Ecosphere Envir Sci II
Ecosphere Envir Sci II EVPP 111
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1E1 Energy Fossil Fuels Coal EVPP 111 Lecture Dr Largen 2 El OUTLINE o Renewable vs NonRenewable Energy o Fossil fuels general o formation 0 resources vs reserves o Coal o formation o types 0 reserVes o extraction o use patters o use issues 3 El OUTLINE o Renewable vs NonRenewable Energy o Fossil fuels general o formation 0 resources vs reserves o Coal o formation o types 0 reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 4 E Nonrenewable vs renewable energy sources Nonrenewable resources available in finite limited quantities depleted by use natural processes do not replenish within reasonable period of time on human time scale 5 E Nonrenewable vs renewable energy sources Nonrenewable resources include minerals copper tin aluminum radioactive ores fossil fuels coal oi natural gas 6 I3 Nonrenewable vs renewable energy sources Renewable resources available in potentially unlimited quantities term is not used exclusively to describe energy resources replaced by natural processes fairly rapidly on a scale of days to decades can be used forever as long as they are not overexploited in short term must be used in sustainable manner gives them time to replace or replenish themselves 7 E Nonrenewable vs renewable energy sources Renewable resources include nonenergy trees fishes fertile agricultural soil fresh water energy solar wind geothermal hydroelectric 8 El Non renewable energy resources vs reserves Nonrenewable resources must differentiate between deposits that can be extracted and those that cannot resource reserve 9E Nonrenewable energy resources vs reserves Nonrenewable resources resource naturally occurring substance of potential use to humans can potentially be extracted using current technology reserve known deposits that can be extracted profitably with existing technology under certain economic conditions 10 I3 Nonrenewable energy resources vs reserves Nonrenewable resources resource total amount changes only by amount that is used each year reserve an economic concept amount changes as technology advances as new deposits are discovered as economic conditions vary reserves are smaller than resources 11 E 12 El OUTLINE o Renewable vs NonRenewable Energy o Fossil fuels general o formation o resources vs reserves o Coal o formation o types o reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 13 I3 Fossil fuels general definition formation specific types formation resources and reserves use patterns use issues 14E Fossil fuels Generaldefinition partially decayed remains of plants animals and microorganisms that lived millions of years ago 15 El Fossil fuels General formation 300 million years ago much of earth s climate was mild and warm plants grew year round in vast swamps as swamp plants and aquatic microorganisms died fell into or sunk in water gtgt deoomposed very little due to lack of oxygen covered by layers of sediment 16 El Fossil fuels General formation over great periods of time heat and pressure that accompanied burial of organic material by sediments converted nondecomposed organic material into carbonrich materials we now call fossil fuels 17 El OUTLINE o Renewable vs NonRenewable Energy o Fossil fuels general o formation 0 resources vs reserves o Coal o formation o types 0 reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 18 El Fossil fuels Types coal oil natural gas 19 El Fossil fuels o Coal o formation o types 0 reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 20E Fossil fuels o Coal o formation o types 0 reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 21 El Fossil fuels Coal formation 300 million years ago tropical freshwater swamps covered many regions of earth conditions in swamps favored extremely rapid plant growth resulting in accumulations of dead plant material underwater gtgt decay was inhibited due to low oxygen concentrations 22 El Fossil fuels Coal formation partially decayed accumulated plant material was covered by sediments especially when geologic changes in earth caused some swamps to be submerged by seas over vast periods of time heat and pressure that accompanied burial gtgt converted nondecomposed plant material into carbonrich rock called coal 23 El Fossil fuels o Coal o formation o types o reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 24E Fossil fuels occurs in different types or grades dependent on varying amounts of heat and pressure to Which it was exposed during formation 25 El Fossil fuels Coal tlPes exposed during formation to higher heat and pressure drier lowerwater content more compact harder higher heating value higher energy content lower heat and pressure wetter higher water content less compact softer lower heating value lower energy content 26E Fossil fuels three most common grades Iignite bituminous anthracite 27E Fossil fuels lignite characteristics moist water content of 45 soft woody texture produces little heat compared to other types heat value of 7000 BTUpound dark brown in color contains 20 noncombust ble compounds contains 35 carbon 28E Fossil fuels Coal tyPeS lignite gtgt often used to fuel electric power plants deposits gtgt sizable deposits found in western US gtgt largest US producer is North Dakota gtgt cost to mine 1997 10912000 pounds 29 El Fossil fuels Coal tlPes bituminous characteristics moderately dry water content of 51 5 moderately hard although its also called a soft coal produces nearly twice the amount of heat as lignite heat value of 12000 BTUpound dull to bright black with dull bands contains 20 30 noncombustible compounds contains 5575 carbon 30 El Fossil fuels Coal types bituminous uses extensively by electric power plants gtgt produces a lot of heat deposits found in US in Appalachian region near Great Lakes in Mississippi Valley in central Texas cost to mine 1997 24642000 pounds 31 El Fossil fuels Coal types anthracite highest grade of coal characteristics very dry water content of 4 very compact called hard coal produces twice the heat of lignite heat value of 14000 BTUpound dark brilliant black in color contains 1 noncombustible compound contains 95 carbon 328 Fossil fuels Coal tyPeS anthracite 39 uses electric power generation and other industrial uses such as production of steel deposits in US most is located east of Mississippi River particularly in PA 33 34E Fossil fuels o Coal o formation o types 0 reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 35 I3 Fossil Fuels Coal deposits and reserves coal is most abundant fossil fuel in world found mostly in Northern Hemisphere found in seams orveins underground layers that vary in thickness from 250m to gt30m in thickness easily located geologists believe most if not all major deposits have been located 36 El Fossil Fuels Coal deposits and reserves known proven mug reserves location 66 located in US Russia China India gtgt with US accounting for 24 of those could last 200 years at present rate of consumption 65 years if rate of consumption increases by 2 per year 37 E Figure 104 Distribution of coal deposits Raven amp Berg 38E 39E Fossil Fuels Coal deposits and reserves known us reserves location gtgt throughout US gtgt more in eastern 12 of continental US could last US gtgt 300 years at present rate of consumption 40E 41 El Fossil Fuels Coal deposits and reserves unknown unproven world reserves additional coal reserves that are currently too expensive to develop gtgt for example deposits at depths gt5000 feet would cost more to extract than would be offset by current price of coal 42 El Fossil Fuels Coal deposits and reserves unknown unproven world reserves location gtgt 85 are located in US could last gtgt 1000 years at present rate of consumption gtgt 149 years if rate of consumption increases by 2 per year 43 El Fossil Fuels Coal deposits and reserves unknown unproven US reserves could last US gtgt 400years at present rate of consumption 44 I3 Fossil Fuels Coal deposits and reserves known AND unknown world reserves could last gtgt 2001000 years depending on rate of consumption 45 El Fossil fuels o Coal o formation o types 0 reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 46 El Fossil Fuels Coal extraction two basic types of coal mines surface mines subsurface mines 47 I3 Fossil Fuels Coal extraction surface mines also called strip mining used Wnen overburden is 30100 meters thick overburden rockearthen material on top of veinseam of coal results in best utilization of coal reserves it removes most of coal in a vein can be profitably used in a vein as thin as 12 meter 48 El Fossil Fuels Coal extraction surface mines have increased globally in US from 30 of coal extracted in 1970 to 60 of coal extracted currently advantages over subsurface mining less expensive safer for miners allows more complete removal of coal disadvantage over subsurface mining disrupts land more extensively gtgt adverse environmental impacts 49E 50E Fossil Fuels Coal extraction subsurface mines employed Wnen overburden is thick gt30 100 meters account for 40 of current coal extraction advantage over surface mining disrupts land less extensively less potential for adverse environmental impacts disadvantages over surface mining more expensive less safe for miners less complete removal of coal 51E Fossil fuels o Coal o formation o types o reserves o extraction o use patterns o use issues 52 El Fossil Fuels Coal use patterns provides 21 of world s commercial energy 22 of US s commercial energy used to generate 62 of world s electricity 53 of US s electricity make 75 of world s steel 53 54 IE Figure 109 World commercial energy sources 1997 Raven amp Berg 55 56E Fossil Fuels Coal use patterns many analysts project a decline in coal use over next 4050 years because of its high CO2 emissions harmful human health effects availability of less environmentally harmful ways to produce electricity 57E 58E Fossil fuels o Coal o formation o types 0 reserves o extraction o use patters o use issues 59E Fossil Fuels Coal use issues coal contains small amountsofsulfur Which is released into atmosphere as 802 when coal is burned gtgt 802 is a greenhouse gas trace amount of mercury and radioactive materials Which are released into atmosphere when coal is burned 60 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues most abundant fossil fuel produces highest environmental impact from land disturbance air pollution greenhouse gas emissions 802 C02 release of toxic mercury particles release of thousands of times more radioactive particles into atmosphere per unit energy produced than does a normally operating nuclear power plant water pollution 61 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues human health impacts occupational coal mining is one of most dangerousjobs in world during 20th century 90000 American coal miners died in mining accidents though death rates declined in latter part of century between 1870 and 1950 30000 miners died in PA alone equivalent of one man per day for 80 years 62E Fossil Fuels Coal use issues human health impacts occupational miners have increased risk of black lung disease lungs become coated with inhaled coal dust restricting oxygen exchange causing 2000 deaths per year 63 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues land disturbance in US thousands of square kilometers have been disturbed by mining only about 12 of that has been reclaimed 64 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues land disturbance types open trenches topsoil removalerosion landslides caused by lack of vegetation mountaintop removal land subsidence trailing dumps 658 Fossil Fuels Coal use issues land disturbance acid mine drainage produced when rainwater seeps through iron sulfide minerals exposed in waste mines and gtgt carries sulfuric acid to nearby streams and lakes 66 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues air pollution many elements taken up by ancient plants were concentrated in coal formation process such as uranium lead cadmium mercury rubidium thallium zinc released When coal is burned gtgt as gas into atmosphere gtgt are concentrated as in fly ash coal is responsible for 25 of all atmospheric mercury pollution in U8 67El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues air pollution acid deposition both sulfur oxides SOx and nitrogen oxides NOx form acids when they react with water SOx and NOx emissions react with water in the atmosphere to form gtgt an acid which falls from atmosphere to surface known as acid deposition or acid precipitation 68 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues greenhouse gases coal contains up to 10 sulfur by weight unless sulfur is removed by washing or fluegas scrubbing gtgt it is released during burning and oxidizes to sulfur dioxide 802 or sulfate 804 gtgt 18 million metric tons SOx released annually in US 75 of total US emissions 69 I3 Fossil Fuels Coal use issues greenhouse gases high temperatures and rich air mixtures used in coalfired burners also oxidize nitrogen compounds mostly from atmosphere into nitrogen oxides NOx gtgt 5 metric tons of NOx released annually in US 30 of total US emissions 70 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues greenhouse gases combustion of coal produces CO2 one trillion metric tons released annually in US 50 of total US emissions 71 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues making coal a cleaner fuel desulfurization systems clean power plants exhausts gtgt chemicals react with pollution and pollution settles out precipitates gtgt modern scrubbers remove 98 of sulfur expensive adds to cost of coal energy 72 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues clean coal technologies new methods for burring coal such as fluidized bed combustion mixes crushed coal with particles of limestone in a strong air current during combustion takes place at lower temperatures so there are fewer nitrogen oxides produced sulfur reacts with calcium in limestone and precipitates out 73 El Fossil Fuels Coal use issues clean coal technologies new methods for burring coal such as fluidized bed combustion process is more efficient than traditional coal burning gtgt produces more heat for a given amount of coal gtgt therefore reduces CO2 emissions 74E Figure 108 Fluidizedbed combustion of coal Raven amp Berg 75 I3 Fossil Fuels Coal use issues converting goal into gaseous and liquid fuels solid coal can be converted into synfuels synthetic natural gas SNG gtgt by process of coal gasification liquid fuel such as methanol or synthetic gasoline gtgt by process of coal liquefaction most analysts expect synfuels to play only a minor role as a energy resource in the next 3050 years EVPP 111 Lab SDri na 2004 Simulation of a Population Study MarkRecapture Technique Introduction In both population ecology which focuses on individual species and in community ecology which focuses on groups of species a central question is often quotHow many are therequot In addition to many research applications there are also practical applications for being able to answer this question If you needed to plan a harvest that would not eliminate a population of some organism such as a particular fish from a lake or deer from a forest you would need to have a reasonably accurate estimate of the original size of the population Similarly if you needed to determine the impact of some predator population on the population of its prey you would need to know the sizes of both populations Some decisions about the responsible use of pesticides are based on the population of the pest in question reaching some threshold prior to action If you were making such a management decision you would need a way to estimate the size of the pest population It is not usually feasible to determine the size of a population of organisms by a direct count of every individual For this reason it is very valuable to have techniques that will provide an accurate estimation of population size based on only a sample of the entire population In this lab exercise you will simulate one such population estimation method called the markrecapture technique that is often used by wildlife biologists and ecologists in the field Scientists employ many variations of the markrecapture technique You will carryout both a simple markrecapture and a repeated markrecapture In Part I you will carryout a simple markrecapture The first step is to capture a random sample of the organism being studied These captured individuals are 1 counted 2 marked in some manner appropriate to the organism and 3 released back into the environment from which they were captured The next step is to capture a second sample after some period of time during 1 EVPP 111 Lab which The released individuals would have remixed wiTh The populaTion The ToTal number of individuals in This second collecTion would be counTed and you would also deTermine