Survey of Western Art
Survey of Western Art ARTH 201
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rylee Schuppe on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 201 at George Mason University taught by Nicole Armendi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/215060/arth-201-george-mason-university in Art History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
106201185800 PM The ltaloByzantine Tradition Giotto and Trecento Painting ltaloByzantine also called maniea greca 1413 century 0 Beginning dates vary just be aware that this is the dominant style of 130 Italian painting 0 Berlinghiero o Cimabue transitional o Giotto Trained under Cimabue Goes into full force Excited for realistic rendering Trecento you may also refer to this period style as Proto Renaissance or 14C ltalian c 1280 c 1390s Slides Berlinghiero Madonna and Child no date artist active by 1228 d 1236 Tempera and gold on wood panel 30quot X 195 o ltalo Byzantine 9 0 Strong linear o The one who points the way Cimabue Virgin amp Child Enthroned c1280 Tempera and gold wood panel High altar Church of Santa Trinita Florence 12 17 x 7 4 gt Transitional ltaloByzantine into Trecento Painting Late 13C Early 14C 9 o Placed on an alter so we would be at the same place as the saints at the bottom Giotto Virgin and Child Enthroned 1310 Tempera and gold Iwood panel Probably for high altar Church of Ognissanti Florence 10 8quot X 6 8 1 gt Trecento 9 o 1305 1306 Arena Chapel 0 Giotto trained in italobyzantine with hints of naturalism transitional Giotto Scrovegni Arena Chapel 13056 Fresco cycle Padua Italy gt Trecento o Concidered his masterpiece o Padua Italy site of a distinguished univeristy o Humanist community interested in politics and classical theatre literature 0 Scrovegni commintioned the church to attone his father s sins o All paintings inside focus on redemption Sin and salvation o Typology between the different stories 0 Designed so it can reach everyone 0 True Fresco Giotto Lamentation 13056 Fresco ScrovegniArena Chapel Padua Italy gt Trecento 0 new audience was more educated and more worldy Initiation Rites of the Cult of Bacchus 7 Detail of wall painting in the Villa of the Mysteries 50 BC Fresco Pompeii Italy gt Ancient Roman Annunciation to the Shepherds Folio in Lectionary ofHenryl 10021014 Tempera on vellum gt Medieval Pietro Lorenzetti The Birth ofthe Virgin 1342 Tempera on wood panel 6 1 X 5 11 gt Trecento Terms 0 Altarpiece A painted or carved panel and or wing structure Some have an elaborate frame and others are plain Religious figures are painted on Nice backdrop for ceremonies o Diptych o Triptych o Winged triptych altarpiece Naturalism 0 Trying to ground things so we can all relate o Classicism founding of western civilization 0 1 Creating 3 dimentional gures 0 2 lllusionistic space space that looks real 0 3 Human expression humanistic ProtoRenaissance Hodegetria o Tempera paint that is a mix of pigment with egg yolk Easy accessible and cheap Brilliant and saturated hues Preferred medium up until the 14th century 0 Homunculus an image ofa gure with the size ofan infant but the perportions ofa man 0 True fresco o Pigment on wet plaster 0 Italy is rather humid 0 Have to prepare well in advance Creates an actual chemical bond lasts longer than dry fresco Like staining the actual wall itself Disadvantage must work really quick Less detail 0 O Cannot make mistake or else you have to replasterthe entire wall Originated from classical past They are ltalian so it allowed them to use their ltalian tradition O o Humanism o flourishes 1300s through 1600s 0 A world view Code of civil conduct Theories of education Understanding your role in the world Value the human being as an individual individualism o Typology a theory oftypes o ldea that things that happened in the old testament foretold things that happen in the new testament ltaloByzantine o Vasari Giorgio 16th century architect o Started to formulate and stylize art 0 Started to shape how we understand art as a concept what it is and what it does Losely termed the first art historian Writes about artists as individuals that have particular talents Made Giotto father of the western painting 0 Maniera greca Greek manor term ltalians gave to ltalobyzantine 15th Century Northern Renaissance 1062011 85800 PM Giotto and the ProtoRenaissance Don t see full emergence of ProtoRenaissance because 0 Plague hit Europe so we lost a lot ofartists patrons and such 0 Europe had to rebuild before continuing 15C Early Renaissance in Northern Europe Rise of cities centers of trade o Cities in northern Italy are involved with the trade route o Power money o Political and social status o Helped with humanism o Middle class become new patrons 15th Century Flemish Painting Early Renaissance Flanders c 14001499 15C o Naturalistic rendering o Contemporaryworld Slides van Eyck Jan Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife 1434 Oil on wood panel 33 x 2212 quot o Cannot be a wedding portrait or cannot be these people o This is a portrait and portraiture disappeared with the rise of classicism 0 Regular individual not royal or religious figure Importance of the individual that is self made and not born into wealth o In the mirror you can see that there are witnesses to the event 0 More evidence that this is a legal document 0 Person in red is most likely van Eyck One of the first self portrait in the Renaissance Showing the artist is beyond the realm of normal humans importance of the artist Very centered in the art giving the artist more importance o Jan van Eyck was here with the date 0 Further reason to think he was there as a witness instead of the painter o Wrote in Latin 0 Almost copied from the Duke s style of signature o Symbolism its okay to live a good life so long as you are holy 0 Single burning candle the presence of Christ Saint carved into the bed post safety for mothers in birth Oranges fertility garden of Eden oranges were a delicacy Dog symbol of wealth and fidelity Shoes when shoes are taken off this is symbol of a sacred place or holy ground 0 Dresspreggers textiles is their major tradeshe