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Cognitive Psychology

by: Watson Stamm Jr.

Cognitive Psychology PSYC 317

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 317 > Cognitive Psychology
Watson Stamm Jr.
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This 104 page Class Notes was uploaded by Watson Stamm Jr. on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 317 at George Mason University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/215175/psyc-317-george-mason-university in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 6 LongTenn Memory Basic Principles Implicit Memory 39 Warrington and Weiskrantz 1968 Korsako s syndrome patients Showed fragmented pictures participant had to identify r a a r i a b 2cm Thcmmn mm Edumvan Caption Incomplete gictures developed by Gollin 1960 that were used by Warrington and Weiskrantz 196 to study im lIcit memo in patients with amnesia Reprinted from Nature London 217 March 1968 E Warn39 39 Method of Testing LongTerm Retention Sp cial Refe en e to Amnesic Patients ngton amp L Weiskrantz New Wth e r 2 pp 972974 Fig 1 Copyright 1968 with permission from Nature Publishing Group Performance improves even though the person doesn t remember training 20 E o o n o39 I Lu 10 0 1 2 3 Day of training mmquot W Caption Results of Warrington and Weiskrantz s 1968 experiment Warrington amp Weiskrantz 1968 39 Subjects improved on the task even though they had no memory for previoust doing the task or training on the task This indicates that implicit memory can be separate from declarative memory The Brain and Memory Procedural Memory 39 No memory of where or when learned Do you remember learning how to read or write 39 Perform procedures without being consciously aware of how to do them Can you explain how you keep you balance on a bike 39 People who cannot form new LTM s can still learn new skills Implicit Memory in Everyday Experience 39 Perfect and Askew 1994 Propaganda effect more likely to rate statements read or heard before as being true Had participants scan articles in a magazine Participants were told to ignore the advertisements Later subjects were asked to rate several advertisements Participants rated ones included in the magazine betterthan ones they had not experienced before Storing Information in LTM 39 Encoding acquiring information and transforming it into memory Different from coding which is the form with which information is represented 39 Retrieval The process of transferring information from LTM to STMWorking memory Storing Information in LTM 39 Maintenance rehearsal Repeating information over and over again Maintains information but is not an effective way of transferring it into LTM 39 Elaborative rehearsal When you think about the meaning of an item or make connection between the item and past knowledge Transfers information to LTM Levels of Processing Theory 39 Memory depends on how information is encoded Craik and lockhart Memory depends on depth of processing Shallow processing little attention to meaning the number of letters in the word Dog poor memory Deep processing close attention to meaning Thinking about what a dog is your dog the qualities of dogs etc good memory Transfer Appropriate Processing 39 Memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval Meaning task Participants heard fill in the blank sentences and had to decide if words they were given fit into the sentence The rode the bicycle gt Boy Rhyming Task Participants heard a fill in the blank statement involving rhyming and had to decide if it was correct or not Rhymes with boy gt Toy oiling Retrieval Pe orman percent correct Standard V M3339 recognition 32 test Standard qum39w magnumquot 62 ask test a Standard test in retrieval Rhyming Mfg gt recognition 33 35 Rhyming Rhymm gt recognition 49 task 105 b Rhyming test In retrieval Caption Desi n and results for transferappropriate processing experiment Morris et al 1977 a Participants w 0 carried out the meaning task e ormed better on a recognition memory test than participants who carried out a rhvming task b On a 39 39 39 39 a i L 39 man participants who carried out the meaning task In both cases performance was betterwhen the encoding and retrieval tasks matched butthe results in b would not be predicted by the levelsofprocessing theory Levels of Processing amp Transfer Appropriate Processing 39 The rst part of the experiment supports LOP theory 39 The second result having to do with transfer appropriate processing does not Memory does notjust depend on LOP but also on how well the conditions of encoding and retrieval match Other Factors that Aid Encoding 39 Imagery r Presented lists of paired words One group told to repeat words Boattree Boat tree Boattree The other was told 5 to imagine the items interacting o Repetition Imagery group group Percent correct recall Wynnquotmm Other Factors that Aid Encoding 39 Selfreference effect ASkg S gz quot Presem ward Does word EMSP39E dcscn39be you 5 Y Answer quos on Examp e es E Percent recalled m 0 Rate word length describe