The number of individuals in This second collecTion ThaT bore The marks you placed on individuals prior To releasing The iniTial sample Using a simple raTio based on These numbers you can deTermine a quick populaTion esTimaTe see EquaTion 1 and EquaTion 2 There are limiTs To The accuracy of esTimaTes based on small samples In ParT II you will carryouT a repeaTed mark recapTure in which you will invesTigaTe The use of mulTiple samples collecTions To obTain a more accuraTe esTimaTion of populaTion size The firsT sTep of This Technique is To capTure a random sample of The organism being sTudied These capTured individuals are 1 counTed 2 marked in some manner appropriaTe To The organism and 3 released back inTo The environmenT from which They were capTured Then on a number of subsequenT daTes addiTional collecTions are made On each subsequenT daTe i a sample Ci will be capTured The number of marked recapTures R will be recorded and The remaining SDr i no 2004 individuals will be marked and reTurned To The populaTion Thus The ToTaI number of marked individuals Mi increases Through Time From The daTa obTained a populaTion esTimaTe N can be calculaTed using EquaTion 3 EquaTion 1 EquaTion 2 N i N Mquot M m m To calculaTe a populaTion esTimaTe solve for N Where N PopulaTion esTimaTe Number of individuals capTured in firsT sample and marked n ToTal number of individuals capTured in second sample m Number of individuals capTured in second sample n and marked EquaTion 3 N Mi Ci M2 C2 M3C3 M4C4 R R2 R3 R4 MaTerials o Beans 2 colors ThaT are roughly The same shape and size I LighTcolored beans enough for 46 handfuls per group 39 Darkcolored beans enough for 12 handfuls per group 0 Small paper bags EVPP 111 Lab Procedure ParT I Simple MarkRecapTure 1 2 3 Now you will Work in groups by lab Table PuT 46 handfuls of lighT colored beans inTo a sack Do noT counT Them Now make a M as To how many lighT colored beans you JusT placed in The sack and record This g ss in Table 1 Now Take a handful of lighT colored beans back ouT of your sack This represenTs your firsT capTure of a group of organisms M CounT These beans and record The number as your value for M in Table 1 DO NOT reTurn These beans To your sack You will now mark The organisms beans you JusT capTured To mark These beans merely replace Them wiTh darkcolored beans For example if you quotcapTuredquot 25 lighTcolored beans seT Them aside and counT ouT 25 darkcolored beans To serve as your marked beans release The marked individuals back inTo The populaTion sack Place The darkcolored beans you counTed ouT in sTep 4 above inTo The sack The lighTcolored beans ThaT you replaced wiTh dark colored beans should be 0 N Shake The Now counT The acTual SeparaTe SDri no 2004 reTurned To The original lighT colored bean conTainer sack WiThouT looking grab a handful of beans from The sack This represenTs your second capTure of a group of organisms n CounT The ToTal number of beans you grabbed in This handful regardless of color and record your answer as The value for n in Table 1 Examine The same handful of beans you gaThered in sTep 6 above CounT The number of Those beans ThaT were quotmarkedquot darkcolored Record This number as your value for m in Table 1 When you are finished counTing reTurn This enTire sample To your sack boTh The lighT colored and darkcolored beans Use EquaTion 2 from above To calculaTe your populaTion esTimaTe N Record your answer as The value for N in Table 1 ToTal number of beans boTh lighT colored and darkcolored in your sack Record your counT in Table 1 The lighTcolored beans from The darkcolored beans and reTurn Them To Their original conTainers EVPP 111 Lab ParT II 1 2 A 39gt Work in groups by lab Table PuT 46 handfuls of lighT colored beans inTo a sack Do noT counT Them Now make a M as To how many lighT colored beans you JusT placed in The sack and record This g ss in Table 2 Now Take a handful of lighT colored beans back ouT of your sack This represenTs your firsT capTure of a group of organisms C1 CounT These beans and record The number as your value for C1 for Trapping Time 1 in Table 2 DO NOT reTurn These beans To your sack You will now m The organisms beans you JusT capTured To mark These beans merely replace Them wiTh darkcolored beans For example if you IIcapTuredII 25 lighTcolored beans seT Them aside and counT ouT 25 darkcolored beans To serve as your marked beans The number of beans you marked now become The number of marked individuals in The populaTion for your nexT sample Record This number of marked beans as The value for M2 for Trapping Time 2 in Table 2 iT will be The same number as for Cl NoTe ThaT M1 for Trapping U1 0 N Now you will Shake The SDr i no 2004 Time 1 is 0 because There were no marked individuals originally release The marked individuals back inTo The populaTion sack Place The darkcolored beans you counTed ouT in sTep 4 above inTo The sack The lighTcolored beans ThaT you replaced wiTh dark colored beans are seT aside and never reTurned To The sack again sack WiThouT looking grab a handful of beans from The sack This represenTs your second capTure of a group of organisms CounT The ToTal number of beans you grabbed in This handful regardless of color and record your answer as your value for Ca in Table 2 Also examine This handful and deTermine The number of marked darkcolored beans and record This umber as your value for R2 in Table 2 NoTe ThaT R1 for Trapping Time 1 is 0 because There were no capTured individuals originally STill working wiTh The handful of beans collecTed in sTep 6 above you will now mark The unmarked lighTcolored beans in The sample by replacing Them wiTh darkcolored beans you are marking previously unmarked beans Add The number of individuals you JusT EVPP 111 Lab X 0 Shake The marked To The M2 number and record The resulTing sum as The value for M3 for Trapping Time 3 in Table 2 The represenTs The ToTal number of marked individuals now in The populaTion ReTurn all The beans from This second collecTion which are now all marked and Therefor darkcolored To The sack sack WiThouT looking grab a handful of beans from The sack This represenTs your Third capTure of a group of organisms CounT The ToTal number of beans you grabbed in This handful regardless of color and record your answer as your value for Cs in Table 2 Also examine This handful and deTermine The number of marked darkcolored beans and record This umber as your value for R3 in Table 2 STill working wiTh The handful of beans collecTed in sTep 8 above you will now m The unmarked lighTcolored beans in The sample by replacing Them wiTh darkcolored beans you are marking previously unmarked beans Add The number of individuals you JusT marked To The M3 and record The resulTing sum as The value H O H H H N Shake The CalculaTe The SeparaTe The SDri no 2004 for M4 for Trapping Time 4 in Table 2 The represenTs The ToTal number of marked individuals now in The populaTion ReTurn all The beans from This Third collecTion which are now all marked and Therefor darkcolored To The sack sack WiThouT looking grab a handful of beans from The sack This represenTs your fourTh capTure of a group of organisms CounT The ToTal number of beans you grabbed in This handful regardless of color and record your answer as your value for C4 in Table 2 Also examine This handful and deTermine The number of marked darkcolored beans and record This umber as your value for R4 in Table 2 populaTion esTimaTe N using EquaTion 3 and record your answer in Table 2 Now counT The acTual ToTal number of beans boTh lighT colored and darkcolored in your sack Record your counT in Table 2 lighTcolored beans from The darkcolored beans and reTurn Them To Their original conTainers EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Page lefT blank inTenTionaly EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Simulated Population Study Mark Recapture LAB WRITE UP Submit pages 78 Student Name Lab Date Lab Instructor Section Results Data Table 1 Population guess and count and calculated population estimate based on numbers of captured marked and recaptured individuals using 0 GUESS of population size M n m N COUI39I l39 of population size Table 2 Population guess and count and calculated population estimate based on numbers of captured marked and recaptured individuals using a Marked Trapping Individuals in M1 39 0 M2 M3 M4 Guess of Count of 18 Energy Patterns of Consumption EVPP 111 Lecture Dr Kim Largen 2 El OUTLINE o History of Energy Consumption o Energy Consumption Trends o Energy and Economics o Types of energy o Fossil Fuels Industrial Revolution o Automobiles and Energy o Electrical Energy 3 E History of Energy Consumption 0 Energy is essential to maintain life 0 every form of life and every society 0 requires a constant input of energy 4 E History of Energy Consumption o Biological energy sources 0 in nearly every ecosystem 0 sun provides constant source of energy 0 initial transfer of energy from sun 0 occurs via photosynthesis o primitive humans 0 had nearly all of their energy requirements met by their food 0 they were not really any different from other animals in their ecosystems 5 El History of Energy Consumption o Very early in human history 0 humans began to exploit additional energy sources to make life more comfortable 0 domesticating plants and animals 0 as sources of 0 food 0 as well as energy fortransportation farming other tasks 6 I3 History of Energy Consumption o Increased use of wood 0 early civilization such as Aztecs Greeks Egyptians Romans Chinese 0 were culturally advanced o relied on sources of energy such as 0 human muscle animals muscle o with exception of some wind and water powered devices such as ships and canoes 7 El History of Energy Consumption o Increased use of wood 0 early civilization s rst use of energy in a form other than food was 0 controlled use of fire through burning of wood 0 provided a source of fuel for o heating and cooking 0 eventually this biomass energy was used in simple technologies 0 such as shaping tools and extracting metals 8 El History of Energy Consumption o Increased use of wood 0 when dense rapidly growing human settlements o quickly outstripped wood production 0 wood had to be imported or 0 alternative fuel sources had to be sought 9 I3 History of Energy Consumption o Increased use of wood 0 some areas of world experienced wood shortage hundreds of years before Europe and North America did 0 due to longer history of higher population densities 0 animal dung replaced wood as fuel source in some of these areas 0 Europe s forests supplied adequate wood fuel until about 13th century 0 North America s forests supplied adequate wood fuel until late 19th century 10 E History of Energy Consumption o Increased use of wood 0 when local supplies of wood declined in Europe and North America 0 coal was available as alternative energy source 0 by 1880 coal had replaced wood as primary energy source 11E 12E Fossil Fuels amp The Emerging Industrial Revolution 0 During Carboniferous period 275350 MYA 0 conditions were right for buildup of large deposits fossil fuels 0 remains of plants animals and microorganisms that lived millions of years ago 0 first fossil fuel to be used extensively was coal 0 at beginning of industrial revolution 13 El Fossil Fuels amp The Emerging Industrial Revolution o Industrial Revolution 0 began in early 18th century in England 0 then spread to Europe and North America 0 major cultural change that involved invention of 0 machines that replaced human amp animal labor in manufacturing amp transporting goods 0 central to this transformation was steam engine 0 capable of converting heat energy into forward motion 14E Fossil Fuels amp The Emerging Industrial Revolution o Industrial Revolution 0 fuel for these machines was first wood 0 which was quickly replaced by coal 0 countries or regions without large coal deposits were consequently left behind in Industrial Revolution 15E Fig 94 16E Fossil Fuels amp The Emerging Industrial Revolution o Industrial Revolution 0 because expanding factories needed larger labor pools 0 people began congregating around factories and cities 0 widespread use of coal in cites led to increased levels of air pollution 17E Fossil Fuels amp The Emerging Industrial Revolution o Industrial Revolution energy consumption increased economies grew people prospered within a span of 200 years daily per capita energy consumption of industrialized nations increased eight fold 18 I3 Energy and Economics 0 Industrial societies need to ensure a continuous supply of affordable energy 0 the higher the price of energy 0 the more expensive goods and services become 0 To keep energy prices down many countries subsidize their energy industries thus maintaining energy prices artificially low low priced fuels encourage rates of consumption 19 El Energy and Economics 0 Economic growth and energy consumption 0 direct link between economic growth and availability of inexpensive energy 0 economic growth of US was boosted afterWW II which helped end economic depression of the 1930 s 0 via high employment rapidly expanding population good supply of inexpensive energy 0 resulted in an everincreasing amount and array of consumer goods 0 including automobile 20 I3 Energy and Economics 0 Economic growth and energy consumption 0 automobiles created a vicious cycle 0 cars altered people s lifestyles increased travel tourism requiring more gasoline increased distance from work 9 requiring more gasoline 9 bringing about need foruse of more home laborsaving energy consuming devices 9 11 electrical energy in US is used to run home appliances 21E Energy and Economics 0 Economic growth and energy consumption 0 country with high gross domestic product GDP uses large amount of energy 0 as countries industrialize their energy consumption increases 22E 23 E How Energy is Used 0 Amount of energy used by countries of world varies widely 0 highly industrialized countries use most of world s energy 0 less developed countries use less 24E How Energy is Used 0 Countries also use energy in different ways 0 industrialized nations use energy about equally for residential commercial uses industrial uses transportation 0 less developed countries use energy 0 mostly for residential purposes 0 relatively little for industrial purposes 25 El How Energy is Used 0 Countries also use energy in different ways 0 industrialized nations 0 make up less than 15 of world s population but 0 consume more than 23 of the commercial energy supply 0 US and Canada 0 make up 5 of world s population 0 consume about 25 of available energy 26E Table 91 27E How Energy is Used 0 How much energy do you use in a year 0 In US and Canada 0 each person uses on average about 300 GJ equivalent to 60 barrels of oil per year 0 in poorest countries of world such as Ethiopia Kampuchea Nepal Bhutan 0 each person uses on average about 1 GJ 210 of a barrel per year 0 one person in US consumes on average per day almost as much energy as a person in one of poorer countries uses per year 28 IE Figure 101 Annual per capita commercial energy consumption Raven amp Berg 29E How Energy is Used o In US 0 energy use 0 42 for industry 0 33 for residential and commercial buildings 0 25 for transportation 30E Figure 102 Energy consumption in the US Raven amp Berg 31 El How Energy is Used 0 Industrial uses 0 nonindustrial countries 0 use little energy for industry 0 industrialized countries 0 use large portion of their energy for industry 0 amount of energy required depends on 0 types of industrial processes used 0 efficiency of processes 32E How Energy is Used 0 Transportation uses 0 lessdeveloped countries 0 use little energy for transportation 0 highly developed countries 0 have highest per capita use of energy for transportation 33 El How Energy is Used 0 Transportation uses 0 transportation mix in a country affects its energy use for transportation 0 automobiles require about 4 times more energy per passenger kilometer than bus or rail transportation 0 private automobiles in North America consume over 15 of world s oil production 0 all other automobiles in world consume 7 34E How Energy is Used 0 Transportation uses 0 mass transit systems 0 most efficient in countries with dense population 0 most of these countries heavily tax fuel increasing appeal of mass transit 0 US policy has kept energy costs low 0 thus supporting automobile industry 35 El How Energy is Used 0 Residential and commercial uses 0 developed nations 0 use smaller percentage of energy 0 less developed nations 0 use higher percentage of energy 36E How Energy is Used 0 Residential and commercial uses 0 example 0 30 of energy in North America 0 75 of that for air conditioning refrigeration water heating space heatin 9 0 13 of available electrical power in US currently consumed by computers Internet 0 up from 1 in 1996 0 90 of energy in India o 100 of that is used for cooking 37a How