Informatn Defense Technologies
Informatn Defense Technologies IT 353
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IT 353 Information Defense Technologies Fall 2012 Midterm Exam Study Guide This Study Guide is intended to assist students in reviewing the course content in preparation for the midterm exam It contains a summary of the topics covered in course activities through Week 6 and questions intended to help you prepare for the exam The recommended usage of this Guide is as follows Read each topic shown here If you are con dent you understand the topic and are able to write about it in enough detail to complete a Short Answer proceed to the next topic If you are not con dent you can write a Short Answer on the topic review the assigned reading the lecture slides and your own notes from the lecture associated with the topic Lecture 1 The word quotwarquot can be used in many contexts Can you give examples Can you give a definition that is use ll for this course What is the difference between a quotwarquot and any other form of con ict Is a formal declaration of war required What is quottotal warquot How does it diifer from quotlimited warquot How many participants are likely in a modern war What are some different types of war in the modern context What are some possible objectives ofa participant in a war What are the possible outcomes of a war Does it make sense to have rules in war Do all participants have to have the same rules How might such rules be enforced How do advances in technology affect existing rules Can you give several examples of wars from history For each who why what happened What was the cause of the Trojan War Why were the attackers unable to take Troy for 10 years What was the outcome of the war What understanding was key to the success of the ruse What was the cause of the War of Independence or Revolutionary War Why the British not follow the same rules they followed in other wars What waswere the main causes of the American Civil War Why did it end What waswere the main causes of the Vietnam Why did it end What important constraint was imposed by President Eisenhower What happened at Kent State University What was the quotsparkquot that ignited WWI Why was war considered inevitable at that time What was the real motivation of the German Empire Why did the United Kingdom join the war What were the important technologies that led to a stalemate in the trenches What was the important factor that ended WWI What factors contribute to national power What are the components of the acronyms MIDLIFE and PMESII Can you define each component Copyright 2012 l chael X Lyons All rights reserved Page 1 of 2 399 IT 353 0 Lecture 1 George Mason Univelsity IT 353 Information Defense Technologies Spring 2012 Section 001 Prof Lyons Section 002 Prof McCallam r v v CopynghtZOiZ Michaei x Lyons AH rights reserved 1 l 399 IT 353 as Lecture 1 TOday Fundamental concepts History of warfare Modern warfare Elements of national power Project introduction CopynghtZOM Michaei x Lyons AH rights reserved 2 Fundamental concepts IT 353 Lecture 1 i 1 Q What is war Conflict between 2 or more states because of a disagreement countr nation or state ould also be groups tr bal warfare Disagreement vs co 39 Any 2 entities Comp nies e r Can be multiple participantstypicallythere are 2 coalitions alliances Sustained conflic Has to be a result win oss loselose stalemate Types of con icts Kinetic ie Mortar howitzer guns altitude specifc War or words Economic Psychological Cyber nonkinetic Electronic NBC Network Centric Gang Civil Political Social flame war Class War on Drugs ror Ism Objective eliminate the opposition control of resources control of people an United States called united because the colonies would work together federa Ion Are there rules in war not followed technology can impact rules poison gas Holocaust Kurds CopynghtZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserv d 3 IT353 War 2 Lectu re 1 What makes it a war legal Is a declaration required No was a police actionquot vs a war US did not want to commit nuclear weapons so not war Korea declaring Lack ofdeclaration does not mean it isn t a war What is total war Up throu WW1 military targets vs civilian targets e viab e Subsequently a targets becam CopynghtZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved l 399 IT 353 Lecture 1 History of warfare Q Can you give examples of wars from history Trojan Athenians vs Trojans 10 yr war Troy had natural defenses fresh foodwater Trojan horse used to get into the defenses War caused by Helen Macedonian Alexander the Great conquered most of known world Crusades religion based control of holy land Kings in Europe united to retake holy cities 100 years war American Revolution Colonies in America vs UK Napoleonic Wars attempted to conquer all of Europe American Civil War States rights issues with expansion into new States prohibit new States from adopting slavery at Federa levelnot in existing States States could not leave the Union WW I Cold War Korea ietnam Gulf Wars I Afghanistan CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 5 L334 L133 Vietnam War Vietnam civil war US did not want spread of communism Domino theory French were the rst involved left after battle of Dien Bien Phu Americans under Eisenhower sent advisors Not of cially cross into the North Social protests teevision reporting civilian unrest Kent State student protesting the War and National Guard End US left in 1972 CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 6 399 IT 353 3 Lecture 1 WI Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand nephew of emperor of AustriaHungary By Serbian radical Princip Statesponsored By whom German influence and growing strength strong industry GermanUK arms race AH large with weak leaders Russia large weak War seemed inevitable boiling point AH couldn t back down Mobilization period of preparation forwar requires time and planning German goal to start shooting thru AH and Serbia but real interest is in western europe French develop fortified structures along border Germans plan to come thru Belgium to come in from the back Belgians refused CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved L 3943 IT 353 a Lecture 1 WI 2 Belgium blew up bridge leading from Germany to Belgium slowing the mobilization Had treaty with France and UK UK just finished Boer war and was in conflict with Ireland Gave Germany ultimatum then declared war Germany stalled in Belgium can t get to France Additional conflicts in Africa European colonies Western Front Benelux Eastern Front Russia Both sides settle into trenches and hardly move Trenches zigzagged to prevent easy accessoverrun tactics wet weather a hazard too early for airplanes Progress measured in yards Key inventions machine gun and barbed wire Trench warfare becomes stalemate Factors in the ending of the War CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 w Lectu re 1 Q Who were the com batants Q Why were they at war Q What ended the war History of warfare Copynghtm Mtchaet x Lyons AH ngms reserved IT 353 as Lectu re 1 Q Can you give examples of current wars Modern warfare Copynghtm Mtchaet x Lyons AH ngms reserved 3920 IT 353 J Lecture 1 Modern warfare Q Who are the combatants Q Why are they at war Q What will end the war Copyright 2011 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 20 IT 353 J Lecture 1 Elements of national power Q What makes a nation powerful oEconomy technology allies population size government resources infrastructure location perception law and order information finance identity culture ideology geography not location Copyright 2011 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved Lecture1 Elements of national power A wellknown model states that national power has these elements or instruments Q iplomacy 1 nformation M ilitary conomics DIME Diplomacy how you interact with other nations formal Official interactions between accredited representatives on nations ambassadors etc empowered by government Can be initiated in many