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Principles of C4I

by: Antonina Wuckert

Principles of C4I ECE 670

Antonina Wuckert
GPA 3.94

Kuo-Chu Chang

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Kuo-Chu Chang
Class Notes
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Antonina Wuckert on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECE 670 at George Mason University taught by Kuo-Chu Chang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/215027/ece-670-george-mason-university in ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 09/28/15
Secure communication in NetworkCentric WarfareOperations An Analysis of key distribution protocols Kiran Thunga MSEE GMU ECE 670 Fall 2006 39 i gt Agenda Network Centric WarfareOperations NCWNCO and challenges Secure Communication in sensorwireless networks Security issues Key ManagementKey Establishment Group Keying Protocols Arbitrated Protocols Predeployed Keying Protocols Comparison and sample scenario Conclusion 39 Network Centric WarfareOperations NCWNCO NCWNCO is an emerging theory of war in the information age that seeks to translate an information advantage into a competitive warfighting advantage through the robust networking of well informed geographically dispersed forces Increased information sharing collaboration and shared situational awareness Basic Tenets of NCWNCO A robustly networked force improves information sharing Information sharing enhances the quality of information and shared situational awareness Shared situational awareness enables collaboration and selfsynchronization and enhances sustainability and speed of command Global Information Grid GIG envisioned by the United States DoD 1 globally interconnected endtoend set of information capabilities associated processes and personnel for collecting processing storing disseminating and managing information on demand to warfighters policymakers and support personnel 39 Challenges in implementing NCWNCO There are several key challenges in implementing NCWNCO architecture I Challenges of integrating numerous different communications systems into a unified whole I Coordinating bandwidth usage in a battlespace is a significant challenge I Difficultly in efficient transfer of information between networks having different levels of security classification I Accurate locational awareness is limited Much work on reliable fusion of positional data from multiple sensors remains to be done I Providing secure communications in NCWNCO is difficult since successful key management for encryption is typically the most difficult aspect of cryptography especially with mobile systems 39 Secure Communications I Secure Communication is essential in a variety of scenarios including emergency operations military operations as well as in commercial systems I In military operations geographically dispersed units including soldiers battle units and sensors communicate wirelessly I Providing secure communication between mobile wireless sensor networks is a key challenge especially because of the adhoc nature of the nodes involved I Sensor networks may consist of many different types of sensors such as seismic thermal electrical visual acoustic radar and so on 39 Sensor NetworksNVireless Networks I Sensor networks have a wide variety of applications in a number of domains Monitoring friendly forces equipment and ammunition Battlefield surveillance Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain Intelligent ammunition guidance systems Battle damage assessment Nuclear Biological and Chemical NBC attack detection and reconnaissance I Embedded wireless networks and sensor networks both consist of an array of sensor nodes with limited computation and communication capabilities I Other constraints related to the network such as adhoc networking limited preconfiguration data rate and packet size channel error rate intermittent connectivity latency and isolated subgroups make it especially challenging to design security protocols for such networks 39 Security issues in sensorwireless networks I There are several security issues in sensorwireless networks 39 Key Establishment and Trust Setup i Secrecy and authentication Li Privacy Resilience to node capture 39 Secure Routing i Denial of Service ii Secure Group Management u Intrusion Detection l i Secure Data Aggregation I Key Establishment and Trust setup is the foremost step in establishing secure communication l4 l4 39 Key Establishment and Trust Setup I Key management plays an important role in enforcing access control I Key establishment involves setting up trust between the participating entities and performing the cryptographic key computation Trust establishment can be accomplished using either secretkey or publickey based techniques Secretkey mechanisms have been generally preferred due to low energy requirements I A key distribution protocol is a set of rules by which two users can establish a shared common key between them and then use the key in future secure communications I There are several Key Establishment Protocols such as Group keying Protocols I 1 DiffieHellman Protocols I 2 Burmester Desmedt Protocols Arbitrated Protocols I 1 Kerberos Protocols I 2 OtwayRees PreDeployed Keying Protocols I 1 Networkwide predeployed keying protocol I 2 Nodespecific predeployed keying protocol I 3 Key Distribution Pattern KDP based pre deployed keying protocol 39 Constraints I Qualitative Analysis of these Key Establishment Protocols in terms of Authentication Anonymous key exchange like DiffieHellman does not provide authentication of the parties and is thus vulnerable to man in the middle MITM attack Cryptographic authentication schemes and protocols have been developed to provide authenticated key agreement Measure of implicit key authentication Forward Secrec A protocol is said to have perfect fonvard secrecy if compromise of long term keys does not compromise past session keys Fonvard secrecy is used to prevent a leaving or expelled group member to continue accessing the group s communication if it keeps receiving the messages Backward Secrecy guarantees that a passive adversary who knows a contiguous subset group keys cannot discover preceding group keys Backward secrecy is used to prevent a new member from decoding messages exchanged before it joined the group Power Consumption Computationalcommunicationpower required for implementation MemoryStorage Consumption The number of key encryption keys KEKs that group members and the KDC need to keep Scalability Measure ofthe complexity in key establishment as number of nodes increases The scale of sensor networks is often orders of magnitude larger than that of wireless networks 39 E Group Keying Protocols Uses techniques to establish