Energy is Used 0 Residential and commercial uses 0 current use patterns determine which conservation methods would be effective 0 Canada 0 cold climate 0 40 of energy is used for heating 0 proper conservation could reduce use by 50 0 Africa 0 50 of energy is used for cooking 0 fuelefficient stoves instead of open res could reduce these requirements by 50 38E Figure 102 Energy consumption in the US Raven amp Berg 39E How Energy is Used 0 Electrical energy 0 accounts for large proportion of energy consumed in most countries 0 electricity 0 a way energy is consumed o a way energy is supplied 0 most is produced by burning fossil fuels 0 major world energy source because 0 its easily transported 0 its uses are so varied 40E How Energy is Used 0 Electrical energy 0 consumption varies throughout world 0 all lessdeveloped nations of world combined 0 have 80 of world s population 0 consume less electricity than US alone 41E How Energy is Used 0 Electrical energy 0 average per capita use of electricity in North America is o 25 times greater than average per capita use in less developed countries 0 270 times greaterthan average per capita use in Nepal 0 where annual per capita use of electricity is 23 KWH enough to light a 100watt bulb for 1 week 42 I3 Energy Consumption Trends 0 World energy consumption 0 between 1985 and 2001 0 increased 19 to total of 26 million metric tons of oil equivalent per day 0 conventional fossil fuels accounted 90 of that total 43 El Energy Consumption Trends 0 gt50 of world energy consumption 0 results from 25 member countries of Organization for Economic Co Operation and 1E Ecosystems MatterCycling EVPP 111 Lecture Spring 2004 Dr Largen Energy Flow and Matter Cycling Energy flows through ecosystems Matter Cycles through ecosystems types of cycles types of reservoirs major biogeochemical cycles 3 E Energy flow vs Matter Cycling energyflows through the earth system Matter cycles through the earth system 4 E Matter cycles within ecosystems Organisms depend on the ability to recycle basic of nutrients of life nutrients matter any atom molecule or ion an organism needs to live grow or reproduce some required in fairly large quantities C H O N phosphorus sulfur calcium some required in small or trace amounts sodium zinc copper iodine 5 El Matter cycles within ecosystems nutrients most exist in nonliving reservoirs globally only small portion ofthese substances is contained within organisms atmosphere water rocks 6 I3 Matter cycles within ecosystems Matter cycles continually through both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems called biogeochemicalcycles cyclic pathways involving biological geological and chemical processes driven directly or indirectly by incoming solar radiation and gravity connect past present future forms of life 7 E Matter cycles within ecosystems cycling of matter through ecosystems begins with incorporation of substances into bodies of living organisms from non living reservoirs materials pass from organisms that first acquire them into bodies of organisms that eat eat them until they complete the cycle and return to the nonliving world through decomposition 8 E Matter cycles within ecosystems there are many biogeochemical cycles unified by involvement of four reservoirs of earth system through which matter cycles lithosphere rocks and soils atmosphere hydrosphereoceans surface waters groundwater glaciers biosphere living organisms 9 E Matter cycles within ecosystems matter in these reservoirs have different average times of storage or cycling depending on two main determinants chemical reactivity ofthe substance whether it has a gaseous phase at some point in cycle 10 E Matter cycles within ecosystems Generalized average times of storage or cycling based on reservoir long lithosphere rocks and soils intermediate hydrosphereoceans surface waters groundwaters glaciers biosphere living organisms short atmosphere 11E Matter cycles within ecosystems 3 main categories of biogeochemical cycles Hydrologic Gaseous Sedimentary 12 E Matter cycles within ecosystems hydrologic hydrologic water cycle 13 a Matter cycles within ecosystems Gaseous involves exchanges among atmosphere biosphere soils and oceans include carbon Cycle oxygen Cycle nitrogen Cycle 14 El Matter cycles within ecosystems Sedimentary involves materials that move from land to oceans and back include phosphorous cycle sulfurcycle 15 I3 Matter cycles within ecosystems Main biogeochemical cycles hydrologic cycle hydrologic cycle gaseous carbon cycle nitrogen cycle sedimentary phosphorous cycle 16 E Matter cycles within ecosystems Main biogeochemical cycles hydrologic cycle hydrologic cycle gaseous carbon cycle nitrogen cycle sedimentary phosphorous cycle 17 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle most familiar of all biogeochemical cycles all life depends on water main constituent of bodies of most organisms source of H whose movements help generate ATP 18 I3 Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle 98 of all water on earth is free water circulating between atmosphere and oceans 2 of all water on earth is captured in any form frozen held in soil incorporated into bodies of organisms 19E Fig 161 20 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle function collects purifies distributes earth s fixed supply of water 21 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes evaporation transpiration condensation precipitation infiltration percolation runoff 22 a Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes evaporation conversion of liquid water from surface waters and soils to water vapor in atmosphere source of watervapor in atmosphere 84 evaporation from oceans which cover 34th of earth s surface driven by energy from sun 23 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes evapotranspiration evaporation from leaves of plants of water extracted from the soil by roots and transported throughout the plant driven by energy from sun 24 a Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes condensation conversion of watervapor into droplets of liquid water necessary in order for precipitation to occur changesintemperature affect amount of moisture that can be held by an air mass 25 El Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes precipitation conversion of watervapor into droplets of liquid water can take form of rain sleet hail snow requires condensation nuclei tiny particles on which droplets of watervapor can collect sources include volcanic ash soil dust smoke sea salts particulate matterfrom human activities factories vehicles power plants etc 26 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes precipitation continued fate becomes locked in glaciers impinges directly on oceans or other surface water bodies infiltrates soil or porous rock becomes surface runoff 27 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes infiltration movement of water into soil and porous rock affected by substrate type vegetation cover degree of saturation topography 23 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes percolation downward flow of water through soil and permeable rock formations to groundwater storage areas called aquifers to oceans dissolves and transports minerals and nutrients 29 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle main processes runoff down slope surface movement back to the sea to resume cycle replenishes surface waters such as lakes and streams causes soil erosion movement of soil and weathered rock fragments from one place top another 30 E 31E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle human impacts have increased over past century via withdrawal vegetation removal modification of water quality 32 El Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle human impacts withdrawal of large quantities of freshwater from streams lakes underground sources for needs in heavily populated areas irrigation leads to groundwater shortages intrusion of ocean salt water into groundwater supplies 33 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle human impacts vegetation removal for agriculture mining roads timber harvesting building construction leads to increased runoff reduced infiltration that recharges groundwater supplies increased risk of flooding accelerated soil erosion 34 E Biogeochemical cycles hydrologic hydrologic cycle human impacts modification of water quality by adding nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates in fertilizers pollutants changing ecological processes that purify water naturally 35 E Matter cycles within ecosystems Main biogeochemical cycles hydrologic cycle hydrologic cycle gaseous carbon cycle nitrogen cycle sedimentary phosphorous cycle 36 I3 Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle carbon essential to life as we know it building block of molecules of life 37 El Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle based on carbon dioxide gas constitutes 004 by volume oftroposphere is key component of nature s thermostat iftoo much 002 is removed from atmosphere it will cool iftoo much 002 is added or remains in atmosphere it will warm dissolved in ocean 33 E Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle can trace carbon cycle by considering how carbon enters and leaves each of the four main reservoirs 39 I3 Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle lithosphere largest reservoir for earth carbon rocks such as limestone CaCOs deposited as sediment on ocean floor and on continents 40 E Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle lithosphere enters death burial compaction over geologic time becoming sediment marine sediments sedimentary rock fossil fuels leaves very slowly weathering uplifting over geologic time volcanic activity exception combustion of fossil fuels 41 E Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle biosphere enters photosynthesis consumption leaves cellularrespiration death 42 I3 Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle hydrosphere oceans are second largest reservoir of earth s carbon play role in regulating amount of 002 in atmosphere 002 is readily soluble in water fate some stays dissolved in sea water some is removed by marine photosynthesizing producers some reacts with sea water to form carbonate ions 003239 and bicarbonate ions HCOs39 43 El Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle hydrosphere enters weathering leaching runoff diffusion cellular respiration leaves photosynthesis diffusion incorporation into sediments 44 E Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle atmosphere enters cellular respiration combustion of wood combustion of fossil fuels volcanic action diffusion from ocean leaves photosynthesis diffusion from the ocean 45 E 46 E Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle flow of carbon in form of carbon dioxide from atmosphere to biosphere photosynthesis and backto atmosphere respiration is approximately in balance 47 El Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle human impacts since industrial revolution and especially since mid1950s humans activities have been adding 002 to atmosphere in two ways clearing trees and plants that remove 002 via photosynthesis burning fossil fuels and wood 48 El Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle human impacts fossil fuels over millions of years buried deposits of dead organic matter become compressed between layers of sediment where they form carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal and oil carbon in fossil fuels is not released into atmosphere for recycling until longterm geologic processes expose deposits to chemical and mechanical processes that can liberate carbon fossil fuels are extracted and burned 49 El Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle human impacts fossil fuels in past few hundred years humans have extracted and burned fossil fuels that took millions of years to form thus removing carbon from its major reservoirfar faster than it can be added to that reservoir causing disruption in carbon cycle 50 a Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle human impacts fossil fuels in past few hundred years humans have extracted and burned fossil fuels that took millions of years to form resulting in removal of carbon from its major reservoirfar faster than it can be added to that reservoir addition of carbon to atmosphere far faster than it can be removed 51 E Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle human impacts consequence of increased atmospheric concentration of 002 enhances planet s natural greenhouse effect producing global warming 52 E Biogeochemical cycles carbon carbon cycle human impacts consequences global warming will be discussed in detail later in course include disruption of global food production increase average sea level 53 IE Biogeochemical cycles carbon 54 E Matter cycles within ecosystems Main biogeochemical cycles hydrologic cycle hydrologic cycle gaseous carbon cycle nitrogen cycle sedimentary phosphorous cycle 55 I3 Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle nitrogen gas N2 constitutes 78 of earth s atmosphere cannot be absorbed or used directly by multicellular organisms must be fixed or combined with hydrogen or oxygen to provide compounds these organisms can use occurs via atmospheric electrical discharges in form of lightning activities of certain bacteria 56 E Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle several processes involved fixation nitrification assimilation ammonification denitrification 57 E Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle nitrogen fixation converts gaseous nitrogen N2 to ammonia NH3 a form that can be used by plants N2 3H2 2NH3 carried out by specialized bacteria cyanobacteria in soil and water Rhizobium bacteria living in small nodules on root systems of variety of plants including legumes such as soybeans alfalfa 58 E Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle nitrification two step process carried out by specialized aerobic bacteria most of ammonia NH3 in soil is converted to nitrite ions NOZ39 which are toxic to plants nitrite ions are then converted to nitrate N0339 which are easily taken up by plants 59 El Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle assimilation plants roots absorb inorganic ammonia NH3 ammonium ions NH4 and nitrate ions N05 use these ions to make nitrogencontaining organic molecules such as DNA amino acids proteins animals obtain their nitrogen by eating plants or planteating animals 60 E Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle ammonification process of converting nitrogenrich compounds of living organisms and their wastes back 39nto simpler nitrogencontaining inorganic compounds such as ammonia NH3 watersoluble salts containing ammonium ions NH4 carried out by variety of decomposer bacteria and fungi 618 Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle denitrification process of converting nitrogen compounds ammonia ammonium ions nitrite ions nitrate ions back into nitrogen gas N 2 which can be returned to atmosphere carried out by specialized bacteria mostly anaerobic bacteria in waterlogged soil in bottom sediments of lakes oceans swamps bogs 62 E Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle human impacts interventions in nitrogen cycle over past 100 years include adding adding nitric oxide to atmosphere adding nitrous oxide to atmosphere removing nitrogen from topsoil adding nitrogen compounds to aquatic ecosystems 63 El Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle human impacts adding adding nitric oxide NO to atmosphere when burning fuel N2 O2 2N0 nitric oxide NO can combine with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide N02 which in turn can react with watervapor to nitric acid HNOs droplets of nitric acid dissolved in rain or snow are components of acid deposition 64 E Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle human impacts adding nitrous oxide N20 atmosphere through action of anaerobic bacteria on livestock wastes commercial inorganic fertilizers applied to soil which can reach stratosphere enhance natural greenhouse effect contribute to ozone depletion 65 El Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle human impacts removing nitrogen from topsoil via harvest of nitrogenrich crops irrigation of crops leaching burning or clearing forests or grasslands 66 E Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen nitrogen cycle human impacts adding nitrogen compounds to aquatic ecosystems via agricultural runoff discharge of municipal sewage constitutes excess nutrients that stimulate rapid growth ofalgae and aquatic plants can lead to depletion of water dissolved oxygenvia action of decomposers disruption of aquatic ecosystems 67 E 68 E Fig 517 69 E Matter cycles within ecosystems Main biogeochemical cycles