Major World Regions
Major World Regions GGS 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bertrand Weissnat DVM on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GGS 101 at George Mason University taught by Josiah Baker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/214983/ggs-101-george-mason-university in Geography at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Regions of the World Test Review 1 Pangea Earthquakes Volcanoes Tectonic Plates Alfred Wegener Continental drift Physical landscape Cultural landscape A geographic perspective Spatial analysis Marshall Plan The Treaty of Rome The Maastricht Treaty The European Single Act The Euro who will not participate NonEU European states and why Hydraulic Theory of Civilization Stages of Human Existence Human rituals Core semicore Semiperiphery periphery hinterland nodes Urbanization Industrialization versus innovation Population density Fertility rate Carrying capacity Net migration Global cities Globalization Global products Feudal life Centripetal centrifugal forces Geographic realms Transition zones Shatterbelts Nationalism Selfdetermination Formal regions Functional regions Vernacular regions Borders and con ict Countries of modern Europe Cold War geography Berlin Wall The Iron Curtain NATO Exclaves Path of industrialization in Europe Nation states Devolution Slavic nations Romance languages Germanic languages Slavic languages Interstate system Primate cities Division of dominance in the US US States Canadian provinces French Canada and its origins British Canada DC and Puerto Rican statehood Postindustrial Industrial Preindustrial Soviet Eastern Europe Shatterbelt Balkanization Orthodox Christian Europe Catholic Europe Protestant Europe Muslim Europe US vs European immigrants Forward capital Internet connectivity in the US Precivilization Civilization Advanced preindustrial Advanced industrial Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Quinary Pronatal policies Population implosion Why build an interstate World Geography First Exam Review Questions Introduction Chapter 1 Geography is the study of the earth and its features and the distribution of life on the earth including human life and the effects of human activity 2 A geographic realm is a quotglobal neighborhoodquot Each realm quotpossesses a particular combination of environmental cultural and organizational propertiesquot There are 12 world geographic realms Europe Russia North America Middle America South America Subsaharan Africa North AmericaSouthwest Asia South Asia East Asia Southeast Asia the Austral Realm and the Pacific Realm 3 Transition zones refer to the areas where geographic realms meet All regional boundaries are transition zones Transitional zones are ever changing zones of cultural interaction Transition zones are often areas oftension andor conflict 4 Spatial analysis is used in GPS global positioning system and GIS geographic information system 5 The hydraulic theory of civilization is the theory that states that cities able to control irrigated farming over large hinterlands held political power over other cities Europe Chapter 1 The five major regions of Europe are The British Isle Western Europe Mediterranean Europe Eastern Europe and Northern Nordic Europe 2 Europe became an imperial powerhouse because powerful monarchies reached for domination overseas 3 The Marshall Plan was proposed by George C Marshall in 1947 It was a European Recovery Program designed to help counter the dislocation Europe faced as a result of World War II In addition it aimed to stabilize political conditions in which democracy would survive The United States provided about 13 billion in assistance to 16 European countries Soviet Union refused US aid and forced its Eastern European satellites to do the same Currently Norway Switzerland and Ireland vote against joining the EU in order to retain their independence No EU prospects exist for Belarus or Moldova although both countries border the EU Ukraine has shown signs of interest for better relations with Europe but has no early prospect ofjoining the EU Albania also has no early prospects Millions of Turks Algerians West Africans West Indians Indonesians and even South Africans immigrants are challenging the social fabric of what were once unicultural nation states The book specifically addresses the spread of Islam in Western Europe The book classifies the vast majority of Muslim immigrants as intensely devout politically aware and culturally insular people These immigrants continue to arrive in areas of Europe classified by stagnant or declining native populations where Christian religious institutions are weakening where secularism is rising rapidly where political positions tend to appear anti Islamic and where cultural norms are incompatible with Muslim traditions Russia Chapter 4 V39 1 Population implosion is negative population growth Russia s population is rapidly declining and will if present demographic trends continue shrink from 1406 million to only 110 million by 2050 2 When the Soviet system failed Russia was left without the empire that had taken centuries to build Under the communist system there was no democracy and the people had no way to express their grievances The communist system created excess supply and demand lacked efficient distribution systems industries had no customer service no quality controlcompetition Russia was behind in technology and during the Soviet era there was a bloated military budget 60 ofthe economy 3 Gorbachev tried to reform the stagnating Party and the state economy 4 The Precommunist Russian empire was a strong colonial power It can be described as a culture of extremes It was a culture of strong nationalism resistance to change and despotic rule Enormous wealth was concentrated in the small elite The Industrial Revolution arrived late in Russia and a middle class was slow to develop 5 During the Soviet Era millions of Russians depended on state pension for their retirement Political and financial turmoil during the Post Soviet years caused the system to falter impoverishing many families and widening the gap between the rich and the poor Street people and the destitute are now seen in numbers unknown during the communist era Organized crime exploded after the fall of Soviet Rule This is due to the end of the iron fist of communism and law enforcement in the new Russia could not cope with the new epidemic Russia is currently facing many border problems North American Chapter 1 Canada suffers from centrifugal forces more than