Week 10 Notes
Week 10 Notes PSY 3100 002
Popular in Topics: Brain, Behavior and Cognition: Psychology of Creativity
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Hughes on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3100 002 at Temple University taught by Dr. Weisberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Topics: Brain, Behavior and Cognition: Psychology of Creativity in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
Genius and Madness: Schizophrenia and Creativity Freudian theory: schizophrenic thought based on primary process + creative thinking depends on primary process = link between schizophrenia and creativity The Schizophrenia Spectrum Less severe levels of mental disorder full-blown psychosis o Characterized by cutting off of individual from reality (withdrawn from world) o Flat affect: lack of emotional responsiveness or inappropriate emotional responsiveness to external events o Hallucinations and delusions o Disorder based on problems in thinking 2 Kinds of thought disorder o Content Ideas that are false, delusional, deviant and bizarre Some people with BP can also experience delusions o Form How thoughts flow (occur in sequence, linked to one another, communicated linguistically) Illogical patterns in thinking and loose associations o Occurs in BD too; believe there is different type of thought disorder o In Schizophrenia, thinking is unique to each individual Schizophrenia and Creativity Full blown schizophrenia incompatible/contrasts creative thinking Kinney and Colleagues o Research: used Lifetime Creativity Scales to examine creative accomplishment in set of non-schizophrenic individuals with one schizophrenic parent who was raised by non-schizophrenic individuals o Findings: individuals with schizophrenic parent displayed higher creative accomplishment (in hobbies); more schizophrenic traits = higher creative accomplishment Displayed magical thinking, odd thinking and recurring illusions In control group, individuals who showed mild schizophrenic traits more creative (in professional life) than those who showed none o Conclusion: Personality characteristics of adoptees i.e. Social anxiety, interfered with professional careers in areas requiring creative thinking Concerned about receiving negative evaluation from others (don’t have to worry about this with hobbies) Sass Proposes Postmodernist Philosophy of aesthetics: certain characteristics of postmodern and post-postmodern movements in the arts that might increase likelihood of individuals displaying schizo symptoms to participate in them o Movements have “coolness;” ionic posture, artist maintains attitude of removed from world to comment on it as an outsider i.e. Andy Warhol o Conclusion: Personality characteristics play role in determining whether individual comfortable in such a career Jamison’s analysis of bipolar artists of Romantic movement; people with characteristics of bipolar spectrum may have been attracted to that era Evidence that individuals with schizo characteristics are NOT incapable of intellectual achievement Ludwig o Research: studied biographies in broad range of creative fields to determine if had some form of mental disorder o Conclusion: The more profession relies on emotion, subjectivity, and personal expression the great chance that individuals in field will display psychopathology (psychopathology draws them to professions) If one differentiates fields into “logical, objective, and formal” vs. “intuitive, subjective, and emotion,” there is clear differences in frequencies of psychopathology Scientists less likely to suffer psychopathology than artists o “harder (more objective)” vs. “softer” sciences (social sciences) o Harder sciences less likely to suffer psychopathology Painting o More emotional styles vs. more formal styles Social Factors and Genius and Madness (Regression view) Kris (regression in service of ego) and Eyesneck (requires weakening of “higher” centers to regress to primitive functioning) view Notion of higher-order control (regression in the service of art) is what separates creative artist from individual who simple regresses Jamison’s view: bipolar mood swings attached to seasons = individual is closer to the fundamental pulse of life; explains Romantic view linking inspiration to the creative imagination Sass suggests this view isn’t universal (questions causal links) Psychopathology and Creativity: Cultural Relativism Sass proposes Western concept of creative process much more rational before and after Romantic Movement o Modernist and Postmodernist views looked negatively on Romanticism (emotional irrationality at core of creativity) o Believe that some people need high degrees of emotionality to create; however, that doesn’t mean that people who lack such emotionality cannot create Schuldberg and Sass discuss Kuhn’s view o Progress in science comes about in 2 ways Normal Science: mainstream of investigation in discipline carried out within a paradigm Scientists work within paradigm carrying out puzzle- solving activities Revolution in science: basic assumptions of paradigm brought into question and new paradigm brought forth to replace it Cognitive perceptive displaced behaviorism o Schuldberg notes individuals with schizo characteristics (antisocial aspects & occasional eccentricities) play large role in revolutionary creative developments o Sass discusses individuals who suffer from BP disorders tend toward conformity and are concerned about social norms o BOTH raise possibility that psychopathological tendencies and creativity related only in indirect ways (personality influences behavior) Sociocultural Influences on Postulated Links between Creativity and Psychopathology Becker o Research: Examined historical development of relationship between psychopathology and creativity in Western society o Conclusion: Proposed link between psychopathology and creativity during specific epoch depends on specific sociocultural factors acting at the time Greeks assumed individuals “out of their minds” – didn’t mean psychopathology Italian Renaissance, term Genio: outstanding creative ability – work imitative, creative genius didn’t break away from the past The Enlightenment, term Genius: one who possessed innate creative or imaginative power, as manifested in works of great novelty – in order to be effective, had to be subject to rational control (uncontrolled imagination led to production of tasteless novelty) Wittkower notes that 17 century masters of art (Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt, Velasqquez) not described as mad Romantic movement brought another change in conception of genius Change related to status of creative thinkers at the time o At time after Napoleon’s defeat, creative individuals not respected/free Admiration of those capable of unbridled expression of imagination and emotion o Belief that sense of insanity might be component of individual (poet Schiller supports that reason may hinder creativity) Many romantic thinkers expressed fear of insanity (i.e. Coleridge and Byron) o Becker raised Issue of self-reports Self-serving: if viewed as insane – considered a genius Romantic poet’s description of psychological state from long ago = terms may have different uses today Being that madness = creative genius; artists may have welcomed behaviors that may be linked to insanity Artists may be more willing to report insanity than “normal” individuals Jamison believed they were valid o Presents view of Jaspers Conclusion: in order to call someone a genius, must be at least a bit eccentric or abnormal Romantic notion of genius changed the way the term was and now is applied to people Correspondence between Romantic view and reality A Reconsideration of Some Basic Data Determining frequency of psychopathology is complicated (Subjective) o Individual in creative occupation may be misreporting symptoms of madness Over interpreting a passing thought or fleeting action as indicating more than it does Over reporting frequency or severity of symptom More likely to seek treatment because of concern about psychopathology May lie about frequency of symptoms to enhance stature as a possible genius o Observers may be more likely to see psychopathology because we are aware of connections between genius and madness o Observers more likely to examine artists’ lives more closely than ordinary people = more likely to find psychopathology o Individual deciding to become an artist might make it more likely that they will find psychopathology in themselves or that the audience will find it Chapter 8: Out of One’s Mind, Part 2 Unconscious Processing, Incubation, and Illumination It is assumed that ordinary conscious thinking cannot produce novel ideas (same underlying theory as genius & madness) Based on phenomena of illumination and incubation o Illumination: sudden appearance in consciousness of creative idea or solution – Aha! Experience o Unconscious Incubation: thinking about problem unconsciously while consciously thinking about something else Unconscious Associations and Unconscious Processing 2 components of idea that unconscious plays role in creative thinking o Associative Unconscious Stems from Freud Ideas linked for reasons we are not aware of The unconscious can link ideas that never would be brought together in unconscious thinking o Unconscious Processing We can be working on more than one project at one – use parallel processing Can carry out activity of which we are conscious while, on an unconscious level, processing may be occurring on a different task o Difference between the two Processes: unconscious vs. conscious Material: associative connections 2 Dimensions of the unconscious o Processing mode: one stream (no unconscious processing) Conscious One train of thought: links are consciously worked out and understood Unconscious One train of thought: some links are not understood; thinker can’t explain how they came about o Processing mode: Multiple streams (unconscious processing) Conscious Multiple trains of thought: sudden solution is surprising because person doesn’t know that they were thinking about something outside of consciousness Can understand where it came from, after the fact Unconscious (2 component view, 2 sources of surprise) Multiple trains of thought: sudden solution is surprising because person didn’t know they were thinking about something outside of consciousness Some links not understood; don’t understand where they came from Poincare’s Theory of Unconscious Creative Processes Modern psychological study of creative thinking began with Poincare Poincare’s Self-Reports Goal of Research: attempt to prove mathematical function could not exist (attempt to find contradiction that proves it must exist) Research: o 15 days no success – worked 2 hours in morning, 2 in evening o One night, drank black coffee, could not sleep extraordinary experience Fuchsian functions rose in crowds, collide until pairs interlocked, making stable combination Conclusion: o Felt he was an observer of the work of his own unconscious, not active participant in thought process o Unconscious works by attempting to build combinations of ideas Poincare’s Theory of Unconscious Processes in Creative Thinking Similar processes at work in all creative thinking Definition of creativity in mathematics o Discovering valuable combinations of ideas o Most fruitful are those that form remote analogies between facts (never before considered to be related) Mechanisms of Combination of Ideas o 2 ways in which valuable combinations produced Thinker may only produce potentially valuable ideas Thinker produce large numbers of combinations and then chose to further contemplate the valuable ones o Poincare asserts unconscious processing produces many ideas, but only useful ones become conscious Problem: there would be too many ideas; logically, must be limitations o Poincare believed previous conscious work restricts combinatorial process to ideas that have some potential, even remote ones (all combos produced in unconscious are possible in conscious thinking) Consciously trying to solve problem, consciously looking at certain factors Those certain factors used for high speed unconscious combination with inactive ideas numerous possibilities of potential combinations Criteria for a Combination’s Becoming Conscious o Aesthetic sense determines which ideas reach consciousness Must become subject to thinker’s sensibility An idea becomes conscious when it strikes the unconscious of the thinker as being “beautiful” or “harmonious” Why we’re not aware of insignificant ideas o Afterwards, attended geological conference near Caen – during conversation, realized that recent discovery identical to the transformations of non-Euclidean geometry Conclusion: Sudden illumination must have been result of him thinking about concepts whole time on unconscious level Feeling of certainty o After returning home, took vacation, had epiphany on the beach while thinking of something else Made connection between transformations of