Computer Ethics and Society
Computer Ethics and Society CS 105
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Date Created: 09/28/15
GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY Department of Computer Science CS 105 Computer Ethics amp Society Fall 2011 Sections 005006 Michael W Tompkins Final Examination Review Questions Notes I You will need a bluebook or greenbook available from the Bookstore near the entrance 7 the 8 X 11 size please 7 and a pen or pencil I Please avoid the lightcolored and faint pencils If your writing is faint please bring a pen I do not penalize scratchouts erasures etc I This is a closedbook closednotes in class exam You will have the entire class period to finish I You are responsible for all readings whether or not their contents were discussed in class 1 What differences if any are there between regular ethics and cyberethics Between regular laws and cyberlaws 2 What is the difference between law and ethics Laws are usually agreed upon ethics or ethics that have been adopted by a governing body While ethics are moral codes in general Ethics is a moral code of right and wrong that is generally acceptable by your community Law is the codification of ethics as part of the government39s responsibility to protect its citizens This does not mean that a particular law or the way it is enforced can39t be unethical at least to some people The law permitting abortion is an excellent example The fact that government such as that of Moore County Texas can coerceextort a payment of close to a thousand dollars from a defendant who had one pill of a quot dangerous drug with the threat of 180 days in jail and a fine if the fine wasn39t paid right away is legal but hardly mora 3 Define eudaemonism hedonism utilitarianism or consequentialism both act and rule deontology or Kantianism virtue ethics feminist ethics and ethical relativism Explain how each differs from the others State an ethics dilemma and explain how an ethicist of each type would resolve the dilemma What results would they achieve Would they all arrive at the same result Why or why not eudaemonism eudaemonism also spelled eudaimonism or eudemonism in ethics a selfrealization theory that makes happiness or personal wellbeing the chief good for man hedonism Hedonism is a school of thought which argues that pleasure is the only intrinsic good1 Tnvery simple terms a hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure pleasure minus pain Act utilitarianism Act Utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics which states that the right action is the one which produces the greatest amount of happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of beings Act utilitarianism is opposed to rule utilitarianism which states that the morally right action is the one that is in accordance with a moral rule whose general observance would create the most happiness Act utilitarianism will use the summary concept as opposed to the practice concept The summary concept means that the rule is a generalization that a class of actions such as the keeping of promises is goo Rule utilitarianism Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that says actions are moral when they conform to the rules that lead to the greatest good or that quotthe rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance l For rule utilitarians the correctness of a rule is determined by the amount of good it brings about when followed In contrast act utilitarians judge actions in terms of the goodness of their consequences without reference to rules of action Another variation of rule utilitarianism stresses the greater utility of following a given rule in general arguing that the practice of following some rule in all instances always stopping at red lights for example will have better consequences overall than allowing exceptions to be made in individual instances even if better consequences can be demonstrated in those instances Rule utilitarianism can also be seen as practice rule which states thatieven though in some or most cases the rule wouldn39t cause the greatest goodinever following it would not cause the greatest good for the greatest number of people For example the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution states quotNo person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himselfH Even though that rule protects many criminals from conviction in its absence people could be tortured or threatened into confessing crimes they didn39t commit So if there were no fifth amendment it would not cause the greatest good for the greatest number of people Deontology Deontological ethics or deontology from Greek deon quotobligation duty and logia is an approach to ethics that judges the morality of an action based on the actions adherence to a rule or rules Deontologists look at rulesl and duties It is sometimes described as quotdutyquot or quotobligationquot or quotrulequot based ethics because rules quotbind you to your dutyquot2 The term quotdeontologicalquot was first used in this way in 1930 in C D Broad s book Five Types of Ethical Theory3 Deontological ethics is commonly contrasted with consequentialist ethical theories according to which the rightness of an action is determined by its consequences4 However there is a difference between deontological ethics and moral absolutism5 virtue ethics Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior rather than rules deontology consequentialism which derives rightness or wrongness from the outcome of the act itself rather than character or social context pragmatic ethics A virtue ethicist however would focus less on lying in any particular instance and instead consider what a decision to tell a lie or not tell a lie said about one39s character and moral behavior As such lying would be made in a casebycase basis that would be based on factors such as personal benefit group benefit and intentions as to whether they are benevolent or malevolent feminist ethics Feminist ethics is an approach to ethics that builds on the belief that traditionally ethical theorising