Elected prez in 2001 7 stepped down 2010 0 Strong ties to US 0 Financial support enormous 540 million a year Juan Manuel Santos o Elected prez 2010 o Wants to ca1ry on Uribe s plan 0 Containment of FARC o Tensions w Ecuador amp Venezuela Land Andes breaks into 3 ranges eastern central amp western 0 Eastern extends to Venezuela More than twice the size of France Physical geography varied 7 temperate to tropical environments 0 Diversity of agriculture 0 Large reserves of oil amp natural gas NH 0 Some parts of Andes so high permanent snow 0 Population concentrations in basins of Andean chain 0 Cordilleras 7mtn chain consisting of sets of parallel ranges Economy 0 2quotd largest exporter of coffee 0 1 Brazil 0 Ranking may change bc o Venez I 0 Production costs high 0 Low international prices 0 Recent worm infestations of coffee beans 0 Oil amp coal now leading exports uela Rich physical geography Some cultural ties to the US amp Caribbean 27 million ppl 7 varied ethnic makeup 7 Europeans Arabs Africans Amerindians Core area north amp northwest part of country 0 World s highest waterfall 0 3212 feet tall 0 15 X s taller than Niagara Falls 3911 MM L m o Elected 1998 w 56 amp survived recall vote in 2004 Leftwi former arm officer 0 Replaced congress w unicameral legislature 7 National Assembly 0 Took control of judicial branch 0 New constitution extends presidency amp allows prez to seek immediate reelection Andean Region 0 Ecuador 0 Peru I H w 1 C L quotI Caprtal Quito 14 million ppl 0 40 Mestizo o 15 White 0 5 Black 0 40 Indian Smallest of Andean countries Zones of Ecuador 0 Coastal belt tropical o Andean Zone 0 Oriente 7 lowland rainforest Largest of Andean countries 275 million ppl 0 45 Amerindian o 37 Mestizo o 15 White 0 3 Other I Also divided into 3 zones 0 West 0 Contains capital city Lima w 13 of population 0 Located in heart of desert strip 0 EuroMestizo region 0 Utilizes the nearby port city of Callao 0 Isolated Andean Core 0 Political in uence slight o 12 of Peru s population here 0 Most Amerindian Quechua speaking pop lives here 0 Mostly agricultural activities some mining 0 East or Or1ente o Mestizo amp Amerindian pop I Politics 0 Instability w activities being conducted by Shining Path insurgency group 7 was in retreat now slowly resurging 0 Population living in poverty 0 1995 46 o 2000 50 o 2003 54 o 2006 49 0 Bolivia I Bene ts from large deposits of tin zinc copper natural gas amp oil I Despite this it is ranked as the 2quotd poorest nation in S America 0 Approx 70 below poverty line I 9 million ppl 0 55 Amerindian o 30 Mestizo 15 White I Evo Morales o Elected prez in 2005 o Elected by widest margin of any leader since restoration of civilian rule in 1982 0 ISI indigenous leader in 450 years Brazil 0 5Lh largest country in the world o 1972 7 mapping of Amazon Basin completed o 1975 7 entire country nally mapped O OO O O O O O O O I Only small part is too wet too dry or too steep for econ use 188 million ppl I N 12 of S America I Complex racialethnic mix 0 55 White 0 38 Mullato o 6 Black 7 E amp NE part of country 0 1 Amerindian 10111 largest econ in the world Known to contain huge resources of iron ore manganese amp other metallic minerals Lacks hydrocarbon fuels such as coal petroleum amp natural gas Great potential for water power Amazon River I Largest river system in world I 1000 tributaries I 4000 miles of navigable waterways I 8 trillion gallons of ow everyday 7 fresh water Urbanization I Historic culture health in the NE 0 Site of large sugar plantations I SE core area 0 Anchored by Rio amp Sao Paulo 0 Gold brought settlers here now minerals Sao Paulo I Largest urban area in S America I 50 of Brazil s GDP I 60 of manufacturing activity I Btw 15 and 1A of Brazil s pop here Climate I Common misconception is that temps are unbearably high in Amazon region 7 lower than those of Mississippi Valley in the summer I Manaus 7 highest temp recorded 1015 oF amp lowest 694 0F I Frost only concern in the extreme south amp higher elevations Deforestation I Began as early as the Spanish colonial era during the 1500 s I Causes 0 Need to clear land for cattle pastures 0 Rapid logging of tropical woodlands 0 Need for space for growing population 0 Subsistence agriculture practices Southern Region 0 Chile I 2500 miles long avg width of 90 miles I One of best examples of an elongated state I 90 of population lives in middle area around Santiago amp Valparaiso I 158 million people 0 95 White 0 3 Amerindian o 2 Other I 3 distinct regions 0 Middle Chile 