waysnonforma ways can explore options to develop compromise Information what allows you to make decisions Military recognized armed force of the national government Economics ability to produce trade and consume Ability to work together to work and trade for things you need and want CopynghlZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved Lectu re 1 A wellknown model states that national power has these elements or quotinstrimentsquot39 Q iplomacy Bl nformation Military conomics gt DIME Revisions to DIME have included DIME Law 39 DIMELE ability to r laws DIME Einance Intelligence Law enforcement DIMEFIL or MIDLIFE Elements of national power CopynghlZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 399 IT 353 0 Lecture 6 George Mason Univelsity IT 353 Information Defense Technologies Fall 2012 Sections 001 and 002 Prof Lyons amp Prof McCallam p l 1 72011 p CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved Lectu re 6 Space warfare What is quotspacequot Newton39s laws of motion Rocket science Newton39s theories of universal gravitation Kepler39s laws Astrophysics The quotspace racequot Space warfare Today CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 399 IT 353 0 Lecture 6 Q What do we mean by quotspacequot What is quotspacequot CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 399 IT 353 as Lecture 6 Q What do we mean by quotspacequot What is quotspacequot Outer space beyond the Earth s atmosphere The USA calls people who go above 50 miles altitude astronauts The Federation Aeronautique Internationale uses the Karman line 100 km 62 miles to distinguish aeronautics from astronautics NASA defines reentry as beginning at 76 miles 122 km as atmospheric drag becomes significant at this altitude CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 Lecture 6 The term for a person who has been to quotouter spacequot varies depending on the country of origin Space Definitions According to Wikipedia Many Englishspeaking countries use the term astronaut from the Greek for star sailor A Sovietera andor modern Russian space traveler is a cosmonaut in English from the Greek for universe sailor China uses the above terms in English and Russian translations respectively Chinese terms used may be translated as sailing pers nnel in universe or sailing personnel in sky The term taikonaut from space sailor has been used by some Englishlanguage media There are several quotunofficialquot variations CopyrightZOii Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 2 IT 353 Lecture 6 This is Sir Isaac Newton an English scientist and more Newton39s laws of motion Q For what incident is he famous image from httplenwikipediaorg CopyrightZOiZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 2 3 IT 353 Lecture 6 Newton39s laws of motion after dinner the weather being warm we went into the garden amp drank thea under the shade of some appletrees only he amp myself amidst N other discourse he told me he was just in the same situation as when formerly the notion of gravitation came into his mind why sh that apple always descend perpendicularly to the N ground thought he to himself occasion 39d by thefall ofan apple as he sat in a contemplative mood why sh it not go sideways or upwards but con stantly to the earths centre assuredly the rea son is that the earth draws it there must be a drawing power in matter amp the sum of the draw ing power in the matter ofthe earth must be in the earths center not in any side of the earth therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly or toward the center matter thus draws mat ter it must be in proportion of its quantity therefore the apple draws the earth as well as the earth draws the apple u Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton s life William Stukeley a ie FWillm39 life li lll l k xigq 4mm Wk mi 5 lo i ijaW slo BranL Hisn Ia rfb r 25L 7C 413 ilkN135 Hang llly f am al Ig 39it lw In me fe wasj f 119 farm flklualtm a 135539 WIMP lv iwhj rmw p mm gull A 39leqf pgll 4H diam quot3ample rcu I 19 1 Juli lama E k m f egg 51497 j K g 74 41 J t 1 can1 1 rig1431 ma SR 1 ml pfppwm 1 Ir u mm 5 u Mud g lo 15 find mH r xJ af azi hyg 11 he 3 m no 1amp9 aarl Vrnw iii Mew milquotPasta qr m kq quotII19W in MHzHPV l m L 9 3rvuu Q94 GA 12 matter 1 aorta nm f n quot39 lac aerial md no 1k mu 199 fa nggfl 39 V lll39 7 we lFuLI yak jfu frHaani mf W 1mm 1C9 ashlar z ma fh 14145rdws l m 9 ii mull129L114 H mm 1 14 lazuli x 1 kl 12 Ma 444 8 sz 712 rI 3 M2614quot 5 Rar ralk 5 Le ftp 9 1 image from htt tt ro alsociet or Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 Lecture 6 1 39 39 Newton39s laws of motion l meoSOPHHL39 PHILOSOPHIE NATURALS MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES 5 x A T u R A L i 5 PRINCPA MATHEMATCA of NATURAL PHILOSOPHY lP R I N C I P I A AXOMATA SVE AXIOMS OR ll 39l l39lll3l39l39lI lr 7 Lex AXIOMATA il 39l39 LEGES MC I39US LeX ll imprimitur LeX ll images from httpcudllibcamacuk dirigi LEGES MO TUS Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi ve movendi uniformiter in directurn nisi quatenus ilud a viribus impressis cogitur staturn ilurn mutare Mutationern motus proportionalern esse vi motrici impressae amp eri secundurn linearn rectarn qua vis I39la Actioni contrariarn semper amp aequalern esse reactionern sive corporurn duorurn actOnes in se mutuo semper esse aequaes amp in partes contrarias LAWS of MOTION Law 1 Every body perseveres in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line except to the extent it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed Law 2 The alteration of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed and is made according to the right line in which that force is impressed Law 3 To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction or the actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and directed to contrary parts Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 Rocket science Lectu re 6 A rocket is a missile or vehicle that is propelled through space by a rocket engine The propellanth are carried aboard the rocket No air is used so a rocket can operate in a vacuum A rocket engine produces a fluid usually a gas under pressure usually as a result of a chemical reaction The fluid is expelled in one direction usually through a nozzle and the rocket moves in the opposite direction Q Which of Newton39s laws of motion explains the direction of movement CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 9 IT 353 Rocket science Lectu re 6 A typical rocket combines a fuel and an oxidant in a combustion reaction It is an internal combustion engine The reaction produces a great amount of thermal energy Temperature and pressure within the combustion chamber are extreme The reaction products typically gases are forced through the exhaust outlet About half the thrust comes from the exhaust gases passing straight out CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 10 t IT 353 Lecture 6 Rocket sCIence About half the thrust comes from the exhaust gases passing straight out The rest of the thrust is produced by the nozzle Almost all rockets use a convergentdivergent design known as a de Laval nozzle The diameter of the nozzle constricts to a narrow throat and then increases again The speed of the fluid will increase as it is compressed through the throat The expanding part of the nozzle is open at the end so the pressure reduces downstream from the throat CopynghtZOlZ Michael X Lyons All rights reserved ll 96 IT 353 Rocket science Lectu re 6 When the combustion chamber pressure is high enoug about 3 times ambient the flow through the throat quotchokesquot The fluid can move no faster than the speed of sound for that fluid at that temperature Beyond the throat the temperature and thus pressure decrease and the speed of the fluid increases e exhaust is supersonic or typically hypersonic gt Mach 5 image 39om 39 39 39 nrnl CopynghtZOl2 Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 12 v IT 353 Lecture 6 Rocket sCIence The exhaust gases press against the nozzle walls The nozzle