Computer Hardware Fundamentals
Computer Hardware Fundamentals IT 212
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Date Created: 09/28/15
s 5 L uI u 3 u h 7 v a v quot iquoti 13953 39 i quot lE39 r 39 39 0 a t39 7 39 IT 212 How Computers Work Data Storage Adjunct Professor Masiyowski Electrical and Computer Engineering Fall 2003 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 1 Course Outline KN Part 1 Bootup Process 0 0 Introduction Know the Hardware How Disk Boot Works Operating System s Role up Part 2 How Software Works 0 0 0 Programming Languages Windows Principles Applications Principles 0 0 9 Sgedgsmrage Part 4 Data Storage Disk Drives Ogtical amp Removable up 0000 Part 7 How Internet Works LANs PC Connections Wireless eMail amp WWW 28 Sept 2003 Part 3 Microchips Transistors RAM 0 Microprocessors 0000 Part 5 IO Devices Busses amp Ports Keyboard amp Displays Pointing Devices Scanners 2 0 Part 6 Multimedia Sound Video Virtual Reality up Part 8 Printers O Basic Impact LaserJets Color Inkjets InClass Exercise Apply quotHow Computers Workquot to a practical situation IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 Lecture Agenda Chapter 10 How Disk Storage Works History concept of operations electromagnetism 0 Chapter 11 How Disk Drives Works principles of operation floppy amp hard disk Chapter 12 How Drives Increase Speed amp Storage disk amp file compression disk defragmentation 9 Chapter 13 How Optical Storage Works CD amp DVD drives Read Only Write Once RW Chapter 14 How Removable Storage Works Zip Jaz QIC tape Storage Device Demonstration 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 History 1 0 1940 Vacuum tubes used for storage O 1950 Tape drives replaced punch cards 0 1956 IBM developed first hard disk Winchester 3030 0 1971 IBM introduced floppy disk 8quot O 1980 Sony introduced 35 Floppy 720KB capacity Why is Persistent Data Storage Important 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 4 History 2 0 1982 Drivetec announced 333MB unformatted 525 drive 0 1983 Philips and Sony developed CDROM as computer storage device 0 1992 Cost of 200MB drive dropped below 200 less than 1 per megabyte 0 1998 DVDRAM drive 1768 two movies O 2001 affordable solid state storage devices 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 5 Introduction 9 Focusing on nonvolatile storagewhen the lights go out do you know what your data is doing Storage types Online 0 available to computer at all times Offline 4 physically removed from computer Why is Data Storage so Important 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 External Nonvolatile Media 1 0 Punch card gt I 0 Paper and Mylar Tapes l with punched holes gti Magnetic Tape l Large capacity Must be accessed sequentially hence slow Requires manual loading onto tape drive 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 7 External Nonvolatile Media 2 Magnetic Cylinders Origin of cylindersectortrack nomenclature on disk drives Automatically retrieved from jukebox Military airborne applications since more vibration resistant than disks 0 Magnetic storage useful on military AC since it is not susceptible to EMP 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 8 Internal Nonvolatile Media 4 Column ad sense 0 Core memories Old Days Ferrite magnetic oxide doughnuts Small capacity one bit per bead Storage by changing magnetic orientation Random Access Nonvolatile Used in Space Shuttle At least to 19805 0 Radiation and vibration hard 9 Flash Electronic Memory Today 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 9 HardSoft Drives O Nonvolatile Random Access Where does hard come from Hard drives rigid aluminum alloy platter with magnetic coating Floppy flexible mylar substrate Random versus Sequential Access 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 10 Next Generation Storage Device Solid State Electronic Memory Flash 0 O O O O O O O O High storage capacity fast data transfer rates w USB 20 increased flexibility Q A portability of a floppy with enhanced capacity a aquot r 69 Can provide for FileDrive Compression password protection for data security write protection prevents accidental erasure performance 900K byess 480M bps Data retention 10 years Write cycles 1000000 quot Tm TEXT 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage c1014 J Masiyowski 20023 11 Example Kanguru MicroDrive MicroDrive Cost vs Storage Capacity 2 000 A 1 500 3 g 1 000 W L a 500 W 0 A A 32 64 128 256 512 1 024 2048 3Feb03 40 50 80 150 270 750 1 450 3Sep03 35 45 60 95 200 400 1 000 Storage Capacity M Byes USB Mass Storage Device asof 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 12 Drive ReadWrite Technologies 0 Hard