Chem 106 Chap 15 Textbook Notes
Chem 106 Chap 15 Textbook Notes Chem 106
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maranda Butterfield on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 106 at Washington State University taught by Nathalie Wall in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry II in Chemistry at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
152 153 154 Chapter 15 Acid properties sour taste ability to dissolve many metals ability to turn blue litmus paper red and the ability to neutralize bases Common acids Hydrochloric Acid HCl Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Nitric Acid HN03 Acetic Acid HC2H302 Citric Acid H3C6H507 Carbonic Acid H2C03 Hydrofluoric Acid HF Phosphoric Acid H3PO4 Carboxylic acid an acid that contains a carboxylic acid group figure in textbook They are often found in substances from living organisms Base properties bitter taste slippery feel ability to turn red litmus paper blue and the ability to neutralize acids Common Bases Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Potassium Hydroxide KOH Sodium Bicarbonate NaHC03 Sodium Carbonate Na2C03 Ammonia NH3 The Arrhenius Definition 0 Acid a substance that produces H ions in aqueous solution 0 Base a substance that produces OH39 ions in aqeous solution The BronstedLowrt Definition 0 Acid proton H ion donor and becomes a conjugate base 0 Base proton H ion acceptor and becomes a conjugate acid Amphoteric when substances can act like an acid or a base Strong acid completely ionizes in solution Single arrow indicates this 0 Equilibrium is to the right Weak acid partially ionizes in solution equilibriumdouble arrow indicates this 0 Equilibrium is to the left Monoprotic acid contains only one ionizable proton Diprotic acid contains two ionizable proton 155 156 158 Ka is the equilibrium constant for acids Its calculated the same way 0 The smaller the Ka the weaker the acid is Summarizing KW o A neutral solution contains H30 OH39 K1E7M at 25 degrees C An acidic solution contains H30 gt OH39 K1E7M at 25 degrees C A basic solution contains H30 lt OH39 K1E7M at 25 degrees C pH PH 2 10ng30 pH scale From 0 to 14 I pH lt 7 acidic I pH gt 7 basic I pH 7 neutral pOH o pOH log0H39 The scale is backwards from pH pH pOH will always equal 14 at 25 degrees C IOKa pKa log Ka The smaller the pKa the stronger the acid concentration of ionized acid x100 Percent ionization initial concentration of aad The equilibrium H30 concentration of a weak acid increases with increasing initial concentration of the acid The percent ionization of a weak acid decreases with increasing concentration of the acid Strong Base a base that completely dissociates in solution Kb is the equilibrium constant for bases ts calculated the same 0 The lower the Kb the weaker the base 0 The p scale note above can be applied the same way to this Conjugate Base A39 is the conjugate base of HA 0 The weaker the acid the stronger the conjugate base Multiplying the equilibrium constant for an acid and its conjugate base gives KW which is 1E14 at 25 degrees C pKa pr 14 o Conjugate Acid same 0 The conjugate acid of a weak base is a weak acid 0 Small highly charged metal cations form weakly acidic solutions 0 Classifying salt solutions 0 Salts in which neither the cation nor the anion acts as a acid or a base form pHneutral solutions I Cations are pHneutral I Anions are conjugate bases of strong acids 0 Salts in which hthe cation does not act as an acid and the anion acts as a nase form basic solutions I Cations are pHneutral I Anions are conjugate bases of weak acids 0 Salts in which the cation acts as an acid and the anion does not act as a base form acidic solutions I Cations are conjugate acids of weak bases or small highly charged metal ions I Anions are conjugate bases of strong acids 0 Salts in which the cation acts as an acid and the anions acts as a base form solutions in which the pH depends on the relative strengths of the acid and the base I Cations are conjugate acids of weak bases or small highly charged metal ions I Anions are conjugate bases of weak acids 159 o Polyprotic acids ionize in successive steps each with its own Ka o Ka gets smaller with each step 0 To find the pH we consider the first step to be the only relevant step except for with a dilute solution of sulfuric acid 0 Finding the concentration of the anions only examples I suggest looking in textbook pg 734 1510 0 Binary Acids hydrogen bonded with one other atom 0 To find the bond polarity consider the bond and use notation arrows as learned in chapter 9 If its polar with the positive on Hydrogen its an acid 0 The strength of the bond affects the strength of the corresponding acid The stronger the bond the weaker the acid 0 Oxyacids hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom which is bonded to something else 0 The electronegativity of the something else affects it The more electronegative the thing the more acidic it is o The number of oxygen atoms bonded to the something else affects it The more atoms the stronger the acid 1511 0 Lewis Acid and Bases 0 Acid electron pair acceptor 0 Base electron pair donor 0 A lewis acid has an empty orbital that can accept an electron pair 1512 This is on acid rain Nothing important but it was interesting