deflects the energy out the open end The nozzle converts most of the thermal energy of the exhaust gases into kinetic energy directed parallel tothe length ofthe rocket copynghimm Michael x Lyons All rights reserved is 96 IT 353 Rocket science Lectu re 6 The nozzle converts most of the thermal energy of the exhaust gases Into Kinetic energy directed parallel to the length of the rocket Some of the thermal energy results in translation lateral movement of the exhaust molecules and the rest in rotation of the molecules Translation produces thrust rotation is wasted energy Molecules with fewer atoms have fewer ways to rotate so simple molecules are desirable as reaction products Temperature is proportional to the mean energy per molecule so having more molecules in the reaction products results in a lower temperature for a given amount of energy copynghimn Michael x Lyons All rights reserved M Lectu re 6 Rocket science Molecules with fewer atoms have fewer ways to rotate so simple molecules are desirable as reaction products Temperature is proportional to the mean energy per molecule so having more molecules in the reaction products results In a lower temperature for a given amount of energy Dihydrogen H2 is the smallest and simplest molecule that is useful so most rocket engines produce it as one of the reaction products Liquid hydrogen may be used as the fuel The downside is that it is much less dense than other liquids requiring heavier equipment to store and pump it image 39om httplenwikigediaorgl CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved Lectu re 6 Rocket science Monopropellant rockets have a single propellant typically a liquid that decomposes via a catalyst andor thermally to produce reaction products Hydrazine isthe most common followed by hydrogen peroxide The liquid monopropellant typically is pressurized with helium or nitrogen Copyngnlmn Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 6 1 IT 353 Lecture 6 Rocket science Hydrazine is a storable propellant it can be stored in a tank without special protections for pressure It shrinks when it freezes so spacecraft use electric heaters to keep it liquefied If it filled supply lines when frozen they could rupture when it melted lts chemical formula is N2H4 lts molecular structure is H2NENH2 lts melting point is 14 C lts boiling point is 135 C It is explosive in air at concentrations of 47 to 100 It can ignite spontaneously in air image 39om httpenwikipediaorg when in contact with many porous materials It is highly reactive and toxic Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 17 399 IT 353 Lecture 6 Rocket science Hydrazine spontaneously decomposes in the presence of certain catalysts most commonly iridium on alumina granules lrAl203 Heterogeneous catalysis 1 3N2H4 l gt 4NH3 g N2 g This is extremely exothermic it produces a lot of heat Some of the ammonia further decomposes Heterogeneous catalysis 2 2NH3 g gt N2 g 3H2 g This is endothermic it absorbs some of the heat from 1 At high temperatures and low pressures thermal decomposition occurs 3 N2H4 l gt N2 g 2H2 g This is also exothermic For rocket propulsion we want as many simple molecules as possible with as much energy through temperature as possible Reaction 2 reduces the temperature but increases the number of molecules Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 18 lt9 IT 353 Lecture 6 Rocket science Bipropellant rockets have separate fuel and oxidizer propellants Example fuels include hydrogen hydrocarbons hydrazine Example oxidizers include oxygen acids nitrogen tetroxide The propellants may be separate liquids combined in a solid or a hybrid typically solid fuel and liquid oxidizer Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion b r Chm e Nozzle Oxidizer Pumps V Velocity Throat m mass flow rate p pressure Thrust F m Ve pepo A6 image from httpenwikipediaorg Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 399 IT 353 Lecture 6 Rocket science Tripropellant rockets have three propellants Some mix three chemicals to prodcuce the combustion reaction Others have two fuels and one oxidizer A dense fuel eg kerosene is used for liftoff and a highervelocity fuel eg hydrogen is used later in ight Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 I 3 Lecture 5 Rocket salence The combustion reaction produces extremely high temperatures This generates a lot of thrust but it can melt or burn the rocket engine components Cooling of the components is essential An airpowered engine 69 a jet engine uses air which is 80 nitrogen It absorbs a lot of the thermal energy Several techniques may be used to cool the combustion chamber throat and nozzle a material may be added to the reaction to absorb some of the energy fuel may be passed through channels in the walls before entering the chamber propellants may be injected so the reaction is cooler at the walls liquid propellant may be sprayed down the walls evaporation absorbs heat excess fuel may be used the engine is run quotfuel richquot The uncom busted fuel absorbs some of the energy Copyngmmn MIchaelX Lyons AII rIgms reserved 21 2 IT 353 Newton s theory of unIversal graVItatIon Lecture 6 PI IILOSOPHIII PHILOSOPHIE MATHEMATICAL u u M H NATURALS PRINCIPLES V PRINCIPIA of NATURAL MATHEMATch PHILOSOPHY De Mundi Systemate The System of the Worlds Prop VII Theor VII Prop 7 Theor 7 M 39 r 39 quot 39 39 pp 39 bodies Mundi Sy cmatc 39 439 39 39 0 me quantifati materiae in singulis quantity of material in each Prop VIII Theor VIII Prop 8 Theor 8 of a u Y 41 in m I is distant homogenea sit eril pondus homogen ous the weight of either to the ages Ir h llcudlilibcamacuk Globl alterutrlus In allerurlr magma flierWI be reprrocal to the square of CopyrIghtZOiZ MIchael x Lyons AII rights reserved 22 90 IT 353 Newton39s theory of universal gravitation Lecture 6 m x m l 2 e 2 where F is the gravitational force acting on sphere i G is the gravitational constant m is the mass of sphere i r is the distance between the centers of the spheres Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 23 390 IT 353 I 3 Lecture 5 Keplers laws Johann Kepler was a German scientist He is best known for his laws of planetary motion image from httpenwikipediaorgl Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 24 9 0 IT 353 Ke ler39s laws Lecture 6 P Kepler is best known for his laws of planetary motion 1The law of ellipses The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun as one of the foci 2The law of equal areas A line from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals 3The law of harmonies For any two planets the ratio of the squares of their orbital periods uals the ratio of the cubes of the semimajor axes of their orbits In other words the square of a planet s orbital period is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 390 IT 353 3 Lecture 6 AStr PhVSCS Most of space is empty except perhaps for dark matter Most of the matter in space occurs in dense aggregations eg galaxies nebulae stars planets asteroids meteors All matter and some other stuff is subject to gravity Copyright 2011 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved l 399 IT 353 0 Lecture 6 AstrophySIcs g ravity n 3 a 1 the gravitational attraction of the mass of the earth t e moon or a planet for bodies at or near its surface 2 a fundamental physical force that is responsible for interactions which occur because of mass between particles between aggregations of matter as stars and planets and between particles as photons and aggregations of matter that is 1039 times weaker than the strong force and that extends over infinite distances but is dominant over macroscopic distances especially between aggregations of matter called also gravitation gravitational force From httEwwwbr1tann1caemudictionary CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 27 l 3940 IT 353 Lecture 6 AstrophySIcs Newton39s first law of motion tells usthat the velocity of an object is constant unless it is acted upon by a force Gravity is a force It causes matter to accelerate change its velocity