disk Disk head floats above fast rotating disk 9 Head crash rw head strikes platter physically destroying magnetic coating and data Denser magnetic coating gives higher storage density 9 Floppy Head actually rides on slow moving disk Sizes 8 525 and 35 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 13 Electromagnetism 0 Magnetism and Electricity are interrelated Flow of current creates a magnetic field 6 this is why motors work Movement of a wire in a magnetic field causes current to flow 6 this is why generators work Direction of magnetic field is related to direction of current polarized N or S Chapter 10 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 14 Writing Data Bits to Disks 0 Disk storage media Thin layer of magnetic particles onin disk 0 Disk head Ferrite core with a wire wrapped around it Electric current flowing in head generates polarized magnetic field Magnetizing of head magnetizes spot on disk Data actually stored as the change in polarization 1 OR u 0 OR 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 15 Reading Data Bits from Disks 0 Reading data Rotating disk causes magnetic field to move relative to read head which induces current in read head Head passes over changing magnetic field 0 Direction of induced current flow reveals polarity of disk magnetic field o Electronics reads direction of current flow as 1 or O 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 16 Formatting a Disk 0 Need addresses to locate data 0 Disk segmented by electronics Tracks concentric circles Tracks divided into sectors pie shaped wedges o typically 512 bytes Block or cluster 0 OS defined minimum storage entity 0 Typical cluster in DOS is 4kByte Why is Formatting Necessary Is it Secure 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 17 Writing Files to Disk 1 39 To save a working file from RAM volatile to a disk drive nonvolatile OS reads FAT to find an unused cluster OS converts the number of the unused cluster it read from FAT to the physical track and sector OS sends desired physical ADX and data to BIOS 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 18 Writing Files to Disk 2 BIOS communicates with the disk drive electronics and copies data from RAM to the disk drive If more than 1 cluster OS reserves another free cluster o Can be anywhere on the disk 0 FAT contains links from cluster to cluster FAT is updated when write complete 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 19 Reading Files From Disk 1 39 Accessing a file on a disk to work on it is called Opening the file Read only Readwrite Application will often list files you recently worked on 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 20 Reading Files From Disk 2 To load a file from disk drive non volatile to RAM volatile After selecting file the OS locates it in the FAT and reads address of the first cluster The OS converts the cluster number to track and sectors OS requests the BIOS to retrieve the file to RAM does not destroy original No need to update FAT 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 21 Deleting Files 0 DE 6 MS Windows Files not actually deleted just access to them 9 Unix Files overwritten to make unreadable by others 0 Under Win95 or 98 OS can automatically move deleted files to recycle bin 0 If a file is deleted from a floppy and not yet overwritten may be able to retrieve the data using undeez e command What are the Security Privacy Issues 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 22 End of Chapter Next Chapter 11 0 How Disk Drives 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 23 iWhy Floppy Diskettes 9 Convenient small size portable 0 Widely available standardized 9 Inexpensive 9 Floppy drive evolution Disk size 0 8 1973 o 525quot 1976 o 35 1980 Capacity 90K to 14MB typical What about Security Privacy Protection 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 24 35 Floppy Disk 7 Readonly window traCkS PlaSt39C Case writable no hole 6 sectorstrack notwritable hole 0 512 bytessector 1 Density sensing hole double density no hole high density 144 Mb hole 39 Rotation speed v Insertion key 300 RPM Metal shutter to protect access to Mylar disk 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 25 Hard Drives 1 0 Evolution 10MB 1980 to 120 GB today Access time from 87 milliseconds to lt 8ms Size from 3 to 4 thick to almost credit card size 9 Casing Entire mechanism is airtight to prevent dust etc from getting between head and disk o Headdisk gap is 2 millionths of an inch Dust is typically 10gtlt gap Smoke particle is typically 5gtlt gap Hair is 30gtlt gap Any headdisk contact causes permanent loss of data 28 Sept 2003 rr 212 Part 4 Data Storage