hydrologic cycle hydrologic cycle gaseous carbon cycle nitrogen cycle sedimentary phosphorous cycle 70 E Biogeochemical cycles phosphorus phosphorous cycle phosphorous plays a critical role in plant nutrition is element most likely to be scarce enough to limit plant growth exists in soil only in small amounts when it weathers out of soil its transported to rivers and oceans and eventually accumulates in sediment is found in atmosphere only as small particles of dust at normal temperatures and pressures it is not in gas form 71 El Biogeochemical cycles phosphorus phosphorous cycle phosphorous is only naturally brought back up from sediments by the uplift of lands or by marine animals which can be consumed by animals such as seabirds which then deposit guano feces rich in phosphorous and can be used as fertilizer 72E EVPP 111 Lab Spring 2004 Worm Composting Introduction In recent years Americans have become increasingly concerned about solid waste management The US still relies heavily on landfill disposal techniques Fears about groundwater contamination rodent populations increased traffic decreased property values and costs to municipalities have fueled the public39s distaste for landfills However Americans have also continued to increase the amount of garbage they produce thus increasing the demand for solid waste disposal Many Jurisdictions have quotreducereuserecyclequot campaigns to encourage citizens to minimize their contributions to the solid waste stream Composting is a less discussed component of this concept and has the same goal Composting is a process of biological decomposition of organic material The organic matter can be consist of materials such as yard waste leaves grass twigs or food waste When the proper ratios of organic material nitrogen carbon oxygen moisture and microorganisms are in place the process can produce compost a dark nutrientrich earthy smelling material Composting can reduce the solid waste stream and create a desirable substance in the process Compost can be used to enhance soil and improve plant growth Worm composting vermicomposting is the practice of using worms to transform food waste into a nutrientrich finished product called vermicompost Earthworms are efficient food wastedigesting machines that can eat over half their body weight in organic matter per day The castings that they create are rich in nutrients People are becoming aware that landfilling garbage is an option with environmental consequences While most people think about paper plastic and yard waste when they think about garbage food waste can be a significant percentage of the total waste stream For segments of society institutions such as schools that participate in traditional recycling programs food waste is often the single largest element remaining in their solid waste stream Composting can be a viable option in reducing the solid waste stream by diverting some food waste to this alternative disposal technique In this exercise you will set up and maintain over a period of 9 EVPP 111 Lab weeks a worm composTing bin for The purpose of illusTraTing The role ThaT composTing can play in reducing food wasTe in The solid wasTe sTream and producing a nuTrienTrich maTerial in The process MaTerials o PIasTic bin 0 Newspaper or whiTe paper 0 WaTer o SquirT boTTle o Worms 0 PoTTing soil 0 Food wasTe planT only 0 Masking Tape 0 PermanenT marker 0 Balance 0 Beaker o PIasTic Trash bag 0 Goose neck lamp 0 ConTainers for worms reTrieved from bins aT end exercise 0 PIasTic bags for composT reTrieved aT end of exercise Procedure Week 1 1 Work in groups of 35 For labs ThaT are full you will work by lab Table In labs ThaT aren39T full you will need To regroup for This exercise so ThaT The limiTed number of bins are being used mosT efficienle Sprinq 2004 2 SelecT a plasTic bin Using The provided masking Tape and permanenT marker label The end shorTer dimension of The bin wiTh your lab secTion and group name 3 GaTher a small sTack of newspaper you will need To record The ToTal weighT of newspaper ThaT you add a use The balance To weigh ouT a 100 gram porTion i Tear The newspaper inTo 1 inch 25mm wide sTrips and add The sTrips To The plasTic bin conTinue This process unTil The bin is filled wiTh newspaper sTrips To a depTh of approximaTely 45 inches 100mm130mm buT do noT exceed The heighT of The venTilaTion holes c Record in Table 1 The ToTal weighT of newspaper added 4 Using The squirT boTTle add waTer To The paper in The bin unTil H is moisT as damp as a wrungouT sponge Mix The paper wiTh your hands as you add The waTer To ensure ThaT H is evenly disTribuTed 5 Weigh ouT 100g of poTTing soil and add To The bin Mix in The soil using your hands Record in Table 1 The weighT of soil added To The bin 039 EVPP 111 Lab 6 X 0 ObTain and add To The bin 25 worms or a smaller number as indicaTed by insTrucTor in case The worm supply is lower Than expecTed due To deaThs during shipping Record in Table 1 The number of worms added To The bin ObTain one apple from The provided supply Weigh The apple and record The mass in Table 1 as The weighT of food wasTe added in week 1 QuarTer The apple and Then cuT The quarTers in half STarTing in one corner of The bin creaTe a hole 23 inches 5080mm in diameTer in The bedding and bury The apple pieces Use The permanenT marker To indicaTe The locaTion of The sTarTing hole Also skeTch and label The locaTion of This hole in The space provided on page 7 In subsequenT weeks you will bury The food wasTe in a progression of holes Place The lid on The bin and sTore The bin on The shelf as indicaTed by your insTrucTor IMPORTANT NOTE For The nexT 8 weeks The duraTion of The exercise iT will be The res onsibiliT 0 our rou To bring To lab The food wasTe ThaT will be fed To The worms a suiTable food wasTe includes fruiTs vegeTables Spring 2004 grains bread pasTa eTc coffee grounds egg shells b ABSOLUTELY DO NOT BRING MEAT OR DAIRY PRODUCTS They will encourage odors Week 2 1 ReTrieve your bin from The sTorage shelf Remove The lid and observe The condiTion of The bin conTenTs wiThouT disTurbing The conTenTs Make noTes on The condiTion of The conTenTs in The space provided in Table 1 a if The bedding appears Too dry add waTer remember bedding should be as damp as a wrungouT sponge b if The bedding level has decreased significanle below 45 inches 100mm130mm add bedding buT be sure To deTermine and record The weighT of any added bedding CuT The food wasTe broughT by your group inTo pieces approximaTer 1quot 25mm squares DeTermine and record The weighT of The food wasTe in Table 1 Working in a clockwise direcTion from The hole N A 39gt EVPP 111 Lab creaTed in The previous week creaTe a new hole 23 inches 5080mm in diameTer in The bedding and bury The food wasTe SkeTch The locaTion on page 7 ReTurn The lid To your bin and reTurn The bin To The sTorage shelf 01 Week 3 Week 9 RepeaT The process deTailed in week 2 Week 10 1 ReTrieve your bin from The sTorage shelf Spread a plasTic Trash bag on The lab Table EmpTy The enTire conTenTs of The bin onTo The plasTic Trash bag 4 SeT up a goose neck lamp and posiTion iT such ThaT iT shines down on The pile of conTenTs from The bin 5 The worms will burrow deep inTo The pile To geT away from The lighT a genle ifT hands full of composT from The Top of The pile and inspecT for worms i if no worms are presenT seT ThaT composT aside inTo a separaTe pile N A Sprinq 2004 ii if worms are presenT separaTe Them from composT and place Them inTo a conTainer of damp poTTing soil and Then place The composT inTo The separaTed composT pile b conTinue This process unTil all worms have been separaTed from The composT 6 CounT The worms in The conTainer of poTTing soil and record This number in Table 1 7 Weigh The composT and record This as The final weighT of composT in Table 1 8 Give The conTainer of worms To your lab insTrucTor 9 Clean and sTore The plasTic bin as direcTed by your insTrucTor 10 Place The composT inTo The plasTic bags provided General InformaTion 0 Do noT overload The bin wiTh acidic iTems such as orange peels 0 Make sure food wasTe is buried To minimize odors and poTenTial for fruiT flies 0 Err Toward underfeeding raTher Than overfeeding 0 DO NOT use meaT or dairy producTs as food wasTe EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Personal Energy Inventory LAB WRITEUP Submit pages 57 Student Name Lab Date Lab Instructor Lab Section Results Data Table 1 Record of initial inputs into worm bin weekly food waste inputs and final weight of compost and number of worms by group Weight of Weight of Weight of Total worms food paper soil weight waste Week 1 Weight of food Observations waste Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Spring Break Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Weight of worms Compost Week 10 EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Conclusions QuesTions For full cred391 These quesTions should be answered Thoroughly in compleTe senTences in legible handwriTing 1 How effecTive were your worms aT converTing food wasTe To composT Did The food wasTe you added one week compleTely disappear by The nexT week WhaT was The relaTionship beTween The ToTal weighT of food wasTe added and The final weighT of composT obTained N Do you Think composTing food wasTe wheTher by vermicomposTing or TradiTional composTing is a feasible alTernaTive To landfill disposal of food wasTe Why or why noT WhaT are The pros and cons of composTing in general and vermicomposTing in parTicular EVPP 111 Sprina 2004 Soil Texture Analysis Introduction Soil is defined as unconsolidated mineral matter on the earth39s surface that is subjected to an influence by climate parent material organic matter and topograqphy acting over a period of time and producing a productsoil that differs physically chemically and biologically from the material from which it was derived Soil is composed of particles of three different sizeclasses 1 sand 00520mm in diameter 2 silt 0002005mm in diameter and 3 clay lt0002mm in diameter In addition to these mineral particles soil also contains organic matter material of organic origin Inorganic material greater than 20mm in diameter is called gravel and by definition is not considered to be soil at all Brady 1984 The relative proportions of sand silt and clay define a soil39s texture If these properties are known a soil can be classified according to its texture using a texture triangle such as the one provided on page 5 Soil texture can influence plant growth in several ways An important soil property that is directly related to texture is soil waterholding capacity Water adheres to soil particles because of the physiochemical properties of surface tension and capillary movement Water is inherently sticky and will adhere to the surfaces of soil particles Since the surfacetovolume ratio increases as particle size decreases soils composed of smaller particles can potentially hold more water than soils composed of larger particles The amount of water held in a soil that is available for plant uptake is a function of two soil properties field capacity and the wilting coefficient or permanent wilting point Field capacity is the soil water content beyond which water drains freely from the soil or in other words the maximum amount of water that a soil can hold against the forces of gravity By definition this is water that is held by the soil at pressures near 001 to 002 Mpa 1 Mpa megapascal 10 atmospheres Note that although it is conventional to discuss water potential in terms of pressure units such as megapascals or atmospheres it might be helpful to remember that we are actually talking about osmotic potentials and that water potential concerns ability to quotdo workquot Therefore EVPP 111 waTer poTenTial can be expressed in Terms of energy uniTs such as kilojoules One Mpa one kJkg of waTer Since The waTer poTenTial of pure waTer aT aTmospheric pressure is zero soil usually has a negaTive waTer poTenTial As soil dries some waTer is held so Tigthy by The soil parTicles ThaT iT is unavailable for planT upTake Since The average planT can exerT a pull equivalenT To abouT 15 Mpa 215 aTmospheres The wilTing coefficienT is The amounT of waTer ThaT is held by a soil aT pressures less Than 15 Mpa Therefore The amounT of waTer ThaT a soil is capable of holding aT pressures beTween 001 and 15 Mpa is waTer ThaT is TheoreTically available for planT upTake planT available soil moisTure PlanTavailable soil moisTure is a funcTion of parTicle size Sandy soils have large pores ThaT fill or drain quickly Since parTicles are large liTTle waTer is held above 15 Mpa Clay soils hold large amounTs of waTer because They are composed of very small parTicles ThaT hold onTo waTer Tigthy However They also hold large amounTs of waTer aT pressures less Than 15 Mpa which are noT available for planT use PlanTavailable waTer is acTually ofTen greaTesT in loamy soils which hold less waTer Than Spring 2004 clay soils buT do noT hold large amounTs of waTer aT pressures less Than 15 Mpa Loamy soils are ofTen The soils besT suiTed for planT growTh and agriculTure In a uniform aqueous suspension large parTicles will seTTle ouT fasTer Than small parTicles SToke39s Law This phenomenon resulTs in The deposiTion of sands along riverbanks during floods while clay parTicles remain in suspension longer and are deposiTed furTher away from river margins By suspending a soil sample in a uniform liquid medium and Then measuring The change in specific graviTy over Time as parTicles seTTle ouT we can esTimaTe The relaTive proporTions of sand silT and clay in ThaT soil This is known as The Bouyoucos meThod of soil TexTure analysis We will use The Bouyoucos meThod To esTimaTe The sand silT and clay conTenTs of The Three Types of soil ThaT were also used in The quotPlanT NuTrienTs in Soil and Soil pHquot lab exercise ObjecTives 0 use proper lab Techniques To deTermine percenT sand silT and clay of soil samples 0 deTermine soil TexTure caTegory using informaTion gaThered in This exercise EVPP 111 and The Triangle provided soil Hypothesis 0 The commercial poTTing soil will have a loamy soil TexTure and will provide The besT TexTure for growing panTs MaTerials o sieve 2mm 0 balance 0 sodium hexameTaphosphaTe soluTion 5 o parafilm o plasTic cylinder 1L 0 ThermomeTer o marking pen 0 amyl alcohol weyedropper o disposable plasTic gloves 0 blender o graduaTed cylinder 100ml 0 hydromeTer 0 paper bags small rinse boTTles o morTar and pesTle sedimenTaTion Procedure 1 Work in groups by lab Table 2 Each lab Table will process one sample of soil eiTher poTTing fill or composT ObTain approximaTer 75g of your assigned soil 4 Use The morTar and pesTle To composiTe mix Thoroughly removing coarse rooT maTerial A Sprinq 2004 The soil sample To a homogeneous mixTure 1 Pass The soil sample Through a 2mm sieve 2 Weigh boTh The gravel The porTion ThaT does noT pass Through The sieve because The parTicles are gt200mm and The soil porTion The porTion ThaT did pass Through The sieve because The parTicles are lt20mm of The sample Record This daTa in Table 1 and on The Transparency or blackboard 3 Prepare a dispersion as follows a Place 50g of sieved soil The porTion ThaT passed Through The 20mm sieve in a blender b Add 100ml of 5 sodium hexameTaphosphaTe soluTion c Add enough disTilled waTer To bring The level of The liquid up To The 950ml or 3 12 cup mark d Blend for The following lengThs of Time depending on soil Type 1 fill 15 minuTes 2 composT 10 minuTes 3 poTTing soil 5 minuTes 4 Transfer The dispersion To a sedimenTaTion cylinder a Pour The dispersion from The blender inTo a sedimenTaTion cylinder EVPP 111 b Use a boTTle conTaining disTilled waTer To wash The remnanTs of The dispersion from The blender inTo The sedimenTaTion cylinder c Add disTilled waTer To fill The cylinder To The IL mark Cover The Top of The cylinder wiTh parafilm and mix The dispersion by holding your palm over The cylinder mouTh and inverTing repeaTedly To creaTe a suspension a If The surface of The suspension becomes covered wiTh foam add one drop of amyl alcohol To The surface Place The hydromeTer inTo The cylinder and begin recording Time immediaTely This is Time 0 seconds a Record The hydromeTer reading aT Time 40 seconds 15 minuTes 30 minuTes 45 minuTes and 60 minuTes BeTween each hydromeTer reading carefully remove The hydromeTer rinse wiTh disTilled waTer and dry iT c Record your hydromeTer reading in Table 1 and on The Transparency or blackboard d AfTer final reading remove clean and dry The rinse 039 Sprinq 2004 hydromeTer and reTurn iT To iTs box DaTa Analysis 1 39gt DeTermine The Transfer all daTa from The Transparency To your Table 1 DeTermine The mean mass of The gravel and soil porTions of each soil based on Two replicaTes of each and record in Table 1 and on The Transparency or blackboard mean hydromeTer reading aT each Time inTerval for each soil based on Two replicaTes of each and