you Type of task 0 Other Factors that Aid Encoding 39 Generation effect Slameka amp Graf 1978 Read Read these pairs of related words KingCrown HorseSaddle LampShade Generate Fill in the blank with a word that is related tthe first KingCr HorseSa LampSh Those who generated the words learned 28 more word pairs than those who just read the word pairs Other Factors that Aid Encoding 39 Organizing toberemembered information People tend to spontaneously organize items as they are recalled Therefore remembering some items from a group may help you remember other items of information Minam Platinum Silver Gold 4am nnnw ma aimim Metals l Aluminum Copper Lead iron Alloy Stole Preciou Mason Sapphire Limestone Emerald Granite Diamond Mamie Slate Information Storage at the Synapse Hebb 1948 Learning and memory represented in the brain by physiological changes at the synapse Action potential travels down the axon of neuron A A neurotransmitter is released onto neuron B This chemical uptake by neuron B strengthens the synapse causing structural changes grater transmitter release and increased firing These changes provide a neural record of experience Information Storage at the Synapse 39 Longterm potentiation LTP Enhanced ring of neurons after repeated stimulation Structural changes and enhanced responding I Stuctural gt changes Increased ring x LTPl l i yam al First presentation in Continued 2 Later same stimulus stimulus presentation is presented again stimulus ozmr Yi uimln mm Emma Caption What hap ens at a synapse as a a stimulus is rst presented The record next to the electro e indicates the rate of ring in the axon of neuron B b As the stimulus is repeated structural changes are beginning to occur c After man repetitions more complex connections have developed betweent e two neurons which causes an increase in the ring rate even though the stimulus is the same on that was presented in a The Fragility of New Memories 39 Retrograde amnesia loss of memory for events prior to the trauma 39 Anterograde amnesia cannot form new memories Memory for recent events is more fragile than for remote events Consolidation 39 Transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state Synaptic consolidation The structural changes that occur at the synapse occurs rapidly over a period of minutes Systems consolidation involves the gradual reorganization of circuits within brain regions happens over weeks months or years Consolidation Cortical areas 0 Hi ppocampus Time a lb 0 Connections between the hippocampus and the cortex are initially strong but weakens as connections in the cortex are established Consolidation 39 Standard model of consolidation Retrieval depends on hippocampus during consolidation After consolidation is complete the hippocampus is no longer needed for memory retrieval Reactivation hippocampus replays neural activity associated with memory This causes the creation of cortical connections 39 Controversial Memory for Emotional Stimuli 39 Emotional events remembered more easily and vividly 39 Emotion improves memory becomes greater with time may enhance consolidation 39 Brain activity amygdala Retrieving Information from LTM 39 Retrieval process of transferring information from LTM back into working memory consciousness Location sound smell as a retrieval cue Retrieving Information from LTM 39 Cuedrecall cue presented to aid recall Can be a related word or phrase for example Increased performance over freerecall Retrieval cues most effective when created by the person who uses them For example the target word is banana Cues might beyellow bunches edible monkey etc Encoding Specificity 39 We learn information together with its context 39 Baddeley s 1975 diving experimentquot Best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval occurred in the same location 12 participants learned a list of words While underwater those other half learned the list of words on land Participants were then tested either in the water or on land 0n STUDY Underwater land TEST Underwater Land Underwater Land a 131 o Caption a Design for Godden and Baddeley s 1975 diving experiment b Results for each test condition are indicated by the bar directly under that condition Asterisks indicate situations in which study and test conditions matched Test score With In STUDY noise quiet TEST Noise Quiet Noise Quiet a Caption a Design for Grant et al s 1998 studying experiment b Results of the experiment Asterisks indicate situations in which study and test conditions matched StateDependent Learning 39 Learning is associated with a particular internal state Better memory if person s mood at encoding matches mood during retrieval STUDY Sad Happy Caption a Design for Eich and Metcalfe s 1989 mood experiment b Results of the experiment Improving Learning and Memory Studying 39 Elaborate and generate Highlighting is not enough 39 Organize Helps reduce load on memory 39 Match learning and testing conditions Improving Learning and Memory Studying 39 Associate what you are learning to what you already know 39 Take