the US because of the historic cleavage between Canada s French and English speakers This cleavage has resurfaced over the past four decades to dominate the country s political and cultural geography 2 The interstate system reduced the cost of transportation The federal government designed our interstate system with emergency and commercial purposes in mind Under a national emergency the government could shut down the interstate to civilians The interstate created suburbanization People began to move from the center of cities to the suburbs 3 Geographically the US has access to both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans It has a well diversified climate and an abundance of natural resources The United States also has the luxury of relative isolation which provides a form of insulation It s two neighbors Canada and Mexico don t pose a threat 4 Canada s ten provinces have more rights directly from the head of Canadian government than the three territories In Canada the provinces are endowed with more rights than those given to US states 5 Canada is considered to be in the North American realm because the North American realm consists of two large countries Canada and US with much in common These are two ofthe world s most highly advanced countries by virtually every measure of human development These two countries are bonded by an almost endless range of natural resources and are bonded by trade as well as culture More than 80 of A World Geogranhv Final Exam Review Middle East Chapter 1 List 2 Empire States Turkey and Iran 2 List 3 Major Western Religions Judaism Christianity and Islam 3 List 3 Major Eastern Religions Hinduism Buddhism Bahai 4 List 3 Distinctions that Separate Eastern amp Western Religions Western religions practice monotheism and Eastern practice polytheism Western religions don t believe in reincarnation Western cultures believe that future is predetermined by God 5 List 5 countries in the Sahara Algeria Morocco Western Sahara Mauritania and Niger 6 What are the Holy Cities of Islam Judaism and Christianity Islam 7 Mecca Jerusalem and Medina Judaism 7 Jerusalem Christianity 7 Rome and Jerusalem 7 List the countries where Kurdistan would be Kurdistan would be in parts of Turkey Iraq and Iran 8 What are the disputed territories that involve Israel Jordan Lebanon Jerusalem West Bank Golan Heights 9 Give an example of a failed state in the Middle East Afghanistan 10 Give an example of a fractured state in the Middle East Turkey South Asian Chapter 1 List the Major Religion of each country in the region India 7 Hindu Pakistan 7 Muslim Nepal 7 Buddhist Bangladesh 7 Muslim Sri Lanka 7 Buddhist Myanmar 7 Buddhist Maldives Muslim 2 Why is the monsoon season so imp01tant The monsoon season is so important because it brings rain that is needed for food 3 List 3 positive contributions from the British The British contributed more consistent food improved farming improved the medical services and urbanization developed 4 Where do most people live in India In India most people live in the core area of the Northeast by Nepal 5 Why did Bangladesh experience a population explosion Bangladesh experienced a population explosion because death rates dropped off especially in urban areas due to the British efforts 6 What is a caste system A caste system is a system of social levels determined by birth In a caste system there is no social mobility between these levels 7 Who was Thomas Malthus How did he in uence 19th century British policy Thomas Malthus was a British scholar He in uenced the 19111 century British policy by withholding medicine from India to prevent overpopulation 8 Who were the Aryans The IndoAryans of South Asia Nomadic people who migrated from the Middle East 9 What were the origins of the Kashmir con ict The leader was Hindu and most of the people living there were Muslim 10 List and describe the 4 demographic stages High birth rate high death rate 7 low growth rate High birth rate decreasing death rate 7 increasing growth rate High birth rate low death rate 7 high growth rate Low birth rate low death rate 7 low growth East Asian Chapter 1 What was Mao s population policy Mao s population policy was pornatal Each woman should have as many children as possible 2 How did opium harm China Opium made people lazy Work in China requires lots of hands on hard work 3 What was the cultural revolution Mao Zedong wanted to eliminate the Chinese culture because he felt that it hurt the country The cultural revolution took place from 1962 1974 4 What is collectivized agriculture Holdings of several farmers run as a joint enterprise 5 What is a SEZ in China Why are these important SEZ stands for Social Economic Zone There was free enterprise in these areas causing an explosion in Chinese exports and a division between rich and poor 2 6 Describe China s government and economic system China is run by communist policy The economic system is a capitalist economy Communists have an authoritarian regime and can shut down everything 7 What role did the Emperor have in Japan prior to 1945 The emperor had an imperial rule in Japan prior to 1945 8 Describe the Shogun Era in Japan Military dictator was in charge of everything 9 Why is Taiwan contested There is contest over who should control Taiwan over what country it is apart of and if it is its own country 10 Why does North Korea pose a threat to Japan Nuclear Southeast Asia Misc 1 What colonial powers were involved in SE Asia French British Portugese 2 Why is Singapore considered critical to world trade It has a great location Singapore is multiethnic and it is people are well educated 3 What is a failed state in SE Asia Burma 4 How did Vietnam become a war for the US US wanted to stop the spread of communism in South East Asia 5 Why do archipelagos pose a challenge to countries There is a large amount of islands This makes it hard to get to each one 6 What made Hong Kong and Macau special for the region Hong Kong and Macau both only recently became part of China Hong Kong was British and Macau was Portuguese There was a big black market in both Hong Kong and Macau 7 Why is SE Asia considered to be a shatter belt Because it borders India and China Cold war buffer zone 8 What is causing rapid development in this region globalization 9 What is an elongated state a fragmented state and a compact state Vietnam is an elongated state States with very long and narrow body The Phillipines is a fragmented state It has discontinuous pieces of territory Cambodia is a compact state All parts are physically connected 3