IIe its speed andor direction An object moving through space will travel in a straight line at a constant speed if relatively unaffected by gravity If two objects have significant gravitational pulls on each other the paths of motion will change Each will become one of an open orbit which will be one of a hyperbola a parabola a closed orbit which will be an ellipse CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 28 399 IT 353 0 Lecture 6 Astrophysics Consider two bodies one much more massive than other and considered to be stationary relative to the other Depending on the velocity speed and direction of the moving object the masses of both and the distance between them the moving object may Be unaffected Be pulled into a suborbital trajectory and crash its elliptical orbital path is interrupted by the surface of the other object Be captured and go into a stable orbit the orbital trajectory will be an ellipse with the massive object near one focus Be pulled close to the other object but escape with velocity 0 at the trajectory will be a parabola Be pulled close to the other object but escape with velocity gt 0 at the trajectory will be a hyperbola CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 3943 IT 353 as Lecture 6 Astrophysics The escape velocity which is actually a speed direction doesn39t matter of the moving object at any point in time depends on the mass of the other object and the distance between them If the moving object does not achieve escape velocity it will be quotcapturedquot and enter an elliptical orbit around the massive object If the elliptical trajectory intersects the surface of the massive object it will crash otherwise it will stay in orbit CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved l 399 IT 353 0 Lecture 6 AstrophySIcs If the moving object39s speed is gt the escape quotvelocityquot it will have been pulled in to a capture orbit but will leave along an escape orbit If its speed is exactly the escape quotvelocityquot the trajectory is a parabola with the massive object at its focus The moving object will slow down until its relative speed is zero The two objects will then move together always that far apart If the moving object39s speed exceeds the escape quotvelocityquot the trajectory is a hyperbola with the massive object at its focus The moving object will continue to move away from the other object The approach and departure paths have straightline asym ptotes CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 31 l 3940 IT 353 Lecture 6 AstrophySIcs An ellipse is the set of points in a plane where for each point the sum of the distances between it and two fixed points is a constant The two fixed points are called its foci CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 32 IO 4 IT 353 Lecture 6 AstrophySIcs A circle is a special case of an ellipse in a circle the foci are congruent A planet in a circular orbit stays a constant distance from the foci Copyright 2011 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 33 O 1 IT 353 Lecture 6 AStrophySICS The barycenter is the point between two objects where their masses are balanced not to scale If one of the objects is much more massive than the other the barycenter will be within it not to scale Copyright 2011 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 34 399 IT 353 X Lectu re 6 Kepler found that the barycenter of an orbital system will be centered on one of the foc and the bodies will follow elliptical paths 2body systems shown for simplicity When one of the bodies is much more massive than the others the barycenter will approximately coincide with the center of mass of the massive object Astrophysics Copyrightmil Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 399 IT 353 as Lecture 6 A body stays in orbit around another because the forces acting on it are in equilibrium The centrifugal force from the change in velocity change in direction andor speed tends to move the object away from its orbit The gravitational force tends to move the object towards the other object When these forces are in balance the object orbits the focus Astrophysics Copyrightmll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved a IT 353 Lecture 6 AstrophySIcs An orbiting object s speed varies it is least at the apogee farthest point and greatest at the perigee closest point equal areas within the ellipse CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 37 3955 IT 353 Lecture 6 AstrophySIcs This can be exploited to prolong the amount of time per orbit a satellite is visible over a certain point or area In this example the moon will spend more time over the right hemisphere of the planet than over the left hemisphere although it is farther away when to the right The greater the eccentricity of the orbit lie the less quotcircularquot it is the more pronounced this effect CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 38 39 IT 353 I K Lecture 6 AStr PhySCS The Earth like the other planets in our solar system is in an elliptical orbit around the Sun The period of the orbit is The Earth rotates about the NorthSouth axis once per This axis is inclined 2345 from the perpendicular with respect to the solar orbital plane the ecliptic which is why we have seasonal variations All of the planets lie approximately in the same plane The Moon is in orbit around the Earth with a period of 273 days 1 month The lunar orbital plane is inclined 51 from the ecliptic The Moon rotates at the same rate as its orbital period not to scale Lt Copyright 2011 Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 39 39 IT 353 I we Lecture 6 AStr PhySCS Copyright 2011 Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 40 20 IT 353 w Lecture 6 The space race During World War 2 German scientists developed the Vergetungswaffe 2 retaliation weapon 2 commonly referred to as the V2 rocket It was a ballistic missile which could ascend 206km about 128 miles if launched straight up It carried a tonne of high explosive The Aggregat 4 Aggregate 4 rocket carried 381 tonnes of fuel 75 ethanol 25 water and 491 tonnes of liquid oxygen Pumps were steam turbines driven by hydrogen peroxide and sodium permanganate The engine components were cooled by the diluted fuel regenerative cooling and film cooling image 39om Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 2 IT 353 Lecture 6 W lwl New err 39 ilihliumlilmln AlumniMW l39l39i m Fair ai id LEM mum l l3 ml39 warmlyu Trawlbmn nu ma 391st F1 Mimiman imrr nn 39 have nmixmaw mm i39ame am alum um The space race About 4500 people died from V2 attacks About 20000 prisoners died in the V2 factory image 39om quot quot quot39 439 nrnl Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved a IT 353 0 Lecture 6 The Space race On July 29 1955 the USA announced that it planned to launch several small satellites in support of the International Geophysical Year which would be July 1 1957 through December 31 1958 The USSR responded 4 days later that it planned to launch a satellite too In August 1955 the USSR created a commission to beat the USA into space The USA had a military rocket built under Wernher von Braun that could have put a satellite into orbit but President Eisenhower wanted to use a quotresearchonlyquot rocket to avoid Soviet propaganda about 39Warmongeringquot CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 43 3955 IT 353 w Lecture 6 The Space race The Soviets were planning to use a military rocket designed as a nuclear ICBM to launch a massive satellite full of scientific instruments Production was way behind schedule so the Soviets designed a npocmot Cl39lymHLlK prosteishy Sputnik simple satellite It was a small sphere with 2 radio transmitters 4 whip antennae an internal pressure sensor to detect hull penetration by a meteorite and an external density sensor image 39om httpenwikigediaorgl CopynghtZOlZ Michael x Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 Lecture 6 The Soviets learned that American scientists were planning to present a paper titled Satellite Over the Planet on October 