cm14 J Masiyowski 20023 25 Hard 3 What about Price g CostMbytes Avnllahimy vur Ed Grnchawski at Almaden 28 Seat 2003 Hard Disks 3 Capacity What39s in Store wim Seagate 30 twohour DVDquality movies 0R VHSquality video 0R 32 days of aroundLhaclock MIPS audio OR 30000 hi hresolu on di 1 h 7200 RPM t t g 0 180 15G Byte 170 mustplay games 25 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part4 Dam Storage c1014 J Maswowskw 200273 Disk Density 0 Never enough storage available Bloated programs including OS Emphasize online help vs printed manuals Large amounts of data Multimedia 0 Graphics 0 MPEG movies 0 MP3 music 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 29 Disk Performance 0 Access Speed Time to get data tofrom disk Around 79ms access time o Latency depends on rotation speed o Data transfer rate I Number of heads Electronics RAM buffer in disk electronics IDESCSI Microprocessors getting faster disk IO holding steady not increasing as quickly 9 Data Transfer Rate How muchfast the data is exchanged 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 30 End of Chapter Next Chapter 12 0 How Disk Drives Increase Speed amp Storage 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 31 Improving Speed s Access time how long on average it takes to move the readwrite head into position of the beginning of a file Performance Improvement Methods o faster disk rotation o faster electronics 9 on device memory caching read ahead I write buffering 6 Data Transfer Rate number of bytes or Mbytes transferred from one device to another in a specified amount of time 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 32 iImproving Storage The capacity of a given disk can be better utilized by Data Compression 9 Two Levels File Disk 39 Some antivirus programs don t like 9 Some applications will not work with compressed files Defragmentation 39 Utility which should be run occasionally 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 33 Directory 0 Many files can be stored on a disk drive Hierarchical approach helps to organize them 9 Directory A grouping of files and subdirectories that can be accessed collectively 0 Special directories Root First top level directory for a given disk Current directory One directory closer to root than current directory 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 34 Directory Usage 0 Most applications have a default storage directory 9 User can organize files by various means School related o IT212 ECE548 Hobbies o Aquarium Genealogy 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 35 FAT disk road map Unique table that describes stored on the disk itself in reserved locations Physical location of each file Linkages between clusters Empty locations on disk Locations which do not correctly store data bad blocks 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 36 4 FAT Types 1 FAT 12 Original DOS FAT 12bit cluster address Ai oppies still use this fat for compatibiig Hard disks lt 16 Mbytes 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 37 i FAT Types 2 39 FAT 16 I 16bit cluster address Hard disks lt 2 GB FAT 32 Win 95982000XP 32bit cluster address Hard disks lt 2048 GB 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 38 The FAT Problem Thinning Out the FAT FAT has space for only 65536 entries 216 to describe all clusters on disk Larger disk large cluster size Disk Size entries in FAT o 256MB disk cluster size4K 0 512MB disk cluster size8K o 1GB disk cluster size16K o 2GB disk cluster size32K 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 39 cluster Size FAT Limitation Solutions 0 Disk compression OS creates 1 large file which packs all files into 1 so that no space is wasted Revise FAT structure Windows 98 o FAT32 Up to 6GB cluster size4K 2048GB cluster size32KB 0 Eliminate FAT structure Master File Table Windows 2000 NT 0 NT File system NTFS 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 40 File System Summary Characteristic FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 NTFS DOSWindows 9x NT DOS Windows9x Windows 98 NT Windows NT Operating System 2000 XP NT 2000 XP 2000 XP 2000 XP Maximum Volume Size 16M Bytes 2048 G Bytes 2048 G Bytes nearly unlimited Imaximum number of files 4096 65536 4294967296 nearly unlimited filename length 83 nameext lt 255 characters lt 255 characters ampunicode set Security no no no access control Ecomony cluster size minimal minimal improved maximal Which File System is Best IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 41 28 Sept 2003 Disk Storage Paradox 9 Since the cluster is the minimum unit of space allocatable for a single file all files must be some multiple of clusters long A 1 byte