indeterminate ternary quadratic forms and non-Euclidean geometry o Overall Conclusion: sudden illumination: manifest sign of long, unconscious prior work Wallas’s Stages of the Creative Process Formalized Poincare’s ideas into 4 stages of the creative process o Preparations: initial conscious work on the problem; thinker immerses self deeply in problem Unsuccessful Impasse gives up o Incubation: unconscious thinking of solution Leads to illumination o Illumination: Aha! Experience Requires verification o Verification: Requires conscious thought Conclusion: if one hopes to be successful, sometimes need to completely stop thinking about problem and give unconscious processes time to work Hadamard’s Studies of Unconscious Thinking in Incubation Presented detailed description of phenomenon of inspiration and the role of unconscious processes in creative thinking Research: o Questionnaire of scientists, mathematicians, and artists about inspiration and unconscious processes Findings: o Recognizing the face of a friend Not aware of complexities of the process o Production of connected speech Conclusion: o there is a gap between unified conscious awareness and complex unconscious processes that must be occurring Consciousness: unified and singular; serial processor Unconscious: Manifold; processes information in parallel o “to-be-spoken” sentences are waiting in an unconscious that is close to surface and at the disposal of conscious processes Koestler’s Bisociation Theory Combined Poincare’s analysis + Freudian Theory Conclusion o Creative advances often involve bringing together 2 independent streams of associations into one idea – Bisociation In Association - only one stream of linked ideas o Examples: Guttenberg’s invention of the printing press Got idea from remote association from grape press at wine festival Root Latin word “to think” is to shake together = ideas collide and become hooked together in the unconscious Difference from Poincare o Believed connections used by unconscious are different from those used by conscious Conscious thought processes - Operate through verbally based logic as well as associative connections based on experience and habit Creative thinking – demands connections among ideas that go against logic and habit Primary-process thinking o Optical puns Kekule’s string of molecules as a snake = symbolization Einstein Reported thoughts never based on words Concretization: important insight came about as result of imagining what would happen if he were moving at the speed of light in pursuit of a light beam Campbell’s Evolutionary Theory of Creativity: Blind Variation and Selective Retention Strongest and most direct influence of Poincare’s theorizing on modern psychology Developed theory of creativity based on notion that creative ideas come about through process of evolution analogous to natural-selective process o 3 conditions necessary for creative thinking, in the form of solution of a novel problem Ideational variation - Must be means of generating new ideas, analogous to occurrence of mutations in organic evolution Selection Process – once new ideas produced, variations subject to consistent selection process that retains only those that are successful, analogous to natural selection Variations must be preserved and reproduced o Conclusion: in order for there to be effective variation of ideas, must be fully blind When faced with problem: Produce behavioral responses that are independent of specific problem and each other o Not directed towards solving problem o Later attempts not “corrections” of earlier ones o No predictability Any foresight & intelligence is due to experience o Must have been a point before experience = totally random variations produced Poincare’s sleepless night is evidence of random way in which ideas are combined in creative thinking Simonton’s Chance Configuration Theory Elaborated Campbell’s view, proposed creative process operates on Mental elements o Fundamental psychological units that can be manipulated; comparable to Poincare’s “hooked atoms” o Proposes those elements must be free to enter into combinations through process of chance permutation in unconscious o Then, some selection prcess because not all combos should be retained Permmutations differ in stability Greater stability = greater chance of being selected/command in consciousness o Analogous to Poincare’s notion of unconscious aesthetic sensitivity Proposes attraction between pairs of elements – Intrinsic affinity Configurations structured so that elements can line up one-to-one o i.e. Poincare’s math transformations o Can happen in poetry with metaphor Individual Differences in Cognition: Mednick’s Associative Hierarchies Individuals can vary along 2 dimensions that are relevant to ability to produce novel ideas: o Differ in total # mental elements they possess Genius – more than normal individual Greater chance of producing valuable combination Must be organized in manner optimal for creative production Depends on associative organization among elements in person’s database o Based on theory of Mednick Individuals may differ in factors that lead to creative ideas Associative Hierarchy o Less creative individuals have restricted hierarchies 1 or 2 stereotypical/familiar responses block production of less- frequent responses Shallow o Creative individuals’ associative hierarchies produce large # of responses greater likelihood of novelty Steep Simonton proposes new ideas produced by nonorderly “free-associative procedure” which he equates with Freudian primary- process thinking Unpredictable, uncontrollable, freewheeling Some Illustrations: Introspections Examples of free-associative thought theory o Einstein Combinatory play Simonton proposes continuum of problem solving o Routine problem solving problems i.e. those involved in scientific research Working out problem of long division no well-known procedures (free associative process is crucial) o Proposes that unusual combinations of ideas occur o Difference Doesn’t believe unconscious processing is very sophisticated Primitive cognition, conscious mind would deem preposterous o Several Circumstances when unconscious free-associative process can become accessible to conscious Involves vivid imagery i.e. Kekule’s ring If consciousness not occupied with other task that requires much conscious effort i.e. Poincare’s sleepless night or walking on beach When doing other activity, unconscious operates outside of awareness o Theory linked to Campbell, Koestler, and Freud