has undervalued andor underappreciated women39s moral experience and it therefore chooses to reimagine ethics through a holistic feminist approach to transform it ethical relativism Ethical relativism is the theory that holds that morality is relative to the norms of one39s culture That is whether an action is right or wrong depends on the moral norms of the society in which it is practiced The same action may be morally right in one society but be morally wrong in another For the ethical relativist there are no universal moral standards standards that can be universally applied to all peoples at all times The only moral standards against which a society39s practices can be judged are its own If ethical relativism is correct there can be no common framework for resolving moral disputes or for reaching agreement on ethical matters among members of different societies 4 Explain the problems incurred by a society that attempts to practice ethical relativism Also it is argued it may be the case that some moral beliefs are culturally relative whereas others are not Certain practices such as customs regarding dress and decency may depend on local custom whereas other practices such as slavery torture or political repression may be governed by universal moral standards and judged wrong despite the many other differences that exist among cultures Simply because some practices are relative does not mean that all practices are relative Other philosophers criticize ethical relativism because of its implications for individual moral beliefs These philosophers assert that if the rightness or wrongness of an action depends on a society39s norms then it follows that one must obey the norms of one39s society and to diverge from those norms is to act immorally This means that if I am a member of a society that believes that racial or sexist practices are morally permissible thenl must accept those practices as morally right But such a view promotes social conformity and leaves no room for moral reform or improvement in a society Furthermore members of the same society may hold different views on practices In the United States for example a variety of moral opinions exists on matters ranging from animal experimentation to abortion What constitutes right action when social consensus is lacking Perhaps the strongest argument against ethical relativism comes from those who assert that universal moral standards can exist even if some moral practices and beliefs vary among cultures In other words we can acknowledge cultural differences in moral practices and beliefs and still hold that some of these practices and beliefs are morally wrong The practice of slavery in preCivil war US society or the practice of apartheid in South Africa is wrong despite the beliefs of those societies The treatment of the Jews in Nazi society is morally reprehensible regardless of the moral beliefs of Nazi society 5 What is the difference between real property personal property and intellectual property real property the combination of land and any improvements to or on the lan personal property physical possessions belonging to a person intellectual property exclusive rights over artistic creations inventions etc 6 Why do we protect intellectual property What does society gain from intellectual property laws existence Fosters creativity 7 Understand the purpose of intellectual property laws including what the types of intellectual property and the kinds of property involved 8 What do and P mean Copyright and performance copyright 9 Defi e and explain the differences between plagiarism and copyright infringement Give examples of A an act that would be plagiarism but not copyright infringement B an act that would be copyright infringement but not plagiarism and C an act that would be both 10 Mark has drawn a picture of Pam What three elements must his drawing satisfy for Mark to have copyright protection for his drawing Assuming his drawing meets the requirements when does the copyright protection begin When does it end What if Pam s company hired Mark to make the drawing who holds the copyright and how long does it last Original Nonfunctional Fixed in a tangible medium The copyright begins as soon as the drawing is done It ends 70 years after Mark s death If Pam s company hired him Pam s company holds the copyright and it lasts 95 years from first publication or 120 years from first fixation 11 Assuming that Mark is the copyright holder with respect to his drawing of Pam what specific rights does he have Make copies Distribute copies Making derivative work Perform the work in public Display the work in public 12 If Mark gives the drawing to Pam what rights does she have Who can make copies Pam has no rights Mark still holds the copyright Only Mark can make copies 13 How can Pam make copies of the drawing if Mark does not give her permission What situations would allow her to do so Give an example and explain how that example meets the requirements of the law Would your answer be different if it were a song instead of a drawing If so how Pam can make copies using fair use policy It depends by Purpose and nature of use Nature of the copyrighted work Amount and significance of the portion used Effect of use on market for the work It can be different for music Royal Tribunal can allow a derivative work to be made Assume that Mark writes a new software program that works in a brandnew even revolutionary way He tells you I want to copyright this program What do you tell him Can he Why or why not Focus both on the technical discussion can you copyright something and on the substantive discussion to achieve his real goal however properly expressed what must occur 15 Pam has invented a coldfusion machine It s about the size of a standalone photocopier When you pour in three gallons of plain tap water the machine produces at zero cost 5000 kilowatt hours of electricity Which form of intellectual property should Pam use to protect her invention What are the requirements of that type of protection Does her machine qualify How long will that protection last