7 Santiago 7 lots 0 wine 7 Mediterranean climate 0 South Chile 7 lots of Fiords o Punta Arenas 7 southemmost city I Largest producer supplier of copper in world I Largest open pit mine in the world 0 Paraguay I Located in transitional zone btw north amp south regions I Of cially located in the Southern Cone region but the econ ppl amp culture more typical of Andean S America I Landlocked buy has access to Rio Parana I Guarani widely spoken alongside Spanish truly bilingual I Landlocked 7 explains modest econ development amp has contributed to limited agricultural potential of the country I 63 million 0 95 Mestizo o 5 Other I Francisco Solano Lopez 1862 7 1870 o Idolized Napoleon 0 War of Triple Alliance 0 Declares war on Argentina Uruguay amp Brazil 0 Response aw that s cute Econ amp emotional result devastating Over half the population lost nearly all adult males killed 0 Uruguay Small compact densely populated Capital Montevideo 7 40 of population 34 million 0 97 White 0 2 Mestizo o 1 Black Occupies some ofPampa area but soil amp topography slightly less favorable than Argentina Agriculture strong here Rest of country used for grazing cattle amp sheep Beef wool amp textiles dominate export trade IV The Austral amp Paci c Realms 4 Australia Austral Realm I Climate similar to DC towards the east coastline I Climate is more dry towards the west and central regions I Interior aka the quotOutbackquot I Gold rush of 1851 New South Wales and Victoria I Land and Environment I Australia lies in the middle of its own tectonic plate Earthquakes are rare I Mt Kosciusko 7310ft is its highest point I Biogeography the study offom plant life and fauna animal life in spatial perspective I Wallace s Line Developed by Russel Wallace 0 separates theecozones of Asia and Wallacea identifying Australia s zoogeographic realm o a transitional zone between Asia and Australia 0 Later modified by Max Weber I Island Invaders 0 Exotic animals starting to appear in homes they don t originate from o Marsupials Kangaroos 4 New Zealand Austral Realm I Consists of 2 Islands North Island and South Island 0 The two islands are separated by the Cook Strait I South Island 0 Topography largest of the two islands and contains the Southern Alpswith Mt Cook 12316ft is its highest point I North Island 0 The North Island is better for dairy farming o Topography relatively low relief Higher earthquake frequency I Native population I The Maori arrived 10 h century AD I In 1840 the British prevailed with the Treaty ofWaitangi The Treaty gave Britainsovereignty over New Zealand and gave the Governor the right to govern the country Maori believed they ceded to the Crown a right of governance in return for protection without giving up their authority to manage their own affairs generally considered the founding document of New Zealand as a nation I Nearly all Maori live on the North Island because it is too mountainous in the South 4 The Paci c Realm I Largest total area of all geographic realms I Smallest land area ofall the realms I Highly fragmented realm I A realm in PoliticoGeographical transition I Comprised of High island Low island cultures High island vs Low island 4 to Good soils are common coconut to l Meteorology A 1 Air Temperature Why do temperatures vary from place to place 7 factors discussed in class a Angle at which sun39s rays strike the earth b Number of daylight hours c Amount ofwater vapor in air d Degree of cloud cover e Nature of earth s surface f Elevation and sea level g Degree of air movement What does the tilt of the earth have to do with seasons What is the Tropic of Cancerand the Tropic of Capricorn a Tilt of earth changes at which angle earth is hit by sun thus causing season b Tropics are the areas where the sun39s energy is strongest 235 degrees N amp 5 Re ection amp Reradiation a Re ection process where potentially receivable insolation is sent back into space or diffused in the troposphere sources of re ection include clouds b Refraction earth absorbs shortwave energy during the day releases it back into the atmosphere at night in the form if lonewave radiation Lapse Rate amp Temperature Inversions a Lapse Rate the change in temperature with altitude averaging 35 degrees per 100 feet b Temperature inversion when rapid reradiation causes temperatures to be higher than above earth s surface that at the surface itself nd amp Air Pressure High and Low Pressure Systems Northern hemisphere spin in opposite direction of southern hemisphere Coriolis Effect is a