a common key among a group of sensor network nodes without relying on a trusted third party TTP Group Diffie Hellman GDH vs Burmester Desmedt BD GDH is a protocol based on group extensions of the twoparty Diffie Hellman key exchange and provides fully contributory authenticated key agreement 7 fairly computationintensive requiring cryptographic operations upon each key change i It is bandwidthefficient BD is a protocol proposed by BurmesterDesmedt another variation of group DiffieHellman L BD is computationefficient requiring a constant number of exponentiations upon any membership group key change communication costs are significant Communic min11 Group Diffie Hellman GDH vs Burmester Desmedt BD I The most expensive protocol in terms ParameterProto GDH BD of communication is BD which uses n col broadcast messages for each round BD requires the least modular exponentiations Authentication High High I GDH is the most expensive in terms of computation requiring a linear number of exponentiations relative to the group PPSPBS Hi h Hi size g gh Communication Low High Energy Computational High Low Energy Scalability High High 39 I Arbitrated Protocols I An Arbitrated protocol is a protocol in which a trusted third party is used to establish a trust between the nodes participating in the message exchange Each node has to authenticate itself trusted third party to obtain a key pair with which it can communicate with the other node I All the communicating nodes share a Secrete key with trusted third party called Key Distribution Center KDC The key is distributed prior to the deployment They authenticate themselves to KDC to obtain a session whenever a node want to speak to another node I Symmetric Key Encryption is used I Kerberos vs OtwayRees both based on NeedhamSchroeder sharedkey protocol Kerberos vs OtwayRees I Key difference between the implementation ParameterPr t 1 Kerberos Otway39ReeS of OtwayRees and Kerberos is the use of Nonce randompseudorandom number Authentlcatlon ngh ngh used once instead oftimestamps I The no of bits required for the key ForwardBackward Medium Medium establishment in OtwayRees is more Secrecy gagged to no of bits required in Kerberos Power Consumption High High I The number of key exchanges required to set up a network is high as every node has MemoryStorage Medlum ngh to set up a connection with each corresponding node so the total number of Scalablllty LOW LOW keys required if N nodes wants to communicate with each other will be Nc2 I The use of centralized server to store all the When the prOtOCOI is scaled to large number Of secret keys between KDC and Nodes keys nodes ie a key is generated for communication brings a possibility of attack where in if of large number of nodes there is a threat to attaCkel can get access to the sewer there authentication By which an attackerwith in the IS a threat to security Of WhOIe network network can impersonate as other node in the network 39 Predeployed Protocols In the pre deployed keying protocol all the sensor nodes are loaded with the keys before they are deployed 1n the terntory Th1s procedure prov1des both conf1dent1a11ty and authent1cat10n of the nodes Some Predeployed Protocols L Key distribution based predeployed protocol 391 Network wide predeployed protocol Node speci c predeployed protocol Key Distribution based predeployed Protocol Each node is loaded with a set of keys and a matrix which gives information about the common keys which gives information about the common keys Features of key distribution pattern Features of key distribution pattern Absence of trusted authority Decentralized model trust is distributed to all the nodes in the network and a number of nodes need to perform the security operations together Selfinitialization A certain number of nodes cooperatively initialize the system and will add new nodes when necessary and load the set of keys into the new nodes Selfsecuring Any node ofthe group can determine the session key from anywhere which is very secure rather than transmitting the key to each node Pre I Net deployed Protocols work Wide pre deployed protocols All the nodes in the network are loaded with the same key before deployment Each node communicates with the other node which shares the same key by encIypting the message and appending a message authentication code MAC to it Memory Since only one key is used in the protocol which is loaded before the nodes are deployed the number of bits used will be equal to the key size Computation and communication energy Since all the nodes share a single key the computation energy in terms of authentication keys will be negligible and this is one of the reasons for the highenergy efficiency Fonvard and Backward Secrecy is weak I Node specific pre deployed protocols A unique key is assigned for every combination ofA unique key is assigned for every combination of communicating nodes Addition of a new node will tend the whole system to dissatisfy the main principle of pre deployed keying If there are n number of nodes in the network then each node has to store n1 number of keys and the total number of keys to be generated nc2 Memory The number of bits stored in the memory of each node will be equal to n1key size Consumption is high Computation keys are computed offline and loaded before deployment So requirement is less Fonvard and Backward Secrecy improved performance as compared to network wide pre deployed protocols as each pair of communicating nodes have a unique ke Not Very scalable If the group is large the number of keys to be computed will increase and also it will consume a large amount of memory power of each node Prodeployed Protocols Comparison ParameterProtocol Network Node Speci c KDP Based Wide Authentication Low Medium Medium ForwardBackward Low Medium High Secrecy Power Consumption Low Low Medium Memory Storage High High High Scalability Low Low High Comparison of the three different categories of ParameterProtoc Arbitrated Group Pre ol Keying deploy ed Authentication High High Medium Forward Backward Low High Medium Secrecy Power High High Low Consumption Memory Storage High High Low Scalability Medium High Low 39 E Selecting protocols Consider a scenario where a set of sensors are deployed in hostile territory to detect and relay the movement of battle units Assumption sensors talk to each other are deployed for a long time deploy and forget size of the battle field might increase ParameterPr0t0col Arbitrated Group Keying Pre deployed Satis es basic NO YES YES requirements Authentication 15 X 3 045 2 03 ForwardBackward X 3 045 2 03 Secrecy 15 Power Consumption 25 X 1 025 3 075 MemoryStorage 25 X 1 025 3 075 Scalability 20 X 3 06 1 02 2 23


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