record in Table 1 and on The Transparency or blackboard Using The mean hydromeTer reading for each Time inTerval for each soil and a quotblankquot reading provided by your insTrucTor deTermine and record in Table 1 and on The Transparency or blackboard The correcTed hydromeTer reading using The following formula a If quotblankquot reading is lt1000 correcTed hydromeTer reading 2 acTual hydromeTer reading 1000 quotblankquot hydromeTer reading b If quotblankquot reading is gt1000 correcTed hydromeTer reading 2 acTual hydromeTer EVPP 111 Sprinq 2004 reading quotblankquot hydromeTer reading 1000 c The quotblankquot hydromeTer reading was prepared using 900ml of disTilled waTer and 100ml of sodium hexameTaphosphaTe in a sedimenTaTion cylinder wiTh no soil 5 DeTermine The gravel and soil for each sample based on The mean masses of The gravel and soil porTions of The sample relaTive To The ToTal mass Record This informaTion in Table 2 Use The following formulae o gravel mass of gravelmass of gravel mass of sifTed soil x 100 70 soil mass of sifTed soilmass of gravel mass of sifTed soil x 100 6 For The soil porTion of The sample deTermine The sand silT and clay for each soil Type Record This informaTion in Table 2 Use The following formulae sand 100 correcTed hydromeTer reading 0T 40 sec X 100 509 70 clay correcTed hydromeTer reading aT 60 min x 100 50g 70 silT 100 o clay 70 sand 7 Using The soil TexTure diagram provided below deTermine The TexTure caTegory for each soil Type To use This diagram find The clay sand and silT for each soil on The appropriaTe side of The Triangle and Then follow an adjacenT line Toward The cenTer of The diagram unTil The Three lines meeT Read The soil TexTure caTegory under The inTersecTion of The Three lines Record This informaTion in Table 2 EVPP 111 Sprint 2004 Cnpydgn Mlle licGrnwsHIIl Cnmplnlaa Inn Parmlsalnn m rad for rapmdumlnn or display I 400 clay Sal Texture Diagram 39 1DDIII1 in ame 90 80 W 50 ED Q 30 211 10 I d mam EVPP 111 Spring 2004 Soil TexTure Analysis LAB WRITEUP SubmiT pages 78 STudenT Name Lab DaTe Lab InsTrucTor Lab SecTion Table 1 Mass g of gravel and sifTed soil porTions of sample and acTual and correcTed hydromeTer readings aT 5 Time inTervaIs for Three soil Types Soil Lab SifTed Type Table Gravel Soil 40 sec 15 min 30 min 45 min 60 min PoTTing 1 2 Co rrecTed 3 Co rrecTed 3 Compost Compost Co rrecTed 3 Blank Table 2 PercenT gravel and soil for ToTaI sample percenT sand clay and siT for soil and soil TexTure for Three soil TexTure PoTTing Fill ComposT EVPP 111 Sprinq 2004 Conclusions QuesTions For full cred391 These quesTions should be answered Thoroughy in compeTe senTences in legible handwriTing 1 Describe any differences in The TexTure of The Three soil Types based on your observaTions and The resulTs of The analysis in This exercise Are These differences or lack Thereof consisTenT wiTh your expecTaTions based on The sources of These soils 2 Rank The Three soil Types in Terms of which would provide The besT To worsT growing environmenT for panTs Include your reasons for This ranking 1E1 Human Population Issues EVPP 111 Lecture Spring 2004 Dr Largen 2E Human Population Issues limportance lhistory lcurrent trends lgrowth limpacts on resources lurbanization leconomic development 3E Human Population Issues 4amp1 limportance lhistory lcurrent trends lgrowth limpacts on resources lurbanization leconomic development 5E Human population issues importance llmportance Many human problems exacerbated by rapid increase in population including hunger resource depletion environmental degradation underdevelopment poverty urban problems ea Human population issues importance llmportance Human population growth is including air pollution water pollution waste management and disposal environmental degradation extinction of species climate change factor in nearlv everv 39broblem 7 IE Human Population Issues limportance lhistory lcurrent trends lgrowth limpacts on resources lurbanization leconomic development 8E Human population issues history lhistory human population has increased over time rate of increase has increased with time been growing rapidly for centuries grown explosively over last 300 years 9E Human population issues history lhistory human population less time between doubling time 1AD 130 million 1000 AD 260 million 1650 AD 500 million 2000 AD 6000 million 6 billion we Fig 79 11E Human population issues history lhistory exponential growth in human population as human history progressed humans gained greater control overfactors that influence growth rate gtgt through knowledge and technology 12E Human population issues history lhistory exponential growth in human population advances in knowledge and technology improved control over gtgt food supply through agriculture gtgt development of weapons to ward off predators gtgt development of medicines to treat diseases 13E 14E Human population issues history lhistory exponential growth in human population advances in knowledge and technology enabled humans to expand the carrying capacity of their habitats gtgt escape confines of logistic growth gtgt reenter exponential portion of sigmoid growth curve 15 El Human Population Issues limportance lhistory lcurrent trends lgrowth limpacts on resources lurbanization leconomic development 16E Human population issues current trends lcurrent trends human population growth continues is rapid even though growth rate has declined not uniform over planet 17E Global Population Continues to Rise 18E Human population issues current trends lcurrent trends between 1963 2001 growth rate has decreased 39 from 22 to 133 population based increased 91 from 32 billion to 61 billion 19E 20E 21E Human population issues current trends lcurrent trends growth not uniform over planet some countries stable populations birth dates death rates gtgt example Sweden some countries burgeoning populations birth rates greatly exceed death rates gtgt example many developing nations 22E Human population issues current trends lcurrent trends world current population 63 billion gtgt 6 billion mark reached in October 1999 natural rate of increase 13 projected change 46 by 2050 23 a 24E 25E Human population issues current trends lcurrent trends world doubling time concept in understanding impact of small rates of increase on overall population size can be calculated gtgt 70rate of increase 268 Human population issues current trends lcurrent trends world doubling time 70 years at rate of increase of 1 35 years at rate of increase of 2 54 years at rate of increase of 13 gtgt current world rate of increase 27 E 28E Human population issues current trends lcurrent trends US current population 287 million natural rate of increase 06 projected change 44 by 2050 29E Fig 88 30E Human population issues current trends lcurrent trends population growth in various regions of world see textbook figure 81 population growth in the world 2002 population characteristics of most populous countries see textbook table 81 population characteristics of 20 most populous countries 2002 31E Fig 81 32E Table 81 33E Human Population Issues limportance lhistory lcurrent trends lgrowth limpacts on resources lurbanization leconomic development 34E Human Population Issues Growth lgrowth rate lfactors that affect growth rate 35 I3 Human Population Issues Growth lGrowth rate populations grow or decline based on interplay of four factors factors births deaths immigration emigration 36 I3 Human Population Issues Growth lGrowth rate population change births immigration deaths emigration zero when factors balance out a condition known as gtgt zero population growth ZPG 37E Fig 71 38 El Human Population Issues Growth lGrowth rate based on birth rate number of live births per 1000 people death rate number of deaths per 1000 people 39E Global Per P167 40 El Human Population Issues Growth lGrowth rate demographers use natural rate of increase birth ratedeath rate1000 x 100 41E Global Per P167 42E Human Population lssues Growth lGrowth rate birth rate affected by fertility total fertility rate TFR gtgt children per woman in her lifetime replacement fertility rate gtgt 21 43E Global Per P167 44E CO7 45 El Human Population lssues Growth lGrowth rate influenced by Age structure of a population proportion of individuals in different age groups can help predict future growth of population 468 Human Population lssues Growth lAge structure of a population illustrated graphically in a population pyramid bar graph displays number of people in each age category by sex can predict demographic trends by steepness of pyramid 47E Human Population Issues Growth lpopulation pyramid bar graph displays number of people in each age category by sex gtgt males to left females to right of vertical axis gtgt usually uses percentage of population gtgt age categories can be narrow broad tied to reproductive stages 48 Figures Age structure diagrams 49 El Human Population Issues Growth lAge structure three kinds of age structure are characteristic of human populations expanding stable declining 50 El Human Population Issues Growth lAge structure expanding broadbased pyramid most of population is prereproductive population will continue to grow for some time as individuals in prereproductive stages enter reproductive stages of life example Kenya 51 E Figures Age structure diagrams szla Fig 73 53E Human Population Issues Growth lAge structure stable more uniform rectangular in shape sides roughly parallel age groups are nearly balanced will remain stable for some time since there will be little change in number of individuals in reproductive stages of life examples US Canada Australia 54E Figures Age structure diagrams 55E Fig 73 56E Human Population Issues Growth lage structure declining inverted pyramid narrow base broad top fewer pre and reproductive individuals than postreproductive older individuals population will continue to decline no new ranks of individuals to replace reproductive individuals as they move into post reproductive stage of life examples Hungary Germany 57E Figures Age structure diagrams 58E Fig 73 59E 60E Human Population Issues Growth lFactors that affect growth rate three general categories cultural socioeconomic political 61E Human Population Issues Growth lFactors that affect growth rate three general categories cultural socioeconomic political 62 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural religious beliefs traditions cultural norms attitudes about birth control infant mortality rates importance of children as part of labor force average age at marriage 63 I3 Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural religious beliefs traditions cultural norms attitudes about birth control high TFRs traditional in many cultures motivations for having many children vary from culture to culture some cultures oppose use of birth control 64 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural infant mortality rates major reason for high TFRs is to offset gtgt high infant and child mortality rates 65 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural infant mortality rates to endure a society must continue to produce enough children who survive to reproductive age gtgt if infant and child mortality rates are high gtgt tota fertility rate must be high to compensate 66 I3 Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural infant mortality rates though infant mortality rates have been decreasing worldwide there s a lag time for culturallyimbedded fertility levels to decline parents must have sufficient confidence that the children they already have will survive before they stop having additional children 67E Table 81 68 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural importance of children in labor force in developing countries gtgt high TFRs help ensure that there are Win family enterprises such as farming commerce 69 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural importance of children in labor force in developed nations by contrast gtgt children have less value as a source of labor gtgt because they attend school society is more mechanized care of elderly shared by society 70 I3 Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural average age at marriage affects total fertility rate is determined by laws and customs of society varies from culture to culture 71 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural average age at marriage there is always a correlation between marriage age and total fertility rate the older the average age of marriage the lower the TFR gtgt it delays age at which first child is born gtgt lowers the number of children a woman can have in her lifetime 72 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural average age at marriage example in Sri Lanka gtgt average age of marriage is 25 gtgt average number of children per women is 21 gtgt population doubling time is 60 years 73 I3 Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth cultural average age at marriage example in Bangladesh gtgt average age of marriage is 17 gtgt average number of children per woman is 33 gtgt population doubling time is 38 years 74 El Human Population Issues Growth lFactors that affect growth rate three general categories cultural socioeconomic political 75 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth socioeconomic socioeconomic status of women employment opportunities educational opportunities availability of family planning services 76 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth socioeconomic socioeconomic status of women in most societies women do not have same rights privileges or opportunities as men evidence is accumulating that gtgt single most important factor affecting high TFRs is low status of women in many societies 77 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth socioeconomic employment opportunities TFRs tend to be lower when women have access to paid employment outside the home employment opportunities brings gtgt financial independence gtgt tendency to marry later gtgt tendency to have fewer children 78 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth socioeconomic educational opportunities in nearly all societies women with more education tend to marry later and have fewer children providing women with education opportunities delays first childbirth gtgt thus reducing number of active childbearing years increasing time between generations 79 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth socioeconomic educational opportunities education opens door to greater career opportunities which often further delays first childbirth it has been said that single most important activity needed to reduce world mangz 81E 82 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth socioeconomic educational opportunities example in Botswana women with gtgt secondary education have an average of 31 children gtgt primary education have an average of 51 children gtgt no formal education have an average of 59 children mangA 84 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth socioeconomic availability offamily planning services greater contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age correlates with a lower fertility rate socioeconomic conditions and status of women affect availability of family planning services 85E 86E Table 81 87E Human Population Issues Growth lFactors that affect growth rate three general categories cultural socioeconomic political 88 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth political family planning policies governments in 78 developing countries have established policies to help help limit population growth including gtgt public education efforts gtgt economics rewards and penalties laws 89 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth political family planning policies China first program began in 1955 launched wan Xishao campaign in 1971 meaning gtgt later marriages gtgt longer intervals between births gtgt fewer children 90 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth political family planning policies China gtgt TRF has been reduced to 18 from 59 in 1965 gtgt 80 of couples use contraception gtgt 87 of women are literate 1990 gtgt projected population change by 2050 9 91 El Human Population Issues Growth I Factors that affect population growth political family planning policies India gtgt has been less successful gtgt TRF has been reduced to 32 from 58 in 1965 gtgt 48 of couples use contraception gtgt 40 of women are literate 1990 gtgt projected population change by 2050 55 92E Fig 83 93E Human Population Issues limportance lhistory lcurrent trends lgrowth limpacts on resources lurbanization leconomic development 94 El Human population issues impacts on resources I discrepancy between individual resource demands in developing vsdeveoped nations developing nations individual resource demands are small but rapidly