and when does it begin What about the algorithm she wrote to control the machine is the algorithm protectable Why or why not Pam should have the machine patented to protect it Requirements are Nov el Useful Nonobvious Yes the machine qualifies It begins from the patent application date if approved and lasts for 20 years 16 18 19 What are the ve exclusive rights of the copyright holder Give examples of each Also give example of common internetrelated violations of copyright law Make copies download songs from internet Distribute copies put on internet for others to download Making derivative work make funny videos with the son Perform the work in public make video of song and put in youtube Display the work in public put copyrighted picture in your blog Explain what effect there will be on a prosecution for violation of the copyright laws if the infringer gave credit for the work to the author What effect will the infringer s failure to charge his or her recipients have Give five examples of categories of things that cannot be protected by intellectual property law There are three circumstances under which you may use a work that was protected by copyright law when it was written What are they and how do they differ By permission of copyright holder For music by royal tribunal Fair use In public domain What are the four factors that determine whether a particular instance of copying constitutes a fair use of a copyrighted work How do they work Give an example and analyze it properly Purpose and nature of use Nature of the copyrighted work Amount and significance of the portion used Effect of use on market for the work What is a profession What is a professional Does software engineering count as a profession Why or why not If it is a profession what does that imply What moral responsibilities do software engineers and computer professional have What are the differences between a code of ethics code of conduct and code of practice What are the purposes of professional society ethical codes such as ACMIEEE Are they useful If so how If not why not Should software engineers be required to have licenses to be able to practice their profession How would this work Be able to describe with specifics the risks of allowing electronic voting machines in public elections Describe steps the computer profession can take to ensure that future tragedies do not occur 7 eg processes for creating new hardware and software testing it implementing it etc that ensure we don t kill anyone else What is privacy Distinguish between accessibility privacy decisional privacy and informational privacy What s the difference between naturally private situations and normatively private situations How does cybertechnology affect privacy Explain the principles or rules of practice a programmer should follow to protect users privacy when designing a database Be able to distinguish between the following crimes as discussed in class you do not have to know the statute numbers they re just there in case the links don t work for you Similarly you do not have to be able to give a legal treatise on each crime just be able to state whether particular conduct fits the crime or not A Computer fraud Va Code Ann 1821523 Any person who uses a computer or computer network without authority and 1 Obtains property or services by false pretenses 2 Embezzles or commits larceny or 3 Converts the property of another is guilty of the crime of computer fraud Ifthe value of the property or services obtained is 200 or more the crime of computer fraud shall be punishable as a Class 5 felony Where the value of the property or services obtained is less than 200 the crime of computer fraud shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor Computer trespass Va Code Ann 1821524 A It shall be unlawful for any person with malicious intent to 1 Temporarily or permanently remove halt or otherwise disable any computer data computer programs or computer so ware from a computer or computer network 2 Cause a computer to malfunction regardless of how long the maI Jnction persists 3 Alter disable or erase any computer data computer programs or computer so ware 4 Effect the creation or alteration of a nancial instrument or of an electronic transfer of funds 5 Use a computer or computer network to cause physical injury to the property of another 6 Use a computer or computer network to make or cause to be made an unauthorized copy in any form including but not limited to any printed or electronic form of computer data computer programs or computer so ware residing in communicated by or produced by a computer or computer network 7 Repealed 8 Install or cause to be installed or collect information through computer software that records all or a majority ofthe keystrokes made on the computer of another without the computer owner39s authorization or 9 Install or cause to be installed on the computer of another computer software for the purpose of i taking control ofthat computer so that it can cause damage to another computer or ii disabling or disrupting the ability ofthe computer to share or transmit instructions or data to other computers or to any related computer equipment or devices including but not limited to printers scanners or fax machines B Any person who violates this section is guilty of computer trespass which shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor Ifthere is damage to the property of another valued at 1000 or more caused by such person39s act in violation of this section the offense shall be a Class 6 felony If a person installs or causes to be installed computer so ware in violation of this section on more than five computers of another the offense shall be a Class 6 felony If a person violates subdivision A 8 the offense shall be a Class 6 felony C Nothing in this section shall be construed to interfere with or prohibit terms or conditions in a contract or license related to computers computer data computer networks computer operations computer programs computer services or com uter software or to create any liability by reason of terms or