text file will still take up 1 cluster 32K on a 2GB drive The Larger the disk the more space will be wasted due to partially filled clusters 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 42 Disk Compression O Entire Disk Volume is created as a single file by Operating System Operating System treats this file as a virtual drive Used special device driver to manage access keeps track of how each cluster is used 0 allows for cluster to be shared between files 9 When files are stored only the space needed to save the file is allocated thus the cluster limit is bypassed and space is saved Is Disk Compression NecessaryEconomical Today 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 43 File Compression o Algorithmbased looks for recurring data patterns of data 0 creates dictionary of patterns found in file 0 original data contains pointers to dictionary entries 0 compressed file includes dictionary of patterns 0 In some cases if data has few patterns compressed file may be larger than original 6 can compress binary files also file folders trees 6 Password protect compressed file cannot decompress file without password Is File Compression NecessaryEconomical Today 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 44 Fragmented Disk 0 Files are stored as linked lists of clustersnot necessarily seq uentially 0 Erased files leave randomly distributed unused areas 0 New files must be made to Defragmentation fit in unused areas 0 Defrag Move clusters until each file con guous How Often to Perform 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 45 End of Chapter Next Chapter 13 How Optical Storage Works 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 46 CDROMs 0 Compact Disk Read Only Memory 4 Large Storage Capacity 650MB per side 0 Use for Large Data Not Needing Update Clip art Photographs Large programs 39 i Book volumes 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 47 CDR CDRW CDR Compact Disk Recordable Record only once WORM CDRW Compact Disk ReWritable Record and erase multiple times 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 48 DVD 9 Digital Video Disk 9 Digital Versatile Disk 0 Large Capacity 85 GB per side 9 Movies 39 Huge data storage Maps Phone directories Images 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 49 DVDFORMAT TYPESCa pacity DVD5 one side one layer 47GB o DVD9 one side two layers 85GB 0 DVD10 two sides one layerside 94GB DVD14 two sides one sideone layer other sidetwo layers 1324GB 39 DVD18 two sidestwo layerside 1708GB 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 50 CDROM Technology 0 Data Stored in Spiral Sectors Hard and floppy drives use concentric tracks Variable Rotation Speed Constant tangential velocity 39e data moves at same speed over optical sensor Faster near center 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 51 CDROM Technology 7 lnner ircle 4 sectors y Circle 7 sectors When reading outer circle need to rotate slower so that time to read each sector is same 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 52 lCD ROM Technology O Buried Surface Contains Lands and Pits Detector Shines Laser Beam Through Plastic Protective Layer to Buried Data Layer Light that strikes pits is scattered and not reflected Light that strikes lands is reflected directly back towards detector and redirected via prism to photo diode Photo detector converts lightno light to electrical signal indicating 1 or O 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C10 14 J Masiyowski 2002 3 53 CDR Technology Disk Layers Clear Polymer laser side Clear lacquer Gold reflective Dye usually green Polycarbonate Lexan plastic structural layer label side 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 54 CDR Technology 0 Disk Surface Pregrooved ATIP absolute timing in pregroove Groove is modulated Laserphotodetector measures modulation and adjusts motor to maintain constant mediumdetector relative speed 0 Laser Beam Heats Buried Layer and Produces Pits by Either Bleaching dye layer Distorting polycarbonate plastic layer Producing bubble in dye layer 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 55 DVD Technology Disk Layers Symmetric read from both sides Multiple data layers on each side 0 Laser focused through one data layer to next 0 Spiral in on one layer out on other No need to reposition head in middle of recording 439 Shorter Wavelength Light Allows Focusing to Smaller Size 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 56 CDRW and DVD RAM RW 0 Recording Layer Is Made of a Material Which Can Be Either Crystalline Reflective or Amorphous Nonreflective VV te Do nothing to make land if land is already there To make pit laser