breaks Memory is better for multiple short study sessions Consolidation Improving Learning and Memory Studying 39 Distributed versus massed practice effect Material is learned better when studying is broken into short sessions Dif cult to maintain close attention throughout a long study session Studying after a break gives feedback about what you already know Chapter 5 ShortTenn and Working Memory What is memory Memory processes involved in retaining retrieving and using information about stimuli images events ideas and skills after the original information is no longer present O Rehearsal A control process gt Sensw SE23 gt 523 quotmm memo gt W memory memory gt 1 Output mum nmm Harm Edammn Caption Flow diagram for Atkinson and Shiffrin s 1968 model of memory This model which is described in the text is called the modal model because of the huge influence it has had on memory research Modal Model of Memory 39 Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 Control processes active processes that can be controlled by the person 39 Rehearsal 39 Strategies used to make a stimulus more memorable 39 Strategies of attention Modal Model of Memory 39 Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 Components of memory do not act in isolation Caption What happens in different parts of Rachel s memory as she is a and b looking up the phone number c calling the pizza shop and d memorizing the number Afew days later e she retrieves the numberfrom longterm memory to order pizza again Darkened parts ofthe modal model indicate which processes are activated for each action that Rachel takes Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory 39 Persistence of vision retention of the perception of light Sparkler s trail of light Perceptuai trail Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory Persistence of vision retention of the perception of light 39Frames in film Table 5I Persistence of V SIDH in Film Vlmt Is on What Happens the Screen What Do You Pciccivc Film than 1 is piUiCCLCd PiCHIH l Pictulc l Sliuim Closes and liLm muvcs in Darkness Picture I pelfisicuci oh Isiun rlw mer Frami Slmrrer npeus and lm frame I Picnm 1 Picture 1 39 rczlv is procc Created in he ms sequent n imagrs Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory 39 Sperling 1960 array of letters ashed quickly on a screen participants asked to report as many as possible A 7 Immediate mu b Panial upon Tone Immedlaie pvg 4 Delayed tone Baby 5 Pamal report Tune delayed Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory 39 Whole report participants asked to report as many as could be seen 39 Report average of 45 out of 12 letters Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory 39 Partial report participants heard tone which told them which row of letters to report 39 Report average of 33 out of 4 letters Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory 39 Delayed partial report presentation oftone was delayed for a fraction ofa second after the letters were extinguished Results were same as whole report procedure 12 a an Calculated number of letters available to participant a a 1 o 1 L4 CI 02 04 06 18 1 0 Delay of tune sec Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory 39 Shortlived sensory memory registers all or most information that hits our visual receptors Information decays very quickly Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory Brief sensory memory Iconic memory Visual icon Corresponds to sensory memory Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory 39 Holds large amount of information for a short period of time Collects information Holds information for initial processing Fills in in the blank Insert video from DVL HumanMemory1 Modal Model of Memory Sensory Memory 39 Holds large amount of information for a short period of time Collects information Holds information for initial processing Fills in in the blank Human Memory 1 V 394 if 39 W5quot 39 H M Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Duration of short term memory Read three letters then a number Begin counting backwards by 3 s After a set time recall three letters Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 After three seconds of counting participants performed at 80 39 After 18 seconds of counting participants performed at 10 Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Proactive interference Pl occurs when information learned previously interferes with learning new information 100 Percent corned m 0 Percent correct P6706 correct on o m Delay 5 l l 39 0 over many trials 7m1rwrrunnm1na mm Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Short term memory when rehearsal is prevented is about 1520 seconds Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Capacity of short term memory Digit span how many digits a person can remember 39Typical result 58 items 39 But what is an item Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Chunking small units can be combined into larger meaningful units Chunk collection of elements strongly associated with one