deflective force arising from the rotation ofthe earth on its axis What is air pressure air pressure measured by barometer What is normal air pressure sea level 14 17 lbs per square inch Mountain Breeze occurs at night where heavy cool air over high snow area descends into lower valley regions Valley Breeze occurs during the day warm air moves up slopes into mountain regions C Moisture In The Atmosphere 1 De nitions a Precipitation moisture in any form that originates in atmosphere and falls to ground b Saturated Air air is saturated when air cannot hold any more moisture so it rains c Condensation Nuclei particles that are suspended in air which are necessaryto form clouds 2 Three types of precipitation Know these and their characteristics 1 Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation a Warm Front slow moving usually generates drawn out periods of steady light precipitation usually followed by low pressure system b Cold Front fast moving covering an average of 600 miles per day usually followed by a high pressure system 2 Convectional Precipitation rising and heated moisture laden air 3 Orographic Precipitation warm moist air forced up mountain where it cools and condenses at higher altitudes 3 Storms 1 Cyclonic where air rotates at high speed around a center a Hurrlcanes must be over 74 mph called typhoon in Paci c intense warm core oceanic cyclone originating in tropical latitudes b Tomadoes smallest get most violent winds estimated to reach 500 mph c Side Discussion El Ni o and La Ni a What are these How might they affect the U5 or other regions ofthe world 4 Cloud types 4 to know here What do they look like What kinds ofweathersystems are they often associated with a Cumulus Low altitude Cloud base at approx 6500 feet b Cumulonimbus Low altitude Cloud base at approx 6500 feet c Stratus Low altitude Cloud base at approx 6500 feet d Cirrus High altitude Cloud base above 20000 feet ll Cartography A Eratosthenes quotBetaquot and his contribution to geography 1 Known to his contemporaries as Beta used simple geometry to calculate circumference of earth Used alleged facts to make calculation such as the distance bt Alexandria and Syene which was believed to be 500 miles B Prehistoric Cartography D 1 Purposes used for decoration pin point animal herds show geographical features 2 Early Discoveries 1963 in Turkey a map from about 6200 BC 3 Materials used for map bases sometimes carved in rock or wood clay tablets seal skin Ancient Cartography 1 Claudius Ptolemy writes quotA Geographyquot rst real instruction on mapmaking influenced adventures such as Christopher Columbus exploration of spherical world 2 Roman Cartography a The Groma Surveying instrument b Forma Urbis Romae map of Rome created bt 203208 BC large scale map and extremely accurate for time n v The PeutingerTable a roman road map originally rolled up later cut out into 12 sections Much controversy surrounds date of its creation lmpressionistic Maps ofthe Middle Ages only one type of map 1 T0 Map OrbisTerratum a Name comes from the structure ofthe map b Re ected the powerin uence of the church at the time The Birth of the Atlas 1 Why was the Atlas invented a Exploration b Rise ofworld economies c Time of turmoil d Routes had to be carefully planned 2 AegidiusHooftman a Merchant obsessed with maps and charts to aid his business b relied heavily on maps had too many maps as a result 3 Abraham Ortelius a Not an academic but regarded highly b Cartographer and collector c Born in Holland in 1527 d Planned a map book with 30 bounded maps for Hooftman e Consulted heavily with his friend Mercator f Included were maps of Netherland Germany France Italy and others g Maps were not his work but a collection ofthe nest maps of the time h May 20 1570 1st edition of the first ever modern geographical atlas was issued from press compiled and edited by Abraham Ortelius 4 Gerard Mercator a In 1569 Mercator was working on how to plot a course with a straight line on a curved surface it resulted in the quotMercator Projectionquot b Perfect for the purpose it was intended for one ofthe most famous projections of all time but also most misused projection c Mercator is considered a genius 1 He was the first to use the names North and South America 2 First to produce map where Asia and North America were not joined 3 An expert engraver credited with introducing italic lettering to N Europe d Mercator produced all maps himself e Ortelius s success inspired Mercator to create the original set of maps for