beam strikes buried layer and heats spot to 9001300F Changes crystalline spot to amorphous Erase Amorphous spots pits can be annealed back to crystalline state lands using lower energy beam 4OOF Which to Use CDR CDRW DVDRW 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 57 End of Chapter Next Chapter 14 0 Removable Data Storage 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 58 Zip Drives vs 35 Floppy 1 Capacity 100250 MB vs 14MB 0 Speed 3000 rpm vs 360rpm Heads Dual readwrite heads lightly contact surface 1 10 size of floppy heads 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 59 Zip Drives vs 35 Floppy 2 39 Track spacing 2118 vs 135 0 Sector Same physical size vs same angular size 39 Disk surface Higher density recording media 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 60 Removable Hard Drives 1 9 Have high density but need Portability o workschoolhome Expandaany 0 Individual drives for particular applications BackupSecurity 0 make copy of nonremovable drive store elsewhere 0 requires more physical security handling 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 61 Removable Hard Drives 2 Typical hard drive is sealed to prevent particles causing head crash Removable alternative Jaz drive Metal door seals drive when not in housing Filter around spindle prevents particles greater than 3 microns from being pulled into disk while spinning 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 62 Removable Hard Drives 3 If particle more than 2 microns contacts head pushes head away Ifwrite occurs high write drive detects and reads to see if OK Particle less than 2 microns passes under head ReadWrite Arm Motion of Disk surface ReadWrite Head 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 63 i QIC Tape Drive 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 0 Primary Purpose Data Archival ie Long Term J 7 Large Capacity 4G bytes inexpensive sequential access number of standard recording formats directory eg FAT of entire contents placed first or in separate track recorded in spiral fashion on the tape media tracks are segments into blocks similar to disks includes Error Correction Codes with the data multiple readwrite heads for write verification 64 Media Data Retention Rate How long will data stored on computer media remain intact Media Years Stone Tablet 2200 Archival AcidFree Paper 100500 Photographic Slides 100 Microfilm 10500 Magnetic Tape 1030 Digital Linear Tape 10300 Data Grade VHS Tape 1030 Newspaper 1020 CD 5100 Lifetime of Technology versus Lifetime of Medium 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 65 Future of Storage 0 Hard drive i Historically 60 capacity increase per year Improved costsize 9 35 per megabyte to 01 in last 10 years Future technologies Nearfield recordingMagnetooptical Uses combination of laser and magnetism o Optically assisted Winchester OAW drives Reflected laser beam affected by magnetic polarity Uses MEMS microelectromechanical system for mirrors lenses 0 Others WebInternetOnLine 28 Sept 2003 IT 212 Part 4 Data Storage C1014 J Masiyowski 20023 66 IT212 How Computers Work Potable Computes amp HighTech 10 Adjunct Professor J Masiyowski Electrical and Computer Engineering Fall 2003 moltt2uu3 nzizpans iioomesltc225 JMaszshZDDZ l Course Outline I causing mm at 2n 1 mm Yvansistws Rm Micvavmcessavs m a n smug Disanves amusement speedsways moltt2um irzizvans Ilo Manama JMsiwwsmuuza 2 Lecture Agenda Chapter 24 How Portable Computers Work I Notebooks amp Laptops PC Cards Personal Digital Assistant FDA Chapter 25 HighTech 10 I Global Positioning System I Fingerprint Recognition I Speech Recognition moltt2uu3 nzizpans iioomesltc225 JMaszshZDDZ 3 Laptops Objectives quot ufa I Minimize size weight power oonsumption for portability I Constraints viewing area keyboard mouse power capacity Realities I Typically 2x cost ofcomparable PC v lags desktop capabilities I Upgrading is dif cult if not impossible o economically practical moltt2um irzizvans Io DmiteSQ25 insiwwsazum 4 Laptops 39 7 AC Adapter or Battery 36 Hrs Use Typical 0 Small Builtin Speaker With Jack Specialized RAM packaging 39 Pointing Devices Touchpad Pointing Stick I external PS2 mouse input Display LCD up to 1024x768 I external display adapter output 5 m r 9 5 q n moltt2uu3 nzizpans iioomesltc225 JMaszshZDDZ 5 Laptops 0 Docking Station Allows Easy Connection to Desktop Components I Monitor I Netwo I Printer FloppyCDROMDVDCDRW I Plugable in bays I IDE extension through parallel port 0 peripheral bay dual function takes battery pack moltt2um irzizvans Ilo Manama JMsiwwsmuuza 5 Laptops 9 Heat Dissipation Is a Problem Battery heats up during use Fan cools electronic components