conditions adopted by or technical measures implemented by a Virginiabased electronic mail service provider to prevent the transmission of unsolicited electronic mail in violation of this article Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the monitoring of computer usage of the otherwise law Jl copying of data of or the denial of computer or Internet access to a minor by a parent or legal guardian ofthe minor C Computer invasion of privacV Va Code Ann 1821525 A A person is guilty of the crime of computer invasion of privacy when he uses a computer or computer network and intentionally e amines without authority an employment salary credit or any other financial or identifying information as defined in clauses iii through xiii of subsection C of 1821863 relating to any other person quotExaminationquot under this section requires the offender to review the information relating to any other person after the time at which the offender knows or should know that he is without authority to view the information displayed B The crime of computer invasion of privacy shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor C Any person who violates this section after having been previously convicted of a violation of this section or any substantially similar laws of any other state or of the United States is guilty of a Class 6 felony D Any person who violates this section and sells or distributes such information to another is guilty of a Class 6 felony E An erson who violates this section and uses such information in the commission of another crime is guilty of a Class 6 felony F This section shall not apply to any person collecting information that is reasonably needed to i protect the security of a computer computer service or com uter business or to facilitate diagnostics or repair in connection with such computer computer service or computer business or ii determine whether the computer user is licensed or authorized to use specific computer software or a specific computer service D Theft of computer services Va Code Ann 1821526 Any person who willfully obtains computer services without author s ofthe crime of the of computer serv ce which shall be unishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor Ifthe theft of com u er serv1ces1s valued at 2500 or more he is uilt ofa Class 6 felon Personal trespass bV computer Va Code Ann 1821527 A A person is guilty of the crime ofpersonal trespass by computer when he uses a computer or computer network to cause physical injury to an individual B If 39 39 quot 39 the crime ofner onal tre M h computer shall be punishable as a Class 3 felonv If uch act is done unlawfully hm nnt malirinll Iv the crime ofner onal tre M h computer shall be punishable as a Class 6 felony Hara ment by computer Va Code Ann 18215271 If any person with the intent to coerce intimidate or harass any person shall use a computer or computer network to communicate obscene vulgar profane lewd lascivious or indecent language or make any suggestion or proposal ofan obscene nature or threaten any ille al or immoral act he shall be uilty ofa Class 1 misdemeanor G Encrvption used in criminal activitV Va Code Ann 18215215 Any person who will Jlly uses encryption to further any criminal activity shall be guilty of an offense which is separate and distinct from the predicate criminal activity and punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor quotEncryptionquot means the enciphering of intelligible data into unintelligible form or the deciphering of unintelligible data into intelli ihle form 31 If you commit a crime Lmder the Virginia Computer Crimes Act where can you be prosecuted How does this compare with noncomputer crimes What are the implications for the lessaware computer users who haven t taken a class like this one 32 What federal statutes govern misuse of computers similar to the Virginia Computer Crimes Act 33 What is the digital divide What are its implications for the computer industry For the country For the world 34 What discrimination issues does the computer profession face How can it help to resolve them 35 What cultural effects are we seeing from the increased computerization of society Effects on the home on the job on the workforce in general 36 What is an online community Is the internet democratic Does it facilitate democracy and promote democratic ideals Whether or not it actually does should it 37 SHORT ANSWER Explain why some other comtries are widely known for widespread software piracy 38 ESSAY Name two exceptions that justify overriding an individual s privacy that is exceptions to the privacy right Give one example of each 39 ESSA Mark is creating a new database to track his company s customers He needs to assign each customer an account number to tell one from another Explain why Social Security numbers would be a bad choice 40 ESSAY There are two main statutes restricting the federal government s use of personal information One is the Privacy Act of 1974 Name its requirements Name and describe the other The two main laws that regulate the federal government s use of personal data Privacy Act of 1974 Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 The Privacy Act of 1974 5 USC 552a Public Law No 93579 CDec 31 1974 establishes a Code of Fair Information Practice that governs the collection maintenance use and dissemination of personally identifiable information about individuals that is The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 PL 1007503 amended the Privacy Act of 1974 by adding certain protections for the subjects of Privacy Act records whose records are used in automated matching programs These protections have been mandated to ensure lprocedural uniformity in carrying out matching programs ldue process for subjects in order to protect their rights and loversight of matching programs through the establishment of Data Integrity Boards at each agency engaging in matching to monitor the agency39s matching activity The Computer Matching Act is codified as part of the Privacy Act 3
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