his own book f When all three parls were nished the collection was called the TheatrumOrbisTerrarum but called Atlas for short F Creating a map 1 Different types of maps as presented in class a Locational b Thematic choropleth isopleth or isoline dot density proportional circlesymbol c Cartograms 2 The concept of map elements and design variables know what these are G Aerial Photography and Satellite Imagery Analysis 1 IIIan with balloons then planes 2 Active Sensor 3 Radar 4 Passive sensor III Introduction to Europe A De ning the European Realm 1 What is Europe How do we define it What do we mean by quotRelative Location a Europe is a continent b quotGreat Peninsula contains lots of smaller peninsulas c Extends to the Russian border d Relative location means the location of a place in a relation to another 2 Characteristics of Europe a Europe constitutes one of the great population clusters of the world b Levels of economic development decline from West to East c Population highly urbanized d Agriculture is mainly marketorientated e Economies are predominantly industrial f Historic advantage of moderate distances g Relative location vs rest of the world h Population 1 General well off 2 Long life expectancies 3 Climate a Dominated by the Westerlies b Affected by continuality c Latitude and altitude d Ocean currents 4 Landscapes and Opportunities a Size comparisons to the US 1 Slightly less than 23 size of US 2 2x the pollution of the US b 4 major landscape features 1 Central Uplands a Characterized by hills fertile valley and small plateaus 2 Alpine mountains 3 Includes the Alps Apennlnes Pyrenees and Carpathian Mountains 3 Western Uplands a Rugged older geological formations 4 Northern European Lowlands Great European Plain a Unifying factor is the low lying land wide variety of landscapes How did the Roman Empire the Dark Ages and the Renaissancehelp to shape modern Europe 1 Roman Empire a Urban Tradition b Infrastructure c Local functional specialization d Language 2 Renaissance a Monarchies engage in mercantilism 1 Protection policy b Period marked The Revolutions of Modernizing Europe 1 Agrarian a Improvements in agriculture 1 Soil preparation 2 Cultivation 3 Livestock Feeding 4 Crop Rotation 5 Harvesting b Von Thiinen39s Isolated State Model 1 Idealized model of selfcontained country lacking outside in uence 2 Industrial a Agglomeration ampDeglomerationamp the quotLocation of Industryquot 1 Inspired by need to compete with products from Asia 2 James Watt developed steam engine 3 England at forefront of revolution 4 Alfred Weber 3 Agglomeration industry will locate to take advantage of the availability of specialized equipment an established market and a technologically sophisticated labor force i Disadvantages of agglomeration include environmental pollution rising land prices and competition for space b Deglomeration the movement of activity usually industry away from areas of concentration c Concerning the location of industry 3 Political a Uprisings 1 France Napolean 2 Spain Italy Germany and others b Nation States 1 A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity Also expressed as a political unit wherein the territorial state coincides with the area settled by a certain national group or people c Primate City 1 Country s largest city 2 Always disproportionately larger than the 2quotd largest urban center 3 Most expressive of the national culture IV Tour of Europe A Western Europe 1 Germany a Reunification in 1990 b Strong NationState created in 1871 c Divided into 16 states known as Landers d Largest Bavaria e Core of population North Rhine 1 Contains once capital called Bonn along with 6 major cities 2 Contains Ruhr and Rhine River f 82 million inhabitants g Chancellor Angela Merkel 2 France a Some say oldest country in Europe b Strong nationstate c Few natural harbors rivers and water ways d Dominant city e Located on Seine River f Economy dominated by new hightech industry especially in transportation and telecommunications g Agriculture sector one of the most productive h Leader Nicolas Sarkozy 3 Benelux a 3 country collective 1 Netherlands 2 Luxemburg 3 Belgium b Benelux is one of the most densely populated areas on earth some 27 million people inhabit an area the size of Maine c Netherlands 1 Amsterdam 2 Rotterdam 3 The Hague d Supranationalism 1 Association of 3 or more countries that may involve economic cultural and political sphere 2 Problems with Supranationalism a Loss of autonomy b Disparities in levels of