Components switched off or clock speed lowered to reduce power consumption 9 Sound Card Video Controller MODEM All Built Into Motherboard not upgradable 9 PCMCIAPC Cards Allow Moderate Upgrade Memory modems NIC storage High Tech IO 1 on gum rr 212 Part5 lo Devices 245 o JMasz ski 2m23 7 PC Card 2 v A controller chip in the laptop link the PC Card to the lapto whe he is inserted v When a PC card is inserted into a Laptop the hardware detects that event and informs the operating system 0 The Operating system accss the PC Card39s CIS to determine which PC Card is it and what device driver tn load and initialize o The operating system assigns a memory address window and IO register addresses and givs that to the card39s device driver a This memory window links the laptop39s memory to the memory area in the PC Card 1r 212 Part5 ro Devices 245 o JMasz ski 2m23 9 1 on gum 6 Two Types Palm Palm OS Pocket PC Windows CE Windows CE 7 compact version of Windows 0 Color or Monochrome touch displays Ports serial USB infrared adapters for PC Cards smart cards etc 6 Builtin functions Word Excel Calendar etc 6 Volatile amp nonvolatile memory programs and data storage 1 on gum 1r 212 Part5 ro Devices 245 o JMasz ski 2m23 11 PC Card 1 Most PC Cards contain NonVolatile memory which stores con guration information about itself no jumpers required Called Card Information Structure or CIS Used by the device driver to provide information about card 0 A device driver is software that is an extension to the operating system to provide access to the hardware Sometimes a PC Card contains a battery to maintain data stored within ie volatile storage 0 Memory and IO memory registers are digital scratch pads where the card holds the data that can be accessed by the laptop rr212 Part5 1002ch came JMasWDMkiZE ZS a a 1 01 mm Portable Computer Tips 0 Buy new current version versus upgrade of older machine RAM upgrades may be practicaleconomical Disable Infrared IR port security G Portability invites theft secure data sencryption v physical offline stnrage if possible monmua rr212 Part5 IODevicEs came JMasWDMkiZE ZS 1n PDAs 2 6 Input not great handing writing recognition getting better small keyboard external peripherals available to augment IO 9 host PC wired connection of syncing and data interchange still vital 0 wireless connectivity to host PC and services emerging compatibility with desktop applications a key importance of PDA success monmua rr212 Part5 IODevicEs came JMasWDMkiZE ZS 12 Page 2 PDA Limitations 0 Battery operating life limited 9 Battery loss means data loss Not easily upgradable quick obsolesce 0 Less standardized than desktop PC 0 Limited IO Not meant to replace desktop lWhich to Choose PDA or Portable Computer 1 on gum ir 212 pans lO Devices 245 o JMaswwski 2m23 13 Global Positioning System GPS 39 24 Satellites in geosynchronous orbit system maintained by DoD 9 GPS radio receiver used on Earth to receive GPS broadcasts at least 4 satellite broadcast are need to determine one39s location ever 1 mSec a satellite broadcasts ID information and the time that information was sent ground stations constandy updates and correctumng signals each satellite39s position is know the receiver measures the time in which a GPS broadcast signal took an reach the receiver 1n 01 mm 1r 212 P2115 lO Devices amine 1Maswmn2m23 Fingerprint Recognition 1 Specialized scanner creates digital image light re ected from ridgs raised aras light diffused from valleys that separate ridges 6 FID software analyzes ridges for special features core center of the ngerprint minutia point at ridgs end or divide 9 Two Types of identifications Onetoone veri cation match w acceptable margin onetomany search ofdatabase for match law enforcement uses list of candidate FPs 1n 01 mm 1r 212 P2115 lO Devices amine 1Maswmn2m23 are found 17 Page 3 End of Chapter Next Chapter 25 0 HighTech IO GPS 2 3 By using the distances between the receiver and each satelite computations pinpoint the receiver location on the Earth data from 3 satellites can pinpoint a location data from a 4 12 satellite improves accuracy 0 LatLong of the receiver location can be used as input to other programs a map monmua 1T212Part lODevicEs c24zo JMasWDMkiZE ZS 115 Speech Recognition 1 0 Speech Recognition Software Enrollment speaking know text to the software to create a table of vocal references 6 after enrollment person speaks into a microphone the speech to be recognized applications text transcribers lWhy is Speech Recognition been Slow in Adoption7 I Is Speech Recognition the Wave of the Futur e I m on 2mm iT212 Part 5 10 DEVlEES 245 JMESWDMkl 2m273 1E
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