increasing populations deplete natural resources developed nations individual resource demands are large and this demand depletes natural resources 95 El Human population issues impacts on resources I Effects of overpopulation on nonrenewable resources present in limited quantities depleted by use useddepleted faster than they can be replenished slowing population growth would give more time to find substitutes for nonrenewable urces reso people in US and other developed nations consume majority ofworld s nonrenewable resources 96 El Human population issues impacts on resources I Effects of overpopulation on renewable resources replaced by nature fairly rapidly can be used forever as long as they are not exploited in short term rapid population growth can cause renewable resources to be overexploited gtgt renewable resources must be used in sustainable way that gives them time to replace or replenish themselves 97 El Human population issues impacts on resources I Effects of population growth on natural resources particularly critical in developing nations economic growth of developing nations is often tied to exploitation of their natural resources to provide for their expanding populations in short term 98 El Human population issues impacts on resources I Effects of population growth on natural resources resources issues are clearly related to population size more people use more resources resource consumption more important issue measure of human use of materials energy people in developed nations are extravagant consumers their use of resources is greatly out of proportion to their numbers 99 El Human population issues impacts on resources lEffects of population growth on natural resources people in developed nations are extravagant consumers their use of resources is greatly out of proportion to their numbers highly developed nations represent 20 of world s population yet they consume gt50 of its resources 100 El Human population issues impacts on resources I Overpopulation a country is overpopulated if level of demand on its resource base results in damage to environment a country can be overpopulated in two ways people overpopulation consumption overpopulation 1018 Human population issues impacts on resources I people overpopulation occurs When environment is degraded from too many people even if those people consume few resources per person I consumption overpopulation occurs When each individual in a population consumes too large a share of resources I effects of both are same pollution and degradation of environment 102E Human population issues impacts on resources I model of human impacts on the environment three factors most important in determining environmental impact I numberof people P affluence per person A measure of consumption or amount of resources used per person environmental effects of technologies T used to obtain and consume the resources l P x A x T 103 El Human population issues impacts on resources I model of human impacts on the environment l P x A x T model expressed by this equation can be useful but must be interpreted with care gtgt because we often do not understand all the environmental impacts of certain actions of processes 104 El Human Population Issues limportance lhistory lcurrent trends lgrowth limpacts on resources lurbanization leconomic development 105 El Human population issues urbanization J Geographical distribution of people affects impact of population growth throughout recent history people have increasingly migrated to cities urbanization process in Which people increasingly move from rural areas to densely populated cities involves transformation of rural areas into urban areas 106 El Human population issues urbanization J Geographical distribution of people affects impact of population growth distinction between rural and urban areas notjust how many people live in area but how people make their living rural areas most people have occupations that involve harvesting natural resources urban areas most people have occupations that are not directly connected with natural resources 107E 108E 109E Human Population Issues limportance lhistory lcurrent trends lgrowth limpacts on resources lurbanization leconomic development 110 El Human population issues economic development lDemographic transition hypothesis of population change concept grew out of relationship between standard of living and population growth rate countries with highest standard of living have lowest growth rates lowest standard of living have highest growth rates 111E Fig 82 112E Human population issues economic development J Demographic transition based on examination of birth and death rates of North America and western European countries that industrialized during 19th century states that as countries become industrialized first their death rates and then their birth rates decline 113E Human population issues economic development J Demographic transition takes place in four distinct stages preindustrial stage transitional stage industrial stage postindustrial stage 114E Human population issues economic development J Demographic transition preindustrial stage little population growth harsh living conditions lead to both high birth rates gtgt to compensate for high infant mortality rates high death rates 115 El Demographic Transition 116E Human population issues economic development J Demographic transition transitional stage population grows rapidly because with advent of industrialization food production increases health care improves death rate decreases birth rate remains unchanged gtgt culturally imbedded 117E Demographic Transition 118 El Human population issues economic development J Demographic transition industrial stage population growth continues but at slower and more fluctuating rate depending on economic conditions birth rate drops and approaches death rate gtgt as industrialization and modernization become more widespread most developed nations are in this stage 119 Demographic Transition 120 El Human population issues economic development J Demographic transition postindustrial stage total population size decreases slowly birth rate declines below death rate 35 countries most in Europe containing about 13 of world s population have entered this stage 121 E Demographic Transition 122 a 123 El Human population issues economic development J Demographic transition will it be experienced by today s lessdeveloped nations when today s developed nations passed through transition conditions included world population was lower energy natural resources were still abundant access to large expanses of of unexploited lands industrialization occurred fast enough to impact population growth 124 El Human population issues economic development J Demographic transition will it be experienced by today s lessdeveloped nations necessary conditions for demographic transition to occur may not be available to today s EVPP 111 Lab Shrine 2004 Microclimafe and Forests Introducfian aimate is a combination temperature moisture precipitation and winds for a given place over a period of time and is characterized by means ave es and extremes of o n n o a 139 era ure moisture precipitation and wind conditions that are ian 39 location to another The climate at a very local scale that in uences the presence and distribution of organisms is known as the movemenf moisture and soil exp Vegetation reduces the f the temperature ground surface e humidity and the height of the active surface the surface of any object that receives or is impacted directly by solar radiation Vegetative cover will also influence the daily maximum and minimum temperatures In addition to providing shelter and food for animals vegetation creates a range of microclimates for neatir vegetation in the canopy or near the ground or beneatli rocks and litter where temperature and moisture are most favorable Tnat part o the general habitat that pla e on a plant or animal lives that is actually utilized by an organism 395 known as its micronalritat The place where two or more different vegetation types meet is called an edge figure 1 patcl is called a border edges and the border together make u the boundary The env ronmental conditions along the de re EVPP 111 Lab different from those in the adjacent vegetation communities especially in the case o forests reduction of a Fragment on large liabitat area into small affects long term b s 2 2 n o a o rest are broken into p in or clearings witliin otlierviise contiguous SilvaLopez 1992 Fragmentation is a scale dependent process and up to a to I pea are t species termed interior species req I large areas o ai to maintan viable populations Fortii species probability rence increases iiiitli patch size atiiers a areasensihve bec s they require large territories o in areas ent ion continues edge areainsensitive species ones at home in small to large units of habitat Shrine 2004 i a o a o n 2 5 9 5 a o z a 393 2 a development oftiie Fairfax campus of 620 e Mason University show a gene ally forested area wit scatte pastures and ousing d maining oakhickory o ay forest is highly fragmented figure 2 EVPP 111 Lab In This lab we will explore Three variables of microclimaTe as influenced by foresT cover in a foresTed paTch indicaTed by The red arrow in figure 2 on The George Mason UniversiTy campus We also will examine The edge effecT and The developmenT of inTerior foresT condiTions ObjecTives I Learn how To measure and inTerpreT TemperaTure and relaTive humidiTy daTa I Learn how foresT cover influences air and soil TemperaTure and relaTive humidiTy I DeTermine The peneTraTion of The edge effecT inTo a foresT paTch I Use MicrosofT Excel To manage and display daTa MaTerials I 7 HOBO TEMP H8 series TemperaTure and humidiTy daTa loggers I 7 HOBO ExTernal Sensor Cables I 7 HOBO Pro TempRH Rainshields I 1 HOBO ShuTTIe I BoxCar Pro sofTware MicrosofT Excel sofTware I DeskTop compuTer and prinTer HypoTheses Air and soil TemperaTure are lower wiThin a foresT Than aT The foresT edge Spring 2004 RelaTive humidiTy is lower wiThin The foresT Than aT The foresT edge Air and soil TemperaTures and relaTive humidiTy conTinue To decrease wiTh increasing disTance from The foresT edge unTil inTerior condiTions are obTained AspecT affecTs The depTh of peneTraTion of The edge effecT inTo The foresT parcel Procedure The insTrucTor will explain each procedure 1 Each group will collecT daTa from The seven HOBO TemperaTure and humidiTy daTa loggers locaTed in a foresT parcel on The GMU campus using The HOBO ShuTTle Be careful To inserT The ShuTTle probe in The proper sloT in The daTa logger wiThouT removing The logger from The rain shield as demonsTraTed by The insTrucTor 2 Using The daTa Transfer cable download The daTa from The ShuTTle To your lab compuTer using The BoxCar sofTware When prompTed by The sofTware creaTe daTa files for each of The TransecTs and save Them for laTer use Make a backup copy of your daTa DaTa Analysis 1 Using The daTa Transfer funcTion wiThin The BoxCar sofTware EVPP 111 Lab N 00 Transfer your files inTo MicrosofT Excel Display The daTa using The graph feaTure of MicrosofT Excel for each of The sTaTions For each parameTer measured air TemperaTure soil TemperaTure and relaTive humidiTy prepare a line Spring 2004 graph for The parameTer measured versus Time for each TransecT You should have Three graphs and each graph will conTain a line for each TransecT SubmiT These graphs wiTh your wriTeup Remember To give The graph a TiTle and label The axes EVPP 111 Lab Spring 2004 ForesT MicroclimaTe LAB WRITEUP SubmiT Pages 57 STudenT Name Lab DaTe Lab InsTrucTor Lab SecTion ResulTs DaTa Figure 1 Air TemperaTure versus Time for all TransecTs ATTach graph prepared in Excel Figure 2 RelaTive humidiTy versus Time for all TransecTs ATTach graph prepared in Excel Figure 3 Soil TemperaTure versus Time for all TransecTs ATTach graph prepared in Excel Conclusions QuesTions For full crediT These quesTions should be answered Thoroughly in compleTe senTences in legible handwriTing 1 CharacTerize The daily change in TemperaTure and reIaTive humidiTy Are TemperaTures and humidiTy higher or lower during The day or aT nighT Why Are TemperaTure and humidiTy higher or lower aT The edge or wiThin The foresT Why EVPP 111 Lab Spring 2004 2 Char acTer ize The daily change in soil Temper aTur e Is The daily change in soil Temper aTur es acTual Temper aTur es and differences beTween high and low Temper aTur es gr eaTer or less Than air Temper aTur e How does soil Temper aTur e change from The edge along The Tr ansecTs inTo The for esT Why Do The daily maximums and minimums occur before afTer39 or aT The same Time as The air Temper aTur e maximums and minimums Why EVPP 111 Lab Spring 2004 3 Is There a difference in air Temper aTur es r elaTive humidiTy measuremenTs and soil Temper aTur es aT similar poinTs along The Two Tr ansecTs Why or why noT 4 AbouT wher e along The Temper aTur e Tr39ansecTs does The Temper aTur e no longer change beTween sTaTions AbouT wher e along The humidiTy Tr39ansecT does The r elaTive humidiTy no longer change AbouT wher e along The humidiTy Tr ansecT does soil Temper aTur e no longer change Based on air Temper aTur e r elaTive humidiTy and soil Temper aTur e abouT how far inTo The for esT par39cel would you find inTer ior for esT condiTions EVPP 111 Lab SDri no 2004 Soil Buffering of Acid Rain InTroducTion Acid rain is a Term commonly used To refer To all Types of precipiTaTionrain snow sleeT hail fogThaT is acidic in naTure A more encompassing Term is acid deposiTion Rain is naTurally somewhaT acidic wiTh an average pH of 5657 PrecipiTaTion is considered quotacidicquot if H has a pH lower Than The average pH of rainwaTer Rain is naTurally acidic because carbon dioxide found normally in The earTh39s aTmosphere reacTs wiTh waTer To form carbonic acid While rainwaTer has an average pH of 5657 acTual pH readings will vary from place To place depending upon The Type and amounT of oTher gases presenT in The air such as sulfur dioxide and niTrogen oxides Acid deposiTion has negaTive effecTs on lakes sTreams soils and The organisms ThaT depend upon These environmenTs The degree To which acid deposiTion will impacT planTs and aquaTic life is affecTed by The abiliTy of soils To compensaTe for The acidiTy of The precipiTaTion Some soils are capable of resisTing acidificaTion because of The Type of minerals They conTain As The acidic precipiTaTion passes Through The soil39s air spaces iT dissolves minerals such as calciTe and dolomiTe BoTh of These minerals can be found in limesTone which is a sedimenTary rock BoTh of These minerals are also considered parT of The carbonaTe family CalciTe is composed of calcium carbonaTe and dolomiTe is composed of calcium magnesium carbonaTe CarbonaTe compounds Tend To release hydroxyl ions when They are dissolved in waTer or weak acids DolomiTe is noT as reacTive as calciTe However under The proper condiTions boTh of These minerals will buffer sulfuric acid and niTric acid which are componenTs of acid precipiTaTion OTher soils such as Those formed from igneous and meTamorphic rocks do noT conTain minerals ThaT are capable of dissolving in waTer The formaTion of These Types of rocks occurs under greaT heaT and pressure These processes cause chemical reacTions ThaT lock The minerals inTo The rock39s sTrucTure and leave Them unavailable Therefor soils ThaT form from or conTain a loT of igneous and meTamorphic rock are noT able To buffer The sulfuric acid and niTric acid conTained in acid precipiTaTion Lakes in areas conTaining such soils are more EVPP 111 Lab SDr i no 2004 likely To become acidic and planTs growing in These areas are more liker To suffer from acid precipiTaTion Because acid can dissolve meTal acid precipiTaTion can dissolve meTal ions presenT in soil These meTals can Then leach inTo nearby lakes wiTh rainfall and snowfall runoff A parTicular problem is caused by aluminum a very common elemenT presenT in mosT soils Aluminum is Toxic To fish because iT damages Their gill membranes and can damage planTs by inTerfering wiTh Their upTake and use of nuTrienTs and waTer In This lab we will examine The abiliTy of soil To buffer acid rain as reflecTed in The pH of an arTificial lake inTo which The runoff will flow HypoThesis Soil ThaT conTains calcium carbonaTe will buffer acid precipiTaTion beTTer Than soil wiThouT calcium carbonaTe as evidenced by The pH of an arTificial lake receiving The runoff MaTerials 0 soil from Three sources poTTing soil fill soil composT 0 calcium carbonaTe CaCOs 0 Tap waTer arTificial lake waTer 0 pH 4 simulaTed acid rain 0 coffee filTer Hach pH TesT kiT ring sTand ring sTand clip funnel 400mL beaker 100mL beaker spoons Procedure 1 2 00 01 I Work in groups by lab Table ObTain 100g of your assigned soil and divide iT inTo Two 50g porTions ObTain 5g of CaCOs SeT up The apparaTus as follows a aTTach a ring