61957 They feared the Americans were planning to launch a satellile at the same time They moved up their launch schedule using a rocket without its usual radio and test equipment lts quotbeepingquot could rece v by amateur radio operators all around the world as it passed overhead On October 4 Sputnik 1 was launched ed The space race m unlkle 3amp7 Cuwvlghl 2m 2 Michael x Lyuns All rights reserved IT 353 Lecture 6 Q Why The successful launch of Sputnik 1 into orbit around the Earth caused a great deal of consternation especially in the USA The space race Cuwvlghl 2m 2 Michael x Lvurrs All rights reserved 9 0 IT 353 The s ace race Lecture 6 P On October 1957 Soviet premier Nikita Kruschev decreed that something quotspectacularquot in space would be done to celebrate the 40 h anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution which was in early November Soviets scientists decided to launch a dog into space to see what might happen if a human went there later Laika was a stray dog who had been trained imagefrom httpIenwikipediaorg to stay in a confined space and eat special gel food She was launched aboard Sputnik 2 There was no plan to bring her back The Soviets first announced she had been euthanized before her oxygen ran out Later they announced she had died due to lack of oxygen after 6 days In 2002 it was revealed she probably died after a few hours due to overheating caused by a mechanical failure The rocket reentered the atmosphere and broke up after about 5 months Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 390 IT 353 3 Lecture 6 The space race On December 6 1957 the Americans launched their research rocket with a satellite on board 4 A live TV audience saw it rise 4 feet then fall and explode only 2 seconds after liftoff The satellite survived A replica is on show at the National Air and Space Museum UdvarHazy Center image from httpenwikipediaorg image from httpwwwnasmsiedul Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 16 IT 353 The s ace race Lecture 6 P On January 31 1958 Explorer 1 was launched on a modified military rocket lt confirmed the presence ofthe radiation belt around the Earth now named for James Van Allen who first theorized its existence image 39om httn39llen wikinedi nrnl Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 49 399 IT 353 3 Lecture 6 The space race On April 12 1961 Yuri Gagarin E mm B was launched into space inside Vostok 1 The satellite completed one orbit of the Earth and reentered the atmosphere At about 23000 feet altitude Gagarin was ejected and descended on a parachute and landed safely about 130 miles off target Soviet scientists did not know h enwiki ediam how to slow the spacecraft enough to allow a human to survive a landing The Soviets concealed the fact that Gagarin ejected from the satellite because the Federation Aeronautique Internationale rules required the pilot to land with his craft image from httpenwikipediabrg Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 50 9 0 IT 353 The s ace race Lecture 6 P On May 5 1961 Alan Shepard completed a suborbital flight into space He had manual control of his Freedom 7craft and splashed down inside it On May 25 1961 President Kennedy announced to Congress the goal of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely within a decade On February 20 1962 John Glenn completed 3 orbits and splashed down aboard his craft Friendship 6 On September 20 1963 Kennedy proposed at the UN that the USA and the USSR should work on ajoint manned Moon mission Kruschev initially rejected the idea but later was prepared to accept it His distrust of President Johnson scuttled the process Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 51 390 IT 353 3 Lecture 6 The space race On July 16 1969 Apollo 11 lifted off atop a Saturn 5 rocket 3 days later it entered orbit around the Moon Neil Armstrong and Edwin quotBuzzquot Aldrin entered the Lunar Module Eagle then it detached from the Command Module Columbia and descended to the surface Michael Collins stayed aboard Columbia 6 hours after landing Armstrong set foot on the surface He and Aldrin spent about 2 hours exploring and conducting experiments The next day Eagle lifted off from the Moon and rejoined Columbia 3 days later Columbia splashed down in the Pacific The 3 astronauts were recovered safely only 161 days before the end of Kennedy39s decade The USA had 5 more lunar landings image from httpenwikipediaorg Copyright 2012 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 52 l 399 IT 353 Lectu re 6 Satellites satellite n Etymology Middle French from Latin satelit sateles attendant Date circa 1548 2 a a celestial body orbiting another of larger size b a manufactured object or vehicle intended to orbit the earth the moon or another celestial body From httE lzwww britannica comldictionarz CopynghtZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved l 3940 IT 353 Lectu re 6 Satellites Manmade satellites are often classified according to their mean orbital altitude measured from sea level low Earth grbit satellites LEOS have altitudes lt 1000 miles medium Earth grbit satellites MEOS have altitudes between LEOS and HEOS high Earth grbit satellites HEOS have altitudes gt 20000 miles geosynchronous Earth grbit satellites G EOS have altitudes of 22 300 miles and thus are a special subclass of HEOS Their rotational period matches that of the Earth so they appear to move within a fixed region of the sky If a GEOS39 orbital plane passes through the equator it appears to remain fixed in the sky hovering above a point on the equator This special type is known as geostationary The geostationary orbit is known as the Clarke orbit after the renowned scientist and author Arthur C Clarke CopynghtZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 o Lectu re 6 Satellites A satellite can only communicate with an earth station if it is visible lie above the horizon Because of the curvature of the Earth s surface the visibility is determined by the altitude CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 Lectu re 6 Satellites Radio waves travel without attenuation through free space but are attenuated by the Earth s atmosphere Reception may not be possible at extremely low angles of visibility To maximize signal levels while minimizing power consumption weight etc earth stations and satellites usually have directional antennae the maximum gain is along the boresight of the antenna A satellite with a highly directional antenna will not be able to communicate at the edges of its area of visibility if The area of effective communications is known as the footprint CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 9 IT353 Lecture 5 Satellites To cwer a large part ofthe Earth39 surface a constellation of satellites will be required The number depends on the footprint and orbit of each satellite Using equidistant GEOS with large footprints 3 satellites can cover most the Earth39s surface except for the polar regions view rrum directly abuve a pale oupvmmzw MichaelX Lynns All yams reserved IT 353 J Lecture 5 Satellites Geostationary satellites must orbit directly above the equator quot 4 separation between 39 39 39 assuming all available slots could be used effectively Since then the separation has been reduced to as little as 05 There are about 300 geostationary satellites in orbit today many ofthem south of the USA and Western Europe Most ofthe major satellite corporations in the USA have their operations centers in Colorado Q Why is this a prime location oupvmmzw MichaelX Lynns All yams reserved 9 IT 353 Lecture 5 Satellites Satellite communications uses low power over extreme distances The round trip time for a signal to travel from an earth station to a satellite and back is significant about A second for a GEOS A protocol that required acknowledgements backandforth would be too slow for practical use Most satellite systems use streams of bits not blocks eg bytes and a scheme known as convolutional encoding which adds controlled redundancy to allow Forward Error Correction