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Developmental Psychology

by: Watson Stamm Jr.

Developmental Psychology PSYC 211

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 211 > Developmental Psychology
Watson Stamm Jr.
GPA 3.54

Daniel Zapp

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Daniel Zapp
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Watson Stamm Jr. on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 211 at George Mason University taught by Daniel Zapp in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/215172/psyc-211-george-mason-university in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Sarah De gen Chapter 8 I Memory refers to the capacity to retain and retrieve information and also to the structures that account for this capacity A Reconstructing the Past 1 Source misattribution is the inability to distinguish information stored during an event from information added later 2 Flashbulb memories though emotionally powerful and vivid are often embellished or change over time B The conditions of confabulation l Confabulation is the confusion of imagined events with real ones or confusing an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you a One has thought heard or told others about the imagined event many times b The image of the event contains lots of details that make it feel real c The event is easy to imagine II In pursuit of memory A Measuring Memory a Explicit memory b Implicit memory i Priming ii Releaming method B Models of Memory a Parallel distributed processing knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units all operating in parallel III The ThreeBox Model of Memory A Sensory register B Short Term memory a Working memory b Chunking C Long Term memory a Procedural memories b Declarative memories i Semantic ii Episodic c Serial position effect IV How we remember A Elaborative rehearsal Sarah Degen Chapter 10 1 Behavior in social and Cultural Context a Social Psychologists study how social roles attitudes relationships and groups in uence individuals b Cultural Psychologists study the in uence of culture on human behavior A Roles and Rules a Two Classic Studies i Milgram s obedience study ii Zimbardo s prison study b Norms rules that regulate social life including explicit lawas and implicit cultural conventions c Roles social positions that are regulated ny norms about how people in those positions should behave d Why people Obey Allocating responsibility to the authority Routinizing the task ii39 Wanting to be polite iv Becoming entrapped increasing their commitment to a course of action in order to justify their investment in it B Social In uences on Beliefs a Social Cognition i Attributions l Attribution theory 2 Fundamental attribution 3 Self serving bias 4 Just world hypothesis b Attitudes Implicit or explicit Resistant to change iii Subject to social in uence iv Highly heritable V In uenced by the unshared environment V Altered because of the need to reduce cognitive dissonance c Friendly persuasion i Familiarity effect ii Validity effect d Coercive Persuasion C Individuals in Groups a Conformity b Groupthink i Groupthink c The Anonymous Crowd i Diffusion of responsibility ii DeindiViduation d Altruism and Dissent D Us Versus Them Group Identity a Social identities are based on a person s identi cation with a nation religion political group or other important af liations b Ethnic Identity i Ethnic Identities ii Acculturation Identi cation with the dominant culture d Ethnocentrism The belief that one s own ethnic group or nation is superior to all others can create usthem thinking and hostile competition D Stereotypescan be efficient cognitive summaries of other groups but they distort reality by i Exaggerating differences between groups ii Producing selective perception iii Underestimating the differences within other groups D Group Con ict and Prejudice a A prejudice consists of a negative stereotype and a persistent unreasonable negative feeling toward a category of people b Origins of Prejudice i Psychological ii Social iii Economic c Defining and Measuring Preudice Sarah De gen Chapter 3 I III Conception through the first year A Stages of Prenatal Development 1 Germinal 2 Embryonic 3 Fetal B Prenatal In uences 1 Some diseases including German measles and sexually transmitted diseases 2 Cigarettes drugs alcohol which can cause fetal alcohol syndrome 3 Exposure to Xrays or toxic chemicals C The Infant s World 1 Babies are born with motor re exes including a rooting b sucking c grasping d Babinski 2 Newborns also have some innate perceptual abilities 3 Cultural in uences affect maturational milestones such as an infant s sleeping through the night D Attachment 1 Attachment begins with contact comfort or touching and cuddling between infant and parent Cognitive Development A Language Development B Noam Chomsky 1 Language acquisition device C Thinking 1 Jean Piaget Four Stages of Cognitive Development 2 Assimilation 3 Accommodation 4 Egocentric Learning to be Good A Power Assertion Sarah De gen Chapter 4 I Neurophysiologists study the brain and the rest of the nervous system to gain a better A J39 of r J quot memory emotion stress mental disorders and self identity 11 The Nervous System A Basic Blueprint A Central nervous System 1 Brain 2 Spinal Cord B Peripheral Nervous System 1 Somatic Nervous System 2 Autonomic Nervous System a Sympathetic nervous system b Parasympathetic nervous system 111 Mapping the Brain A Electroencephalogram B Transcranial magnetic stimulation C Positronemission tomography D Magnetic resonance imaging IV Communication in the Nervous System 1 How Neurons Communicate 2 Neurotransmitter 3 Action Potential V Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System A Endorphins B Hormones l Melatonin 2 Oxytocin 3 Adrenal hormones 4 SeX hormones Chapter 1 What is Psychology 1 Psychology comes from the word psyche which means mind soul or butter y 11 Study of the Psyche Physical State Mental State EXtemal Environment 111 The science of Psychology IV History of Psychology Goal describe predict understand modify behaVior Assumed Humans are predictable knowable Explanations for human behaVior rooted in the world NOT capricious gods Why is this assumption important A so we know we are not controlled by gods but by ourselves V The Birth of Modern Psychology 1 Scienti c Method applied early on to chemistry biology physics etc 2 Not applied to mind and brain until 1800 s 3 Phrenology rst attempt to study the mind 4 EXperimentation introspectionism A Phrenology l 2 B Functionalism 2 C Psychoanalysis VI Psychology s Present 1 What do psychologists do VII Psychological Research VIII Psychological Practice IX Psychology in the community A Critical and Scienti c Thinking in Psychology 1 7 B Descriptive Studies Establishing the Facts a Case Studies b Observational Studies c Tests d Surveys C Correlational Studies Looking for Relationships a Measuring correlations b Cautions about correlations


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