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Intro to American Govt

by: Estefania Cartwright Sr.

Intro to American Govt GOVT 103

Marketplace > George Mason University > Government > GOVT 103 > Intro to American Govt
Estefania Cartwright Sr.
GPA 3.56

Suzanne McDonald

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Suzanne McDonald
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Cartwright Sr. on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GOVT 103 at George Mason University taught by Suzanne McDonald in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/215050/govt-103-george-mason-university in Government at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 1 Democracy Greek word demos meaning people a form in which citizens share powers 0 Direct Democracy Atype of government in which all citizens participate personally in making government decision 0 Republic A system in which ordinary people make all laws themselves 0 Representative Democracy elected individual representing the people and holding them to an account 0 Popular Democracy where the people as a whole are the government and where the people retain and exercise their governing authority on a perpetual basis 0 Responsible Democracy The purpose of government 0 Providence of stability 0 To solve disputes between states and individuals 0 Set guidelines to protect its people 0 Provide security Checks and balances Limits that one branch of government places on another because they have different interests preventing an abuse of power A check between the branches Constituency those legally entitled to vote for a public official Delegates vs trustees o Delegates role a representative plays when following the wishes of those who have elected him or her 0 Trustees role a representative plays when acting in accordance with his or her own best judgment to decide what is best for the country Permanent campaign Condition that prevails in the new American democracy when the next election campaign begins as soon as the last has ended and the line between electioneering and governing has disappeared Types of Elections 0 General Elections Final election that selects an officeholder 0 Primary Elections A preliminary contest that narrows the number of the parties candidates and determines who will be the nominees in the general election Initiatives proposed law or state constitutional amendment placed on the ballot in the response to a citizen petition Recall elections attempts to remove incumbents from office before the completion of their terms Referenda Laws or state constitutional amendments that are proposed by a legislative body but do not go into effect unless the required number of voters approve it 0 O 0 Chapter 2 May ower compact first governing document in the new world established before landing Natural rights Fundamental rights such as life liberty and property to which classical liberals considered all people entitled and therefore upon which legitimate governments could not infringe Declaration of Independence signed in 1776 declaring the United States to be a country independent of Great Britain Article of Confederation a form of government under which American colonies operated during an immediately after the Revolutionary War until the ratification of the US Constitution in 1789 Shay s Rebellion uprising in western Massachusetts in 1786 led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays ThreeFifth Compromise Constitutional provision that counted each slave as three fths of a person when calculation representation in the House of Representatives repealed by the Fourteenth Amendment Virginia Plan proposal that states would receive representation in the national legislature proportional to their population sizes by James Madison Connecticut Compromise Constitutional Convention proposed that created a House proportionate to population and a senate in which all states were represented equally Great compromise Federalist Papers essays that were written in support of the constitution s ratification and have become a classic argument for the American constitutional system US Constitution the supreme law of the land rati ed in 1789 and ended the Article of Confederation Necessary and Proper Clause Constitutional clause that gives Congress the power to take all actions that are necessary and proper to the carrying out of its delegated powers Also known as the elastic clause Supremacy Clause Part of the Constitution that says the Constitution is the supreme Law of the Land to which all judges are bound Allowed the Supreme Court to claim powers of judicial reviews Federalists those who wrote and campaigned for ratification of the constitution AntiFederalist those who opposed the ratification of the constitution Bills of Rights the first ten amendments to the Constitution which guarantee civil liberties and protect states rights Types of Federalism Separation of Powers a system of government in which different institutions exercise the various components of government power Electoral College Those who chosen to cast a direct vote for president by a process determined by each states Elects the president and must win majority to win presidential race Judicial Review Courts authority to declare laws null and void on the grounds that they violate the Constitution Tariffs Taxes on imported goods Chapt 0 Chapt 0 er 3 Devolution Return of governmental responsibilities to states and localities Federalism Division of sovereignty between at least two different levels of government Dual Sovereignty A theory of federalism by which both the national and state governments have nal authority over their own policy domains Nullification A doctrine that gives states the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional McCulloch V Maryland Decision of 1819 in which the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional the states power to taX a federal government entity Elastic Clause An alternate name for the US Constitution s necessary and proper clause that stresses how exible courts have interpreted the