FEC The convolutional encoding process creates a bit stream where each output bit is the result of several input bits The output rate is a multiple of usually twice the input bit rate convolutional 2quot 0mm encoder selector 12 k7 Dalaln Tho 5 W rD E Lli L11 Copyright 2011 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 59 9 IT 353 Lecture 5 Satellites The Global Positioning System GPS uses a constellation of 24 MEOS at altitudes of 1 1000 miles At any time at least 3 satellites are usually visible Timing information from each satellite allows a receiver to calculate its 3D position See 39 39 39 39 39 Positioninq seclment The Iridium satellite communications system uses 6 planar sets of 11 LEOS each at altitudes of 480 miles Copyright 2011 Michael X Lyons All rights reserved 60 3910 IT 353 Lectu re 6 Satellites A GPS receiver is a specialized device that can receive signals from multiple satellites It can interpret each signa to calculate its distance from the satellite and the position in absolute space of the satellite One signal only tells it how far away the satellite is but not in which direction The GPS receiver is somewhere on a sphere centered on the satellite Copyrightmii Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 6i 399 IT 353 Lectu re 6 Satellites A GPS receiver is a specialized deVIce that can receive Signals from multiple satellites It can Interpret each signa to calculate its distance from the satellite and the position in absolute space of the satellite One signal only tells it how far away the satellite is but not In which direction The GPS recewer is somewhere on a sphere centered on the satellite Two signals give it an infinite 2D set of possible locations The GPS receiver is somewhere on a circle at the intersection of two spheres Copyrightmii Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 62 3910 IT 353 Lectu re 6 Satellites A GPS receiver is a specialized device that can receive signals from multiple satellites It can Interpret each signal to calculate its distance from the satellite and the position in absolute space of the satellite One Signal only tells It how far away the satellite is but not in which direction The GPS receiver is somewhere on a sphere centered on the satellite Two signals give it an infinite 2D set of possible locations The GPS receiver Is somewhere on a crrcle at the intersection of two spheres Three signals allow calculation of a precise location but timing errors usually mean an exact intersection is not found The closest point on the Earth39s surface is given as the location Copynght2oii Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 63 399 IT 353 Lectu re 6 Satellites A GPS receiver is a specialized device that can receive Signals from multiple satellites It can interpret each signa to calculate its distance from the satellite and the position in absolute space of the satellite One signal only tells it how far away the satellite is but not in which direction The GPS receiver Is somewhere on a sphere centered on the satellite Two signals give it an infinite 2D set of possible locations The GPS receiver is somewhere on a circle at the intersection of two spheres Three Signals allow calculation of a precise location but timing errors usually mean an exact intersection is not found The closest point on the Earth39s surface is given as the location With four or more signals the timing can be corrected and the position including altitude can be calculated very accurately Copyrigmmii Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 64 39 IT 353 I f Lecture 6 Satellites By comparing readings over time a GPS receiver can determine its own shortterm velocity direction and speed By storing results it can calculate time and distance travelled average speed and so on If the receiver software includes a geographical database the unit can show positions on maps calculate travel routes etc For some applications a unit is designed to track waypoints so a route can be reversed The GPS receiver may be enhanced with other data sources eg realtime traffic to show congestion on a planned route To enable remote tracking of the unit it can be enhanced with some type of transmitter to send data about its location to another application CopyrightZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 65 39 IT 353 Lecture 6 CopyrightZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 66 IT 353 Lecture 6 ascent trajectory Copyngmmm Mrchae x Lyons AH ngms reserved 67 39 IT 353 Lecture 6 burn complete ascent trajectory Copy ghtZOM Mrchae x Lyons AH ngms reserved 68 IT 353 Lecture 6 low Earth orbit quotparking orbitquot Copyngmmm chhae x Lyons AH ngms reserved 69 39 IT 353 Lecture 6 low Earth orbit quotparking orbitquot Copy ghtZOM chhae x Lyons AH ngms reserved 70 IT 353 Lecture 6 transfer burn CopyrrngOM Mrchaerx Lyons AH ngms reserved 71 39 IT 353 Lecture 6 transfer burn geostationary transfer orbit CopyrrghtZOM Mrchaer x Lyons AH Hng reserved 72 IT 353 Lecture 6 geostationary transfer orbit CopyrightZOii MichaeiX Lyons Aii rights reserved 73 39 IT 353 Lecture 6 geostationary transfer orbit Copyrigmmii MichaeiX Lyons Aii rights reserved 74 IT 353 Lecture 6 apogee ickquot Copyngmmm chhae x Lyons AH ngms reserved 75 39 IT 353 Lecture 6 Copy ghtZOM chhae x Lyons AH ngms reserved 76 399 IT 353 3 Lecture 1 George Mason Univelsity IT 353 Information Defense Technologies Spring 2012 Section 001 Prof Lyons Section 002 Prof McCallam r v v CopynghtZOiZ Michaei x Lyons AH rights reserved 1 l 399 IT 353 as Lecture 1 TOday C4STAR Project work CopynghtZOM Michaei x Lyons AH rights reserved 2 399 IT 353 0 Lecture 1 C lSTAR Q What is command and control Copynghimii Michaei x Lyons Aii rights reserved 3 13 39T 353 C lSTAR Lecture 1 command and control The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel equipment communications facilities and procedures employed by a commander in planning directing coordinating and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission Also called CZ US DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 Command is more than just issuing orders CopyngntZOM Michaei x Lyons Aii rights reserved 90 39T 353 C lSTAR Lecture 1 Consultation Command and Control C3 The responsibilities and activities of political military and civil authoritbs in political consultation including crisis management nuclear consultation and civil emergency plannn The term also applies to the authority responsibilitbs and activities of military commanders in the direction and coordination of military forces and in the implementation of orders related to the execution of operations NATO Glossary AAP3 l CopyngntZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 13 39T 353 C lSTAR Lectu re 1 Consultation C2 C3 NATO C2 Communications C3 C3 Computers C4 C4 Combat systems C5 Cx Intelligence Cxl Cxl Surveillance Reconnaissance CxISR CXIS Target Acquisition R C4STAR There are many variations and combinations CopyngntZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 90 39T 353 C lSTAR Lecture 1 Q What is communications CopynghtZOii Michaei x Lyons Aii rights reserved 7 13 39T 353 C lSTAR Lectu re 1 com municate To use any means or method to convey information of any kind from one person or place to another US DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 CopynghtZOii Michaei x Lyons Aii rights reserved 8 90 39T 353 C lSTAR Lecture 1 Q What are computers CopynganOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 9 3943 IT 353 C4STAR Lecture 1 l Intelligence Q What is intelligence CopynganOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 10 20 IT 353 C4STAR 0 Lecture 1 Intelligence By inteligence we mean every sort of information about the enemy and his country the basis in short of our own plans and operations Clausewitz On War 1832 quoted in JP 20 g39J Izlderh 6 P33 2quot L A4 um 4 CopyngntZOii Michaei x Lyons AH rights reserved 4 STAR Lecture 1 Intelligence Without intelligence you would have only your fears on which to plan your defense arrangements and your whole military