another but weakly associated with elements in other chunks Human Memory 2 Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Ericcson et al 1989 SF had an initial digit span of 7 After 320 onehour training sessions SF could remember up to 79 digits 39 Chunking Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Chase and Simon 1973 Chess players asked to memorize chess pieces positioned for a real chase game for 5 seconds Master does better because can chunk No advantage for based on game positions master if can chunk 6 16 A M Correct placements a Correct placements on 2 Master Beginner 0 Master Beginner a Actual game positions b Random placement Caption Results of Chase and Simon s 1973a 1973b chess memory experiment a The chess master is better at reproducing actual game positions b Master s performance drops to level of beginner when pieces are arranged randomly Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 How is information coded in STM Coding the way information is represented Physiological how stimulus is represented by the ring of neurons Mental how stimulus or experience is represented in the mind Semantic How a stimulus is coded in terms of meaning Table 52 Types of Coding Type of Coding Example Auditory Sound of the person s Voice Visual Image of a person Semantic Nleaning of What the person is saying ezuln mnmn Hgner Eamm Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Auditory Coding Conrad 1964 Participants brie y saw target letters and were asked to write them down Errors most often occurred with letters that sounded alike STM is auditory Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Visual Coding Zhang and Simon 1985 Chinese language symbols presented to nativespeaking Chinese participants 39 Radicals symbols not associated with any sound 39 Characters a radical and a symbol together which do have a sound Recall based on visual coding Greater recall when auditory coding ipossible a Number recalled b 2 7 4 7 Character 0 no sound has sound Radicals Characters milmm b Caption a Examples of radical and character stimuli for Zhang and Simon s 1985 coding experiment b Results showing evidence for visual coding left bar and phonological coding right bar Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 Semantic Coding V ckens et al 1976 Participants listened to three words counted backwards for 15 seconds and attempted to recall the three words 39 Four trials different words on each trial Modal Model of Memory Short Term Memory 39 On trial 4 participants memorized words from a different category Release from PI memory increased Participants used meaning ofthe words in their processing Table 53 Wickens39 Experiment Demonstrating Semantic Coding in STM Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial l Fruit banana peach apple plum apricot lime melon lemon grape orange chcrly pineapple same category Groups Meat salami pork chicken bacon hot dog hch hamburger turkey veal orange cherry pineapple switch category Profession lawyer re ghter teacher dancer minister executive accountant doctor editor orange cherry pineapple switch category a 2m Thurman qunzr Edumiian Chapter 5 ShortTenn and Working Memory Working Memory 39 Working memory WM limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension learning and reasoning Working Memory 39 Working memory differs from STM STM is a single component WM consists of multiple parts Working Memory 39 Working memory differs from STM STM holds information for a brief period of time WM is concerned with the manipulation of information that occurs during complex cognition Phonological A Visuospatial loop I sketch pad Verbal and 4 Central Visual and auditory executive spatial information information V39 Baddeley39s working memory model Caption Diagram of the three main components of Baddeley and Hitch s 1974 Baddeley 2000 model of working memory the phonological loop the visuospatial sketch pad and the central executive Phonological Loop 39 Phonological similarity effect Letters or words that sound confused similar are Phonological r39 vasuospaual lnnp sketch Dad Verbal and W Central Visual a audimry execuliue spadai informantquot Information Baddeley s wurking memory model Phonological Loop 39 WordLength Effect Memory for lists of words is better for short words than for long words It takes longer to rehearse long words and to produce them during recall Phonological r lnnD Verbal and aummry Information visuospaxral sketch pad Vmu l and spatial Information central execuliue Baddeley s wurkmg memory model Phonological Loop 39 Articulatory Suppression Prevent one from rehearsing items to be remembered 39 Reduces memory span 39 Eliminates wordlength effect 39 Reduces phonological similarity effect for reading words Phonological vasuospallal lnnp skach Pad Vemalarld l Central Vlau l and audlmry execuliue spaaal informantquot Information Baddeley s wumng memory model Visuospatial Sketch Pad 39 Brooks 1968 Memorize sentence and then consider each word mentally and say Yes if it is a noun and No if it is not 39 Brooks 