sTand clip To a ring sTand b place a funnel in The ring sTand clip c place a fresh filTer in The funnel d raise The ring sTand clip wiTh funnel To a heighT sufficienT To allow The placemenT of a 400mL beaker under The funnel coffee Place ZOOmL of Tap waTer inTo The 400mL beaker which is under The funnel This will serve as your arTificial lake Measure The pH of The arTificial lake waTer and record in Table 1 and on The Transparency Place 50 g of your assigned soil inTo The coffee filTer in The funnel EVPP 111 Lab X Place 80mL of simulaTed acid rain in a small beaker Carefully pour The simulaTed acid rain over The soil in The filTerlined funnel Pour slowly and leT The simulaTed acid rain filTer slowly Through The soil and down inTo The arTificial lake Be careful noT To allow soil To wash over The Top of The filTer 10 Use The plasTic spoon To genle sTir The soilrain mixTure O 11 Allow 5 minuTes for The IIrunoffII To occur 12AfTer The simulaTed acid rain has llrunoffII inTo The arTificial lake use a fresh plasTic spoon To sTir The quotlakequot in The beaker To mix The runoff wiTh The lake waTer 13Measure The pH of The arTificial lake waTer wiTh runoff and record iT in Table 1 and on The Transparency 14 When you are finished a discard your soil and coffee filTer b wash your filTer and rinse iT wiTh disTilled waTer discard your lake waTer wash your lake beaker and rinse iT wiTh disTilled waTer 15 Reassemble your apparaTus as described in sTep 4 above 00 SDr i no 2004 16 quotRefillII your arTificial lake wiTh Tap waTer as long as you use The VERY SAME TAP you do noT need To repeaT The pH TesT 17 Take The second 50g porTion of your assigned soil and mix in The 5g of CaC03 using a fresh or cleaned and dried plasTic spoon To sTir Thoroughly 18 RepeaT sTeps 8 Through 13 DaTa Analysis 1 CompleTe Figure 1 by preparing a bar graph illusTraTing The mean pH of arTificial lake waTer afTer runoff of simulaTed acid rain Through Three soil Types before and afTer The addiTion of calcium carbonaTe EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Page left blank intentionally EVPP 111 Lab Spring 2004 Soil Buffering of Acid Rain LAB WRITEUP Submit pages 48 Student Name Lab Date Lab Instructor Lab Section Results Data Table 1pH of artificial lake water before and after runoff of simulated acid rain through three soil types before and after addition of calcium carbonate by group and pH of simulated acid rain PH of lake water after runoff through soil Assigned pH of lake Before After Lab Soil pH of acid water before addition of addition of Table Type rain runoff CaCOa CaCOa 1 Potting 40 2 Potting 40 Mean 40 Fill 40 4 Fill 40 Mean 40 5 Compost 40 6 Compost 40 Mean 40 Continued EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Figure 1 Mean pH of artificial lake water after runoff of simulated acid rain through soil before and after the addition of calcium carbonate by soil type 90 80 70 E e 0 50 40 30 I I I Before After Before After Before After 60603 60603 60603 60603 60603 60603 Potting Fill Compost Results for each soil type by pH test kit Continued EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Conclusions QuesTions For full cred391 These quesTions should be answered Thoroughy in compeTe senTences in legible handwriTing 1 Which of The Three soil Types did a beTTer Job of buffering The simuIaTed acid rain as evidenced by The change in pH of The ar TificiaI lake pr ior To addiTion of The CaCOs Offer a possible explanaTion for differences in buffering capaciTy among The Three soil Types 2 Which of The Three soil Types did a beTTer Job of buffering The simuIaTed acid rain as evidenced by The change in pH of The ar TificiaI lake afTer To addiTion of The CaC03 EVPP 111 Lab Sprinq 2004 BiodiversiTy in Leaf LiTTer InTroducTion Species diversiTy is a characTerisTic ThaT is unique To a communiTy level of biological organizaTion The biodiversiTy in differenT communiTies has been severely affecTed by human acTiviTies A communiTy is said To have high species diversiTy if iT has many species presenT in approximaTely equally abundanT numbers If iT is composed of only a few species or if only a few species are abundanT Then The biodiversiTy is considered To be low If a communiTy had 100 individuals disTribuTed among 10 species Then The maximum possible diversiTy would occur if There were 10 individuals in each of The 10 species The minimum possible diversiTy would occur if There were 91 individuals belonging To one species and only1 individual in each of The oTher nine species The number of species in a communiTy is very imporTanT There seems To be evidence ThaT The greaTer The species diversiTy The more sTable The communiTy When diversiTy is low The communiTy is less sTable A communiTy wiTh low diversiTy is less able To rebound from severe disTurbance such as polluTion and habiTaT disrupTion The purpose of This lab is To measure The biodiversiTy of organisms found in a sample of leaf liTTer collecTed on campus A Berlese funnel apparaTus will be used To separaTe from The leaf liTTer The small organisms dwelling wiThin iT The organisms will Then be organizing inTo similar Taxonomic caTegories and counTed Finally The species diversiTy of The leaf liTTer sample will be calculaTed MaTerials o DissecTing microscope o Berlese funnel apparaTus o PlasTic collecTion bag 0 Leaf liTTer o MeThanol o IdenTificaTion key inTerneT o PeTri dishes Procedure Week 1 1 Work in groups by lab Table 2 Go To The woods by Fenwick Library CollecT a leaf liTTer sample as follows a on a paTch of The foresT floor envision a square ThaT is approximaTely 30cm on A EVPP 111 Lab U14gt l X Place a each side roughly 1 square fooT b from This area collecTed all The leaf liTTer and The Top layer of soillike maTerial down To a depTh of approximaTely 15cm To The exTenT ThaT you can remove iT wiTh your fingers and place inTo your plasTic collecTion bag ReTurn To The lab ObTain a Berlese funnel apparaTus Place a piece of marking Tape on The plasTic conTainer and label iT wiTh your secTion number and lab Table number small volume of meThanol in The boTTom of The plasTic conTainer Place The funnel in The Top of The plasTic conTainer and place The screen plug in The base of The funnel Place The leaf liTTer ThaT you collecTed in The woods inTo The Top of The funnel As The leaf liTTer dries from The Top down The organisms in The leaf liTTer will migraTe downward Trying To sTay in The moisT liTTer and will evenTually fall inTo The meThanol which will preserve Them for laTer observaTion Week 2 1 Discard The leaf liTTer from The funnel of your Berlese N 4 Sprinq 2004 apparaTus PLEASE BE SURE THAT YOU DO NOT THROW AWAY THE SCREEN PLUG FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE FUNNELIIIIIIIIIII ObTain a dissecTing microscope from The wooden cabineT If There are enough microscopes available afTer making sure ThaT each Table has aT leasT one microscope addiTional microscopes can be obTained for your Table so ThaT The work of idenTifying The organisms from your leaf liTTer sample can be shared amongsT The members of your lab Table group Pour The meThanol from The boTTom of The conTainer which now conTains The organisms from The leaf liTTer inTo one or more peTri dishes depending on how many in your group will be assisTing wiTh idenTificaTion Observe The organisms in The peTri dish under a microscope SeparaTe The sample inTo piles of like organisms wiThin The peTri dish Use The online Hope College Leaf LiTTer ArThropod DichoTomous Keyquot aT hTTQwwwhopeeduacademicbi o logx leaf l iTTe rarTh ro pods To idenTify The Type of organism in each pile DeTermine The ToTal number of each Type of organism EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 idenTified in your group39s N The ToTal number of individuals sample Record This dam in of all Types collecTed in sample Table 1 in The column headed absoluTe abundancequot 6 If you encounTer unfamiliar Example daTa and calculaTions for r elaTive abundance Ter ms while using The key go To species Abs ll e Re39a five quotInTr oducTion To Ar Thr opod i Abquotquotd quotc Abwdwce Char39acTer39isTicsII aT m Pi hTTpwwwmissour iedubiosc 1 50 5085 0588 ishinTr ohTml for assisTance 2 25 2585 0294 Dam AnalYSls 3 10 1085 O118 1 DeTer mine The r elaTive of abundance of each individual differer N85 species and record in Table 1 species 3 you deTer mined The absoluTe abundance of eGCl I Species by 2 DeTer mine The diver siTy of counTing The number of your39 sample using Simpson39s individuals of each differ enT Index of DiversiTy and species RelaTive abundance record in Table 1 The compar es The number of following example illusTr aTes organisms of a par Ticular how To calculaTe Simpson39s species wiTh The ToTal Indexof Diver39siTy number of organisms found in The sample RelaTIve Ds 1 Znini1 NN1 abundance of a species in a sample is calculaTed by dividing The number of Species Absolute individuals of ThaT species by The ToTaI number of A 50 individuals in The enTir e B 25 sample An example A 10 calculaTion follows N 85 RelaTive abundance ni N DS 1 5049 2524 109 8584 ni acTual number of individuals of species i DS 1 3140 7140 EVPP 111 Lab DS 1 044 DS 056 D values closer To 0 2 low diversi ry D5 Closer To 1 grea rer diversi ry 3 Record your group39s value for Simpson39s Index of Diversify in Table 2 and on The Transparency or blackboard Sprinq 2004 Record o rher groups39 values for Simpson39s Index Diversi ry in your Table 2 of EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Biodiversity in Leaf Litter LAB WRITEUP Submit Pages 57 Student Name Lab Date Lab Instructor Lab Section Results Data Table 1 Absolute and relative abundance by organism type for leaf litter sample for individual lab group Organism Type quotSpeciesquot Absolute Abundance Relative Abundance i Hi Pi N i total number of quotspeciesquot N total number of individuals in entire sample If you cannot identify an organism call it type quotAquot quotBquot etc EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Table 2 Simpson39s Index of Diver39siTy for39 leaf liTTer39 samples by lab group Lab Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 Simpson39s Index of DiversiTy Conclusions QuesTions For full cred391 These quesTions should be answered Thoroughy in compeTe senTences in legible handwriTing For quesTions 1 3 go To hTTpwwwmissour39iedubioscish and read quotRole of Leaf LiTTer39 Ar Thr opodsquot 1 WhaT per cenT of The biomass produced in a for39esT is r eTur ned To The soil 2 How many Times as much energy is sTor ed in The soil and leaf liTTer of a for39esT as compared To The Trees of a for39esT A WhaT is The esTimaTed per cenTage of leaves and wood on The for39esT floor39 ThaT is recycled as a r esulT of The acTion of miTes and springTails EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 For quesTion 4 go To hTTpwwwkendabioresearchcouk In The green bar menu on The lefT side of The screen find The drop down menu headed IIShorTcuT To The main groups of insecTs and oTher arThropodsII and find The common name of The organism for which you need informaTion 4 Which Two organisms species from your sample had The owesT reaTive abundance On whaT do These Two organisms feed refer To The websiTe 5 WhaT percenT of your sample did The miTes and springTais make up coecTivey 6 Which organism had The greaTesT absquTe abundance Which organism had The greaTesT reaTive abundance 7 Which organism had The owesT absquTe abundance Which organism had The owesT reaTive abundance EVPP 111 Lab Spring 2004 6 Billion Human Beings InTroducTion quot6 Billion Human BeingsII is The TiTle of a web siTe developed by The Mus e de I39Homme in Paris IT is inTeracTive and provides realTime esTimaTes of human populaTion Trends on EarTh IT is inTeresTing in ThaT The web siTe cusTomizes responses To a person39s individual inTeresTs in Terms of age sex and parT of The world inhabiTed IT uses a loT of informaTion from The UniTed NaTions and projecTs as does The UN ThaT world populaTion will sTabilize aT 12 billion in 120 years Already we have seen a deceleraTion in human growTh raTe on EarTh from 17 in 1990 To abouT 13 in 2000 Procedure H On The inTerneT go To hTTpwwwpopexpoinedfr Click on quotIn englishquot JUN Click on quot6 billion human beingsquot Answer quesTions 47 using This page On whaT daTe did The world populaTion reach The 6 billion mark How many people are There are on The EarTh aT This Time billion og14gt One by one enTer The age of each member of your lab group in The Table below Then before proceeding each group member should make a guess and record iT below as To The number of people on EarTh when heshe was born Now one by one enTer on The websiTe The age of each group member by changing The number above quotYour agequot using The quotquot or quotquot arrows The siTe will Then indicaTe The acTual number of people ThaT were on EarTh when each group member was born and The percenT increase in populaTion since ThaT Time Record ThaT informaTion in The Table below Group Member 1 2 3 4 Age people on Guess EarTh when you were born in Ac39lual billions PercenT increase in populaTion 1 EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 7 WhaT does The UniTed NaTions predicT The world populaTion will be in 120 years 8 Click on nexT page 9 Read The informaTion under llDid you know ThaT every dayquot 10 Click on nexT page 11 Choose quotwomanquot regardless of your gender and wiTh your cursor click on The area of The world where we live NorTh America 12 Click on nexT page 13 Make a reasonable guess as To how many children a woman could have during The childbearing porTion of her life and record your guess here Now click on IIclick here To see The answerII and record The correcT answer here 14 Click on The nexT page 15 One aT a Time choose The ages indicaTed below and spin The ferTiliTy wheel Record The resulTs in The Table below If a woman goes sTerile aT age by how many children is her poTenTial ferTiliTy reduced 16 For whaT reasons is The number of children a woman acTually has usually less Than The maximum poTenTial number of babies per woman lisT The Three 0 b C 17 Click on The nexT page 18 For each group member choose and enTer one by one The age aT which you Think you mighT consider marriage The siTe will give The reducTion in ferTiliTy associaTed wiTh marriage aT each of These ages CompleTe The Table below 2 EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 Group Member 1 2 3 4 Marriage age ReducTion in ferTiliTy poTenTial 19 WhaT is The global average age aT which women marry 20AT The boTTom of The page click on each conTinenT on The map of The globe and The siTe will reveal The age aT which women from ThaT region Typically marry EnTer The informaTion in The Table below ConTinenT Age aT which women Typically marry NorTh America SouTh America LaTin America Africa Asia Europe AusTralia Oceania 21 Click on nexT page 22WhaT is The relaTionship beTween lengTh of Time a woman breasTfeeds and birTh poTenTial 23As a lab group chose and enTer one by one four differenT number of monThs To represenT The number of monThs a woman should breasTfeed a baby The siTe will give The reducTion in a couple39s birTh poTenTial associaTed wiTh breasTfeeding a baby for ThaT period of Time CompleTe The Table below MonThs a woman breasTfeeds a baby ReducTion in ferTiliTy poTenTial EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 24AT The boTTom of The page click on each conTinenT on The map of The globe and The siTe will provide The average lengTh of Time a woman from ThaT r egion br easTfeeds a baby EnTer The infor maTion in The Table below ConTinenT Average lengTh of Time a woman breasTfeeds a baby Nor Th Amer ica SouTh Amer ica LaTin Amer ica Afr ica Asia Eur ope AusTr alia Oceania 25Click on nexT page 260pTional Use This page To learn abouT The effecTiveness of various bir Th conTr ol meThods and Their usage in various par Ts of The world 27Click on nexT page 28Thr oughouT The world whaT per cenT of childbear ingage couples use bir Th conTr ol 29AT The boTTom of The page click on each conTinenT on The map of The globe and The siTe will provide The per cenTage of fer Tileage couples who use bir Th conTr ol EnTer The infor maTion in The Table below ConTinenT PercenT of ferTile age couples using birTh conTr ol Nor Th Amer ica SouTh Amer ica LaTin America Africa Asia Eur ope AusTr alia Oceania EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 30Click on nexT page 31 Why do you Think There are such differences in various areas of The world in The percenTage of ferTileage couples using birTh conTrol 32Click on nexT page 33Read The informaTion under llDid you know ThaT every dayquot and enTer The number of people worldwide who die each day from The following causes Die each day Children under 5 Die from infecTion Die from cardiovascular illness Die from cancer Die from violence Die from diarrhea as children Die in childbirTh 34Click on nexT page con