establishment Now if you re going to use nothing but fear and that s all you have you re gOIng to make us an armed c So this kind of knowledge is vital to us President Dwight D Eisenhower 1954 quoted in JP 2 CopyngntZOM Michaei x Lyons AH rights reserved 399 IT 353 C4STAR 0 Lecture 1 l Intelligence intelligence The product resulting from the collection processing integration evaluation analysis and interpretation of available information concerning foreign nations hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements or areas of actual or potential operations The term is also applied to the activity which results in the product and to the organizations engaged in such activity See also Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 3943 IT 353 C4STAR Lecture 1 l Intelligence intelligence See also acoustic intelligence allsource intelligence basic intelligence bat 39 39 39 39 39 39 cri 39c 39 39 com ti al current intelligence departmental intelligence domestic intelligence electronic intelligence electrooptical intelligence foreign intelligence foreign instrumentation signals intelligence general military intelligence human resources 39 39 ima ery 39 39 joint 39 39 laser intelligence measurement and signature intelligence medical 39 39 military 39 39 national 39 39 nuclear intelligence opensource intelligence operational intelligence political intelligence radar intelligence scientific and technical intelligence strategic 39 39 tactical 39 39 target 39 39 technical intelligence technical 39 39 39 terrain39 39 Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 CopynghtZOM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved IT 353 C4STAR Lecture 1 I Intelligence Knowthe adversary and know ours f m 1 a 5 in el hundred battles you will never be in peril When you are ignorant of the enemy but knowyourself your chan s ofwining and losing and equal lfignorant of both your enemy and yourself OF you are certain in every battleto be in perilquot SunTzuThe Art ofWar quoted m Armlstead p49 image from WW amazon cum CupyughlZUH MichaelX Lyons Allnghlsveserved IT 353 C4STAR Lecture 1 I Intelligence Information is of greatest value l a 4v4 by providing reasoned insight into Jture conditions or situations This may occur as a result of its association with other information already received or Wnen it is considered in the light of experience already possessed by the recipient of the information Information on its own is a fact or a series offacts that may be of utility to the commander but when related to other information already knovm about the operational environment and considered in the lig 0 pa expen39ence regarding an adversary it gives rise to a new set offacts intelligence Joint Intelligence J P 20 CupyughlZUM MichaelX Lyons Allnghlsveserved 399 IT 353 C4ISTAR 0 Lecture 1 Intelligence The relating of one set of information to another or the comparing of information against a database of knowledge already held and the drawing of conclusions by an intelligence analyst is the foundation of the process by which intelligence is produced Ultimately intelligence has two critical features that make it different from information Intelligence allows anticipation or prediction of future situations and circumstances and it informs decisions by illuminating the differences in available courses of action COAs Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopynghImM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved I7 3943 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 Intelligence Intelligence provides the commander with a threat assessment based on an analysis of the full range of adversary capabilities and a prediction of the adversary s likely intention With predictive accurate and relevant intelligence commanders may gain the critical advantage of getting inside the adversary s decisionmaking cycle improving insight into how the adversary will act or react The commander can therefore formulate plans based on this knowledge and thus decrease the risks inherent in military operations and increase the likelihood of success Joint Intelligence JP 20 Copynght2OII Michael x Lyons All rights reserved I8 399 IT 353 C4ISTAR 0 Lecture 1 l Intelligence Intelligence is not an exact science there will always be some uncertainty in the minds of intelligence analysts as they assess the adversary and the commander and staff as they plan and execute operations Likewise intelligence as the synthesis of quantitative analysis and qualitativejudgment is rarely unequivocal and is therefore subject to competing interpretation It is therefore important that intelligence analysts provide an estimate of the degree of confidence they have in their analytic conclusions Such estimates of analytic confidence help intelligence consumers decide how much weight to place on intelligence assessments when making a decision Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopynghImM Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 19 3943 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 l Intelligence Telme whatyou know tell me whatyou don t know tell me what you think always distinguish which Is which General Colin Powell USA Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 19891993 quoted in Joint Intelligence JP 20 Copynght2OII Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 20 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 I Intelligence DISSEMINATION PLANNING AND AND INTEGRATION DIREC HON ANALVS AND PRODUCTION PROCESSING EXPLOI I ATION Flame Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopyrightZOM MichaelX Lyons All rights reserved 21 2 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 I Intelligence Intelligence includes organizations processes and products and involves the collection processing exploitation analysis and dissemination of information important to decision makers Intelligence however is not an end in itself For intelligence to have utility it requires users Thus an examination of whether or not intelligence is effective or influential not only depends on the intelligence organizations processes and products but must also considerthe users Explicit user requirements properly communicated to intelligence agencies initiate the intelligence collection process Intelligence products provide users with the information that has been collected and analyzed based on their requirements Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopyrightZOM Michael x Lyons All nng reserved IT 353 Lecture 1 o E E R A 1 o i Flgure 11 Relationship u Dnla information and imelllgence lnint C4STAR Intelligence CUpyVlgthUM Michael gtlt Lyuns All rights reserved IT 353 Lecture 1 5quot Figure l2 Purposes of Joint Intelligence Joint Intelligence JP 20 CupyngthEm Michael X Lyuns All rights reserved L 399 IT 353 C4STAR 0 Lecture 1 I Intelligence PRINCIPLES OF JOINT INTELLIGENCE Perspective Think Like the Adversary 39 39 39 39 with Plans and Operations Integrity Remain Intellectually Honest Unity of Effort Cooperate to Achieve a Common End State Prioritization Prioritize Requirements Based on Commander s Guidance Excellence Strive to Achieve the Highest Standards of Quality 0 Prediction Accept the Risk of Predicting Adversary Intentions Agility Remain Flexible and Adapt to Changing Situations Collaboration Leverage Expertise of Diverse Analytic Resources 0 Fusion Exploit All Sources of Information and Intelligence Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 25 3943 IT 353 C4STAR Lecture 1 I Intelligence Intelligence sources are the means or systems that can be used to observe and record information relating to the condition situation or activities of a targeted location organization or individual Intelligence sources can be people documents equipment ortechnical sensors and are grouped according to one of the seven major intelligence disciplines geospatial intelligence GEOINT human intelligence HUMINT signals intelligence SIGINT measurement and signature intelligence MASINT opensource intelligence OSINT technical intelligence