1968 Memorize sentence and then consider each word mentally and either 39 point to a Y if word is a noun and a N if word is not John ran to the store to buy some oranges Visuospatial Sketch Pad Pointing was easier than speaking Pointing involved the Visuospatial sketch pad and the phonological loop Speaking involved two verbal tasks which overloaded the phonological loop Phonological Vlsuospaual loop 5 e c p d A Remember sentfnce Remember Pocljnt sentence yes Say yes V V b Task 2 Easier Overload a Task 1 Working Memory 39 WM is set up to process different types of information simultaneously 39 WM has trouble when similar types of information are presented at the same time The Central Executive 39 Controls suppression ofirrelevant information Phonological msuosnmlal loop sketch pad Eaddeley39s workan memory model The Central Executive 39 Gazzaley et al 2005 Participants in the face relevant task were told to remember faces and ignore scenes Participants in the passive task were told to look at faces and scenes Phonological Wsuosvatlal loop sketch pad Vlsua and l spa ai 5 Information Central execmive Eaddeley39s working memory model Task Instruction Cue stimuli Delay Test face 800m 800m 800m 800m 9 5ec 1 sec 1 Face relevant Remember iaces ignore scenes Task Instrucliun Cue slimuli Delay Test stimuli E Measure MRI 9 sec 1 sec Passive Passive View b 0mm Yummy Nan161aan The Central Executive 39 fMRI measurements of the temporal cortex grouped participants 39 This area of the TC was known to respond to scenes Good suppressors less brain activity when ignoring scenes Poor suppressors greater brain activity when ignoring scenes Phonological Wsuosvatlal loop sketch pad Vlsua and l spa ai f lm crmatlon execnlive Eaddeley39s working memory model The Central Executive 39 Ability to suppress irrelevant information results in better memory for relevant information Good suppressors correctly identi ed 89 of faces while poor suppressors correctly identi ed only 67 of faces Phonological suosvatlal loop sketch pad Central Vlsual and executive l spatial r lm crmatlon Eaddeley39s working memory model Problems 39 The current model couldn t explain some results well Some drops in memory could be due only to the prevention of rehearsal Also based on this model you would expect to see greater reductions in memory span when rehearsal was prevented 39 Introduction of the Episodic buffer Central execu ve Phonological Episodic Visuospatial loop buffer sketch pad t t t Longterm knowledge systems Caption Baddeley s revised working memory model which contains the original three components plus the episodic buffer Episodic Buffer 39 Backup store that communicates with LTM and WM components 39 Hold information longer and has greater capacity than phonological loop or visuospatial sketch pad Episodic buffer is still a bit vague and need to be the subject of further research WM and the Brain 39 Prefrontal cortex responsible for processing incoming visual and auditory information Monkeys without a prefrontal cortex have dif culty holding information in WM Delay Response WM and the Brain 39 Funahashi et al 1989 Single cell recordings from monkey s prefrontal cortex during a delayresponse task WM and the Brain 39 Neurons responded when stimulus was ashed in a particular location and during delay 39 Information remains available via these neurons for as long as they continue ring Square goes of 39V l x Gnes off c Monkey moves eyes Electrical activity la Cue b During delay WM and the Brain 39 Areas in frontal lobe parietal lobe and cerebellum are involved in WM WM and American Sign Language 39 American Sign Language ASL visual language which contains features that make up words and rules for arranging words and sentences WM and American Sign Language o 39 1 Rhonologlcal e g Slmllarlty effect and quot I the word length effect Wm both in the 7 phonological loop 3 ya occur for ASL 39 1 9 x Earth Egg lbDiffcmnl J Q 1quot a 39 Shoe shon Plano long a Length dmerem at Dznm nmwu m WM and American Sign Language 39 Phonological loop processes language input regardless of whether language is created by sound or gesture Chapter 7 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Prospective Memory 39 Remembering to perform intended actions Remembering what you want to do Remembering to do it at the right time Prospective Memory 39 Eventbased task 39 Remembering to do a certain task Usually after an external event occurs Timebased task 39 The task is the act of remembering to do something at a certain time This type of task is often more difficult because there are no cues presented to help you remember to perform the task Prospective Memory 39 Einstein and McDaniel 1990 Participants were told to press a button when a certain cue appeared Event based task 100 Participants were presented with both familiar words Rake ethod and unfamiliar words Sone Monad Percent correct response U1 0 o I Familiar Unfamiliar 39 Unfamiliar cues result in cues cues better prospective memory


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