s not preggy The man is also wearing fur Woman has fur trim and lots of fabric 0 O O 0 van Eyck Jan Man in a Red Turban 1433 Oil on wood panel 13 18 x 10 14 Als ich can As I can o Self portrait o Written in Greek lettering 0 As best as I am able Humanist awareness ofI can but I am limited 0 Appear as if they are engraved into the frame giving us illusionistic impression 0 Very detailed 0 Descriptive naturalism o First time in hundreds of years that the figure in the work looks straight at the viewer o First to become recognized for oil painting History of van Eyke s red turban c Find this out for the midterm extra credit Master of Fl malle Workshop M rode Altarpiece Open Triptych of the Annunciation c14253OS Oil on wood panel 25 14quot x 24 78 center panel 25 38 x 10 34 each wing For every 1 altarpiece made by upper class 2 were made by middle class Biblical figures actually inhabiting the real world Angels would fall off 0 They re bigger than this world The Annunciation Symbols 0 Liies symbol of virginity and 3 of them 0 Sitting on the footstool suggests humility Table is a reference to the last supper Recreated at the ultar focus on the Eucharist or reference to the mass Single candle presents of holy Christ White towel purity and virginity Water vessel purity and virginity Vessels symbolize a woman s womb The little man penetrates the glass without braking it Supernatural The emasculate conception Joseph Mouse traps Joseph married Mary to throw off Satan the bait in the trap Winemaking board mass again o Left Panel 0 Patrons Pius kneeling in prayer These people are special because they are baring whiteness to this vision Just as big as the angels being in a separate world SelfpromotionWoman is a something makerand man is an angelbringer O O O O htt 39 silverandexactfilesword resscom 2011 01 ortinarialtar iece hugovandergoes1475 pg van der Goes Hugo PortinariAtarpiece Open c14746 Tempera and oil on wood panel 8 3 x 19ft Head painter of his city The incarnation Jesus birth Commissioned for his family chapel back in Florence o Flemish work traveling to Italy Cultural exchange Self promotion Rebuilding community ties Stressing the international banker Tommaso Portinari was a banker of the Medichi in Flanders top corporate dude Italians get turned onto this sense of expressionism 0 Little kids are represented like kids Acting like kids a Look bored and in fear that if they move they will get scolded o Sheppard appear like they would Joseph being in the picture further shows the trap set by God symbols 0 Joseph s one shoe is off He is holy but human 15 angels 15 joys of Mary Glass vesselMary s womb Trinity Purple royalty Coat of arms with harp King David ancestor of Mary Wheat Bethlehem house of bread Communion O O O O O O van der Weyden Rogier Deposition central panel of an altarpiece for the Crossbowmen s Guild c 14358 Oil on wood panel 7 2 x 8 7 The Guild 0 Crossbows can be seen in the details of the corners o Almost a shadow box 0 We focus on the figures but they seem sculptural 0 Almost like a freezeframe from a performance o Emotion look almost hyper realistic for this time period 0 Contrast of textures o Mary paralleled to Jesus suggests she is on a different level than the rest of the people in the frame o What does it say on top of the Van der Weyden cross Terms Atmospheric perspective o Descriptive Naturalism o Visually translating everything you see into the painting 0 Sense of meticulous detailing through observation o Guild Business associations of craft people 0 Similar to unions today 0 Almost a license or certification 0 Became fraternal Iconography Intuitive perspective Methodology feminist iconographic o Oil paint glazes o Dries slowly o Expencive You can make mistakes and go back and such Good for precise detailing and modeling You can mix and blend colors 3d forms are achievable 0 Most flexible of all painting medium Can make it pasty or thin Glaze creates different layers of almost translucent colors that can be overlapped a Light moves through this creating a glowing effect a Really rich colors playing with light 1062011 85800 PM 15C Early Renaissance in Italy Early Renaissance Italy OR Quattrocento c 14001499 15C Quattrocento 15th century Italy Early Renaissance Ghiberti o Donatello o Sculture in the Quattrocento 0 Civic Pride Public commissions n Speak to community and encourage civic duty 0 Classicism Saint John the Baptist isof Florence Slides Baptistery of St John Battistero di San Giovanni Florence Cathedral complex Santa Maria del Fiore I Duomo Florence Italy 1112C apse added 13C o Where EVERYONE in Florence are baptized o Wool Merchants Guild was in charge of maintaining the Baptistery o Wool Workers Guild were in charge of the Cathedral Cathedral complex Santa Maria del Fiore I Duomo 1314C Battistero di San Giovanni and the campanie 14C Florence Italy Lorenzo Ghiberti Sacrifice of Isaac c 14013 bronze Filippo Brunelleschi Sacrifice of Isaac c 14012 bronze o Both show same moment o Lorenzo s is more Classical o Theme of Sacrifice o Bolstering civic duty Orsanmichele also written Or San Michele Florence Italy 14C as is today o Cofraternity building 0 Charitable society o Nitches take a long time to be filled 0 Then the city made the guilds to create statues They can be part of the civic program and to advertise their own guilds Demonstrate the strength of Florence Donatello St Mark 14113 Orsanmichele Florence Italy Marble 7 9 Original in museum on second floor of Orsanmichele Prophets and Ancestors of Christ Royal portal west facade Chartres cathedral C 114555 Polykleitos Doryphoros Spearbearer Roman copy after original bronze c 450440 BCE Donatello St George 14157 Marble Orsanmichele Florence Italy Original located in the Bargello collection Donatello David c 144660 Bronze 5 2 First recorded in Medici courtyard in 1469 Donatello Equestrian Monument of Gattameata Erasmo da Narni c 144353 Bronze 12 2 Piazza del Santo Padua Italy Equestrian Statue ofMarcus Aurelius C 176 AD Bronze originally gilded Rome 11 6 Terms Classicism Contrapposto Condottieri Orsanmichele Plutocracy
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