Notes for 9/23
Notes for 9/23 1005-11
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Charlene Scavone on Monday September 29, 2014. The Reader belongs to 1005-11 at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/29/14
92314 Digestion Part 3 What Are Probiotics probiotics are microbes in the gut which are really important to healthy digestion good bacteria hoWeVer popular probiotic products such as Activia yogurt only contain one type of bacteria the healthiest thing is to consume multiple probiotics as digestive balance is needed they reside in the Large Intestine mechanical in function We rely on the probiotics to produce Vitamins here remaining 10 of nutrients are absorbed here Water is absorbed as Well residual matter enters the colon Where it is prepared to be eliminated as Waste Table of Vital Nutritional Components Macromolecule Monomer Function Nutritional Content carbohydrates sugars short term energy 4 calories per gram nucleic nucleotides ATP9energy negligible acids RNA storage of hereditary information DNA proteins amino acids transport defense 4 calories per gram structure movement lipids fatty acids glycerol storage of energy 9 phospholipids fatty acids calories sterols membranes per phospholipids gram hormones transport plasma membranes sterols Absorption of Carbohvdrates into the BloodstreamWhat Happens humans store glucose as glycogen in the muscles and liver carb loading allows an individual to maximize their glycogen When your blood glucose becomes elevated insulin is produced to take glucose away from the bloodstream to the liver and muscles to produce glycogen When your blood glucose is low glucagon is produced to signal the liver and muscles to break down glycogen releasing glucose into the bloodstream Diabetes diabetes is a disorder regarding the inability to control your blood sugar type 1 no insulin production because of the death of insulin producing cells caused by autoimmune disease type 2 insulin resistance cells don t respond correctly either because of malfunctioning receptors or lowineffective insulin levels Heart Attacks heart attacks are caused when arterial plaque caused by the buildup of cholesterol in the bloodstream ruptures causing an immune response that forms a clot in the coronary artery this clot prevents the ow of blood to the heart causing the cells to necrotize leading to damage or death heart attacks can be prevented via daily exercise healthy diet not smoking prevents 4 out of 5 heart attacks Food Initiated Health Problems sensitivity a food consistently causes an unpleasant reaction intolerance inability to digest a compound within food because no enzymes are being produced to break down the substance example lactose intolerance the enzyme lactase is not being produced allergy an allergy is an immune reaction on first contact with the allergen the body produces the antibody ImmunoglobinE IGE if the allergen is encountered again the IGE will signal the production of histamine to ush out the allergen in the Worst cases the result is anaphylaxisz drop in blood pressure and difficulty breathing due to low epinephrine can lead to death Celiac Disease An Autoimmune Sensitivitv causes in ammation diarrhea and malnutrition the inability to digest gluten leads to the destruction of villi in the small intestine gluten is a protein complex found in wheat rye barley and related grains subsequently found in a Wide variety of food products unlike other sensitivities celiac disease is an autoimmune reaction it is not an allergy because a different antibody is produced than IGE Other Compounds with Common Food Related Symptoms most common food allergies milk eggs tree nuts fish shellfish soy and Wheat an allergy to aVocadoes can signal an allergy to bananas kiwi chestnuts passion fruit and latex soy allergies can present as food poisoning though many people claim to be allergic to MSG it is just a sensitivity How Do You Know When to Eat leptin signals that your body has enough food produced by your adipose cells signals you to stop eating and to begin to burn stored energy ghrelin signals that your body needs food produced by the cells of the stomach
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