rmed 5 EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 35For each lab group member enTer your age and The siTe will show whaT percenTage of all The people in The world born in The same year as you have died If all group members are close To The same age choose oTher ages such as The age of a parenT grandparenT or oTher relaTive or friend so ThaT you will have a varied range of ages wiTh which To work Then click on each conTinenT To see whaT percenTage of The people born in The same year as you have died CompleTe The Table below Group Member 1 2 3 4 Age ThaT have died Worldwide NorTh America SouTh America LaTin America Africa Asia Europe AusTralia Oceania 36Click on nexT page con rmed 6 EVPP 111 Lab Sprint 2004 37For each lab member compare populaTion pyramids for The presenT 25 years in The fuTure and 50 years in The fuTure If all group members are close To The same age choose oTher ages such as The age of a parenT grandparenT or oTher relaTive or friend so ThaT you will have a varied range of ages wiTh which To work CompleTe The Table below Group Member 1 2 Age people older Today people younger Today people older in 25 years people younger in 25 years people older in 50 years people younger in 50 years 38Click on nexT page 39Examine The graph of human populaTion over Time Click on The green doTs To discover some of The key evenTs in The hisTory of human populaTion 40Click on nexT page Read 41 Click on nexT page Read and answer quesTions 4248 42Wil our naTural resources run ouT WhaT is your opinion Should oTher counTries aspire To have The same lifesTyle as ThaT of people living in NorTh America Would iT be possible 43How many people lived in large ciTies around The world in 1994 versus in 1990 l Why 2E 4E SIB 6E 7E Commun hsCommunHyEcdogy EVPP 111 Lecture Dr Largen Spring 2004 Sectio ns J definitions J properties J organism interactions symbiotic relationships I disturbances succession Sectio ns J definitions J properties J organism interactions competition predation symbiotic relationships I disturbances succession Communities Community Ecology J definitions population all individuals of particular species living in same place at same time community all populations of organisms that live together amp potentially interact in particular area at particular Ime ecosystem all communities of area amp their interactions with each other amp physical environment Figure Lan with ml lrl a grassland cummunlty Sectio ns J definitions J properties J organism interactions competition predation symbiotic relationships I disturbances succession 8 I3 Communities Community Ecology J Community properties community has own set of properties diversity prevalent forms of vegetation stability trophic structure 9 El Communities Community Ecology J Community properties community has own set of properties diversity prevalent forms of vegetation stability trophic structure 10 El Communities Community Ecology J Community properties Diversity variety of organism that make up a community has two components species richness relative abundance of different species 11E Communities Community Ecology J Community properties Diversity species richness total number of different species in community relative abundance of different species number of individuals of each of different species 12 El Communities Community Ecology J Community properties Diversity consider two communities each made of up 4 species A B C D community 1 has 25A 25B 25C 25D community 2 has 97A 1B 1C 1D species richness same for both communities each made up of4 species relative abundance of different species relative abundance is very different 13 El Communities Community Ecology J Community properties community has its own set of properties diversity prevalent form of vegetation stability trophic structure 14 I3 Communities Community Ecology J Community properties Prevalent form of vegetation applies mainly to terrestrial communities two components types of dominant plants structure of dominant plants largely determines types of animals that will live in a community 15 El Communities Community Ecology J Community properties Prevalent form of vegetation for example consider deciduous trees of temperate deciduous forest versus coniferous trees of northern coniferous forest types of dominant plants are different structure of dominant plants gtgt vertical structure of forests is different 16 E 17 El Communities Community Ecology J Community properties community has its own set of properties diversity prevalent forms of vegetation stability trophic structure 18 E Communities Community Ecology J Community properties Stability community s ability to resist change return to its original species composition after being disturbed depends on type of community nature of disturbance 19 El Communities Community Ecology J Community properties community has its own set of properties diversity prevalent forms of vegetation stability trophic structure 20 El Communities Community Ecology J Community properties Trophic structure feeding relationships among various species in community determines passage of energy and nutrients from autotrophs to heterotrophs 21E Sections J definitions J properties J organism interactions symbiotic relationships I disturbances succession 22 El Communities Community Ecology J Organism interactions populations of community are linked via interspecific interactions relationships between populations of different species of community can be considered based on affect interaction has on each species involved 23 El Communities Community Ecology J Organism interactions interspecific interactions types include competition predationparasitism mutualism commensalism 24 I3 Communities Community Ecology J Organism interactions interspecific interactions some types also considered symbiotic relationships between organisms of two different species that live together in relative permanent close relationship parasitism mutualism commensalism 25 El Communities Community Ecology Organism interactions interspeci c interactions competition detrimental to both species involved predationparasitism bene cial to one species detrimental to other species mutualism bene cial to both species commensalism benefcial to one species other species unaffected 26 E Table lnterspecrfrclnteramruns 27 El Sections J definitions J properties J organism interactions competition predation symbiotic relationships I disturbances succession 28 I3 Communities Community Ecology J Interspecific interactions Competition may occur when a shared resource is limited between any 2 species that need same limiting resource or limiting factor shortage of which restricts success of species may be biotic or abiotic differ from species to species 29 El Communities Community Ecology J Interspecific interactions Competition types interspecific competition gtgt between populations of two species intraspecific competition gtgt between members of same species 30 El Communities Community Ecology J Interspecific interactions Competition between populations may result in reduction in density of one or both species local elimination of one of competitors is considered detrimental to both species involved though one will win neither will do as well as in absence of competitor 31 El Communities Community Ecology J Interspecific competition restated struggle between two populations to utilize same resources When there is not enough of that resource to satisfy both 32 El Communities Community Ecology J Interspecific competition studied by Russian ecologist GF Gause in 1934 based on experiments in lab with 2 species of protists from genus Paramecium Paramecium aureia Paramecium caudatum 33 El Communities Community Ecology J Interspecific competition experiments by Gause lab experiments P aureia and P caudatum were grown separately in same conditions gtgt each grew rapidly leveled off at carrying capacity When P aureia and P caudatum were grown together gtgt P caudatum was driven to extinction 34 a 35 E 36 E 37 E 38 El Communities Community Ecology J lnterspecific competition Gause concluded if two species are so similar that they compete for the then they can t coexist in the same place one species will use resource more ef ciently gain competitive advantage eventually leading to local extinction of inferior competitor 39 El Communities Community Ecology J Interspecific competition Gause restated his ideas as the competitive exclusion principle no two species can occupy the same ecological niche in the same place at the same time 40 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche niche functional role of an organism in its surroundings sum total of organism s use of resources of its habitat can be thought of as organism s role in its community its profession 41E Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche niche of an organism can be described in terms of a number of factors such as space utilization food consumption temperature range moisture requirements 42 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche niche is not synonymous with habitat gtgt space that organism inhabits is a pattern of living sometimes an organism cannot occupy its entire niche because someone else is using it 43 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche competitive exclusion principle can be restated incorporating concept of niche two species cannot exist in a community if their niches are identical ecologically similar species can coexist in a community if there are one or more significant differences in their niches 44 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche classic test of competitive exclusion in field involved two species of barnacles attached to intertidal rocks on North Atlantic coast Balanus Chthaamus 45 I3 Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche classic test of competitive exclusion natural situation Balanus lived on lower rocks rarely exposed to atmosphere gtgt here Balanus could always outcompete Chthaamus crowding it off rocks Chthaamus lived higher up on rocks in shallower water that was frequently exposed to air due to tides 46 E Communities Community Ecology J Competition and niche classic test of competitive exclusion manipulated situation Balanuswas removed from lower rocks Chthalamus could easily occupy the deeper zone indicating there was no physiological obstacle to it living in that zone 47 El Communities Community Ecology J Competition and niche classic test of competitive exclusion manipulated situation Balanuswas physically placed in upper zone where Chthalamus usually lived it couldn t survive apparently due to drying out in the air 48 El Communities Community Ecology J Competition and niche classic test of competitive exclusion conclusion fundamental niche included both zones realized niche was only upper zone Balanus fundamental niche was lower zone only realized niche was lower zone only 49 I3 Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche competitive exclusion principle can be restated no 2 species with same niche can coexist no 2 species can occupy same niche indefinitely 50 E 51 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche fundamental niche niche of species in absence of competition as determined by maximum combination of tolerable environmental conditions realized niche portion of species fundamental niche that it can occupy in presence of competition 52 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche fundamental niche versus realized niche examples anole lizards Anais sp 53 Q Figure Anolisdistichusleftand Amlsmsolusmgm 54E 55 E 56 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche two possible outcomes of competition between species having identical niches 1 less competitive species will be driven to local extinction loss of species at local level 2 one species may evolve to use a different set of resources known as resource partitioning 57 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche resource partitioning differentiation of niches enables similar species to coexist in a community 58 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche resource partitioning example Anois lizards in Dominican Republic gtgt 7 species live in close proximity gtgt all feed on insects other small arthropods gtgt competition is minimized because each species perches in a certain microhabitat 59 a Figure Resuuree panitiuning in a gruup uflizards 60E 61 El Communities Community Ecology J Com petition and niche character displacement tendency for characteristics to be more divergent when two species live in same area than Wnen same two species live in different areas 62 El Communities Community Ecology J Competition and niche character displacement example is two species of Galapagos nches Geospiza fulginosa amp G fortis when they occur on different islands beak sizes are similar because they eat similar size seeds when they occur on same island beak sizes are different they eat different sized seeds to avoid competition 63 E Figure Charamerdisplacement circumantialEvidencefurcumpetitiunimmature 64 E Sections J definitions J properties J organism interactions competition predation symbiotic relationships I disturbances succession 65 El Communities Community Ecology J Predation definition amp concept coevolution antipredator defense mechanisms predatorprey interactions role in community diversity 66 El Communities Community Ecology J Predation definition amp concept coevolution antipredator defense mechanisms predatorprey interactions role in community diversity 67 El Communities Community Ecology J Predation interaction in Which one species eats another predator the consumer in such interaction benefits 39 Prey the organism in such an interaction that is consumed does not benefit is harmed 68 El Communities Community Ecology J Predation conoept and terms can be applied to interactions such as lion killing and eating antelope or other prey nimalplantinteractions such as when an animal bison insect eats part ofa plant gtgt called herbivory parasitism 69 I3 Communities Community Ecology J Predation conoept and terms can be applied to parsitism one organism parasite lives in or on another organism host depends on host for utrition n gtgt also typically considered one of three types of symbiotic relationships 70 E Communities Community Ecology J Predation definition amp concept coevolution antipredator defense mechanisms predatorprey interactions role in community diversity 71 El Communities Community Ecology J predation predatorprey interactions can illustrate concept of coevolution concept that two or more species can reciprocally influence evolutionary direction of other adaptive responses of two species to one another 72 El Communities Community Ecology J Predation definition amp concept coevolution antipredator defense mechanisms predatorprey interactions role in community diversity 73 El Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms needed because no species is entirely free from predation have evolved in every species in response to natural selection examples gtgt size ability to flee ability to hide protective armor noxious chemicals 74 I3 Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms types plant defenses against herbivores animal defenses against predators 75 I3 Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms Plant defenses against herbivores two major types morphological chemical 76 E Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms Plant defenses against herbivores morphological gtgt structural features that discourage browsing and feeding gtgt such as thorns spines prickles plant hairs deposits of silica in leaves 77 E 78 El Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms Plant defenses against herbivores chemical gtgt more crucial than morphological gtgt chemical compounds act by being toxic repulsive disrupting metabolism 79 E 80 El Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms Animal defenses against herbivores majortypes mechanical chemical camouflage gtgt aposematic warning coloration gtgt deceptive colorationappearance mimicry 81E Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms Animal defenses against herbivores mechanical gtgt structural features such as quills claws shells spines 82 E 83 E 84 El Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms Animal defenses against herbivores chemical gtgt venom in venomous animals alkaloids in skin of poisonarrow frogs malodorous spray of a skun 85 a 86 E 87 E 88 E 89 El Communities Community Ecology J predation antipredator defense mechanisms Animal defenses against herbivores camouflage gtgt also known as cryptic coloration gtgt use of colorpatterns that cause animals become less apparent to predators by blending in with their background gtgt a passive defense 90 E Figure Camuu age F39uurrvvill left lizard right 91 El Communities Community Ecology