economic development c Technical barriers d Cultural barriers e Dutch expanding land area by reclaiming land from the sea 1 Polders reclaimed land 2 27 of Netherlands now below sea level area home to 60 of population f Benelux limited space has turned to managing internation trade as an economic activity 1 Brussels headquarters for NATO The Alpine States listed as part ofWestern Europe in the textbook 1 Switzerland a Not a member of EU b Multilingual French German Italian c Low range of domestic raw material d No primate city e Zurich largest city and financial center f Neutral in conflicts 2 Austria a Member of EU b Monolingual German c Wide range of domestic raw material d Vienna Primate City The British Isles 1 UK 1 Roughly 60 million people 2 Size of Oregon 3 Core and Periphery Concept b England 1 Periphery high land area a More oals grown than wheat b Moist climate 2 Core lowland a More wheat b In uenced byindustry c Economic base c Scotland 1 51 million people 2 Resources iron coal oil 3 Manufacturingindustry d Wales 1 3 million people 2 Historic place for Celtic people 3 Resources coal e Northern Ireland 1 17 million people occupying 16 ofthe island 2 All of Ireland once a British colony now only NE corner part of UK 3 54 ScottishBritish ancestry 4 45 Catholic 5 Historic religious tension between Protestants and Catholics 6 Violence subsided in recent years 2 The Republic oflreland N V Not a part of UK b Overwhelmineg Catholic Cool moist climate 391 V d 42 million people e V Strong supporter of EU f Economy rapidly expanding D Northern Europe 1 Sweden a Territorially and demographically the largest Nordic country b Country moving from exporting raw goods to nished goods c Major iron reserves in North d Unlike most other western European manufacturing takes place in small to medium sized to large scale 2 Norway a Fjord 1 Narrow steep sided inundated coastal valley 2 Created by glaciers that have retreated thus allowing sea water to fill the space left behind b Construction to the sea 1 Oil 2 Fishing 3 O shore shing b Fish farming c d Limited patches of cultivable soil high relief very extensive forest Very low unemployment one of the richest countries in Europe 3 Denmark 4 Finland 5 Estonia 6 a b c d e V b C v d V b C V d Iceland a b c 55 million people ranked 2quotd in population Mild moist climate level land great soil excellent agriculture Intensive agriculture sustained over 75 of its land area Break of Bulk a point where goods must be moved from one land to another Entrpot a place where goods are imported stores and transhipped Almost as big as Germany in land size but has 53 million residents Economy long based on wood and wood product export other industries have created a diversi ed economy 1 Precision machinery 2 Telecommunications Helsinkicapital textile producing Finns not a Scandinavian people Part of Norden because it has a language related to Finnish 25 of population is Russian Faced economic hardships after 1991 when they split with Soviet EU membership in 2004 signaled turn around in economy Population almost entirely urban Economy based on the sea Geothermal energy resources Mediterranean Europe 1 Italy V n V Most populated ofthe 5 Mediterranean countries with 60 million Most economically advanced of the 5 with higher GNP Best connected to European core Milan m V v V Uh V h V 2 Spain 391 v52 8 1 7 of population 2 13 ofthe countrfs income generated here 3 Factories with strong global reputations for efficiency and adaptability Core quotProgressive North 1 Industrial skilled labor 2 Hydroelectric power Periphery stagnant South 1 Also known as Mezzogiorno 2 Intensive agriculture outdated stateowned enterprises Basilicata 1 One ofthe largest oil reserves found anywhere 2 Area currently at 30 unemployment Lack ofan effective and stable government Approximately 40 million people Organized into 17 regions called autonomous communities Basques 1 Ethnic minority many of whom are interested in independence 2 ETA resulted to terrorist tactics to further their course Catalonia 1 Triangular AC in Spain s northeastern corner 2 Population approaching 7 million 3 Centered around Barcelona most cities are interior 4 Strong nationalism unique culture and language 5 One of the driving motors for the economy Madrid Spain39s capital and largest city 3 Portugal a b c d Population about 10 million 48 urban population 2 major cities Lisbon and Porto Comparatively poor country has bene ted from EU


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