TECHINT and counterintelligence CI These disciplines should be used in concert to complement and support analytic conclusions in an integrated multidiscipline approach to intelligence analysis Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 26 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 Intelligence H llELLchl l39L JF Lli SUBCAi39EGORl u AND SOURCE Joint mtelligence JP 20 Flume intelligence Disclplmes ubcalegnnes and Suurces CopyrighlZOM Michaelx Lyons All rights reserved 27 39 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 Intelligence lOl JSHIi 1 T EEN lNlELL FEN NTS NU IN 3RMA1K JQ Q Joint Intelligence JP 20 Figure L5 Relan39onshln Between intelligence Requirements zumnmmmuan Reumrements CopyrighlZOM Michael x Lyons All nng reserved 28 IT 353 Lecture 1 C4ISTAR l Intelligence Flume L7 categanes a lntellluence products Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopyrightZOM Michaelx Lyons All rights reserved 29 39 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 Intelligence Joint Intelligence JP 20 Flume Ha Levels uf lmellluence CopyrightZOM Michael x Lyons All nng reserved IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 I Intelligence THE PARADOX OF WARNING Friendly Imemgense Dulcrmlnes Advnary Immiun Frimdly e ll elllganem I l 39f5 We Pravda a39 mm lam Wanting l Agvelsnry Ag upi s Errandlyrgrse s Different aqurse39ar Bene tquot Advers ary Ac dn Ac ity Advgin hers2 quotmay 5 wiminu mm Adversary mlelllgem html f m lmn aquot Home Is The Paradox of Warnlnu Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopyrightZOll MlchaelX Lyons All rights reserved 31 2 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 I Intelligence Intelligence Collection All collected data must be transmitted back to human handlers who provide analysts and other knowledge workers with the capacity to resource commanders efforts using advanced information and knowled e sufficient to make decisions faster and better than other human beings Some of it could be processed in cyberspace by virtual processors mostly with data But humans must still turn that information into knowledge and thus the information and knowledge that cyberbots collect must be sent to a location where a human can receive and use it Decisions in cyberspace will have to be made by cyberbots because they move and change too swiftly to allow human intervention and guidance Hall p109 CopyrightZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 32 IT 353 C4ISTAR Lecture 1 Intelligence One interesting and complex outcome cyberplanners seek is to slow down an adversary s decision cycle by causing that adversary to disbelieve the veracity of information he has and to feel compelled to seek confirmatory evidence before deciding and acting Without belief in the veracity of information and knowledge decision makers can very easily suffer a degree of decision paralysis Hall p25 9 CopyrightZOM MlchaelX Lyons All Hng reserved 33 39 IT 353 AR Lecture 1 l Intelligence TRIBUTES OF INTELLIGENCE EXCELLENCE ANTI CIPATORY E MEL RELEVANT ACCURATE oiiJEbmE USABLE39 AVAILABLE Flame I172 Joint Intelligence JP 20 CopyrightZOM MlchaelX Lyons All Hng reserved IT 353 CAISTAR Lecture1 l Inhelllgence ANALv39nc ElAs AN ENDURlNG PROBLEM 1945 Funhermcrey inieiligenee afficers have sameiimes been led in exueme cases into me cryslzlrgaling ariempis m aseenain enemy inlemiolls on the basis aigness or am n im pried a ihe ava anle y39aene Pa i gence an d m contrary Report at me Commiltee Appainied hy the Seereiriry DlWar in Study w r Department lmelligence Aeiiyii39 s Lave Beard Repun 5 December 1955 Juinilnlelligenee JP zen eipnvnezin mm x inquot M nnmma IT 353 CAISTAR Lecture1 Inhelllgence 2004 The lmelligenee Commu y has lang snuggled wnh uie need or analysis In avercarne analytic biases rim is re resist me xendency re see whauney would expeu a se n ihe inte enee reppning ln xlie case uf Iraq39s weapons oi mass desiriierion eapahi I ies ne Commiiree round that inielligence analysis in many cases based their analysis more an iheir exp ons iha on an objective eyaluaiian pl ilie annarian in me intelligence repum39ngquot Repan rm ihe U s inie gence Community39s ar lniel ence Assessmenis an Iraq i1 States Salem Cummiiiee an lnielligenee Uniie Senaie 7 July 2004 MBzmlMimadX inquot anmsmsemd Julntlntelllgence JP zen elm 399 IT 353 0 Lecture 1 Q What is surveillance Q What is quotreconnaissancequot Q How are they different C4STAR S Surveillance R Reconnaissance CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 3943 IT 353 as Lecture 1 Definition of SURVEILLANCE oun n close watch kept over someone or something as by a detective also SUPERVISION Origin of SURVEILLANCE French from surveiler to watch over from sur veiler to watch from Old French veilfer from Latin vigiare from vigil watchful more at VIGIL First Known Use 1802 from http wwwmerriamiwebster comdictionary C4STAR S Surveillance CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 399 IT 353 X Lectu re 1 surveillance The systematic observation of aerospace surface or subsurface areas places persons orthlngs by visual aural electronic photographic or other means See also Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 C4STAR S Surveillance CopynghiZOii Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 3943 IT 353 as Lecture 1 Definition of RECONNAISSANCE noun a preliminary survey to gain information especrally an exploratory military survey of enemy territory Origin of RECONNAISSANCE French literally recognition from Middle French reconorssance from Old French reconoistre to recognize First Known Use 1810 from http wwwmerriamiwebster comdictionary C4 R Reconnaissance CopynghiZOii Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 399 IT 353 C4STAR 0 Lecture 1 R Reconnaissance reconnaissance A mission undertaken to obtain by visual observation or other detection methods information about the activities and resources of an enemy or adversary or to secure data concerning the meteorological hydrographic or geographic characteristics of a particular area Also called RECONquot Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Term JP 102 Copynghlmll Michael x Lyons All ngms reserved 3943 IT 353 Lecture 1 reconnaissance in force n offensive operation C4 STAR R Reconnaissance designed to discover andor test the enemy s strength or to obtain other information Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 Copynghlmll Michael x Lyons All ngms reserved 399 IT 353 C4STAR 0 Lecture 1 TA Target Acquisition target 1 An entity or object considered for possible engagement or other action 2 In intelligence usage a country area installation agency or person against which intelligence operations are directed 3 An area designated and numbered for future firing 4 In gunfire support usage an impact burst that hits the target See also objective areaquot Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 43 3943 IT 353 C4STAR Lecture 1 TA Target Acquisition objective area A defined geographical area within which is located an objective to be captured or reached by the military forces This area is defined by competent authority for purposes of command and control Also called OAquot Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 CopynghtZOll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 44 399 IT 353 C4STAR 0 Lecture 1 TA Target Acquisition target acquisition The detection identification and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons Also called TA See also target analysisquot Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 Copynght20ll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved 3943 IT 353 C4STAR Lecture 1 TA Target Acquisition target analysis An examination of potential targets to determine military importance priority of atta c and weapons required to obtain a desired level of damage or casualties See also target acquisitionquot Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 102 Copynght20ll Michael x Lyons All rights reserved
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