language to reconcile it with congressional activities Commerce clause Constitutional provision that gives Congress power to regulate commerce among the states Necessary and Proper Clause Constitutional clause that gives Congress the power to take all actions that are necessary and proper to the carrying out of its delegated powers Also known as the elastic clause Spending Clause Constitutional provision that gives Congress the power to collect taxes to provide for the general welfare Supremacy clause Part of the Constitution that says the Constitution is the supreme Law of the Land to which all judges are bound New Deal programs created by Franklin Roosevelt s administration that expanded the power of the federal government over economic affairs Reapportionment the redrawing of state legislative and congressional districts that occurs after each decennial census Types of grants to the states 0 Categorical grant Federal grant to a state andor local government that imposes programmatic restrictions on the use of funds 0 Block grants federal grant to a state and or local government that imposes minimal restrictions on the use of funds Unfunded mandates Federal regulations that imposes burdens on state and local government without appropriating enough money to cover costs Constitutional amendments er 4 Civic Republicanism A political philosophy that emphasizes the obligation of citizens to act virtuously in pursuit of the common good Classic Liberalism A belief in freedom individual equality and small government that characterized many if not most of the nation s founders It grew form social political and religious changes of the Enlightenment period Communitarianism A modern revival of the civic republican tradition that characterized some of the nation s founders It de nes freedom not as individual right and liberties but as the right of a community s members to seek the good life using political institutions Conservatism A work that differs in meaning depending on the time and place but modern America it generally refers to those who prefer to limit government activity in economic affairs use government to promote morality allow states wide latitude in shaping social policies and use foreign policy aggressively to promote national security interests Ideology system of beliefs in which one or more organizing principles connect the individuals views on a wide range of issues Liberalism a philosophy that elevates and empowers the individual as opposed to religious hereditary governmental or other forms of authority Libertarianism a modern revival of classical liberal tradition that characterized many if not most of the nation s founders It favors small government in all areas of public policy not just in some publicpolicy areas Political culture collection of belief and values about government Individualism the pursuit of individual rather than common or collective interests responsibility up on the individual and individual is in charge Government does not provide rather we gain by hard work Equality of opportunity vs equality of condition 0 Equality of opportunity we have equal chance to advance 0 Equality of condition all individuals have aright to a more or less equal part of the material goods that society produces Immigration Chapter 5 Constituents the voters that an elected official represents before the government who as a group are often called representative s constituency May refer to everyone who constitutes an elected official s jurisdiction rather than only those who actually voted Public opinion the aggregation of people s views about issues situations and public figures Those opinions held by private persons which government find it prudent to heed Ideologies system of beliefs in which one or more organizing principles connect the individual s view on a wide range of issues Socializing agent socialization a person or institution that teaches social values and political attitudes Information cost and cognitive misers the time and mental effort required to absorb and store information whether from conversations personal experiences or the media Issue publics group of people particularly affected by or concerned with a specific issue Mass public ordinary people for whom politics in a peripheral concern Political elite activists and officeholders who are deeply interested in a knowledgeable about politics Political efficacy the belief that one can make a difference in politics 1 The Framers and The Presidency Iquot PS 11 The framers designed the presidence to 111Allow for quick and concerted action during times of national crisis 112Have power recede when crisis over 12 Rejected a plural executive 13 Two Constituencies 14 Two Presidencies The 19 h Century Presidency 21 Presidents assumed a lesser role 211Limited to their responses to wars rebellions or other national crises 212A clerk and a commander 213Era of cabnit government 214 Party more important than candidate 2141 Presidential elections focus of party efforts 215Congress dominated The Modern Presidency Power and Politics The Presidency and The Constitution 41 President s dutiesauthority found in Article 2 411Commander in Chief 4111 President is the commander in chief of the nation s armed forces 4112 Only congress can declare war 4113 Presidents have llfirst mover advantage 4114 War Power s Act of 1973 412Chief Diplomat 413Head of State 4131 Broad authority to transact diplomatic affairs 4132 Senate ratification 41321 Wilson s league of nations 4133 Executive agreements 41331 Cannot supersede US law 41332 Remains in force so long as both sides find it useful 414Chief Executive 4141 llTake Carequot clause 4142 Congress created an executive branch and made president the head 4143 Executive Privilege 4144 Executive Orders 41441 Orders that the president can issue to make or change policy 4145 Signing statements 415Chief Legislator 4151 The constitution gives presidents only a modest role in the legislative arena 41511 May call congress into a special session 41512 Veto Laws artice 1


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