Culture, Org and Technology
Culture, Org and Technology PUBP 503
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Lecture 1 The Bandwidth Crunch Bandwidth Crunch gt The supply chain initiative is moving traditional internal business transactions voice amp data outside of the corporate network The TCPIP protocol has made internet technology the defacto supply chain datavoice integration standard The entire carrier infrastructure is converting to IP We are running out of email addresses need the ExtraNet Integrated Systems world wide o 2005 NationalInternational supply chains will mostly integrate at the business system level 2006 Internet based EDI Procurement Technical Data Transfer will be stable and secure across heteroaeneous business systems This is called The Value Chain VVV V O 0 Lecture 2 Kev people amp their contributions historv of the LANs Xerox contributions amp Network Topographies Steve Jobs gt Great marllteter amp visionary 9 can anticipate market changes amp needs futurist Steve Wozniak gt Toollt info already available amp wrote a little code gt Killer App visual calculator spreadsheet 9 accountants loved it didn t have to wait to use the company s mainframe 0 Companies bought the Apple II amp the VisiCalc application Time saving amp drastically increased productivity Apple II s interface was the key Don Bricklin amp Poul Fronkston gt Invented VisiCalc to teach their accounting students gt Jobs amp Wozniak made a deal with them to put in onto the Apple II IBM gt IBM saw Apple s success and wanted to get into the market but they had no operating system 9 purchased from Gary Kilddll Gory Kilddll gt Computer genius gt Created CPM operating system which IBM purchased from his company Digital Research Inc DR or DRI first large software company gt IBM wonted Dr Kilddll s operating system but Kilddll wosn t home when they come to his house so they went to Microsoft 0 MicrosoftBill Gotes amp Bdlmer didn t hove on OS but they found one with Tim Patterson QDOS Microsoft re worllted QDOS ond renomed it MS DOS amp PC DOS 9 sold it to IBM but kept some rights 0 IBM amp the first PC in I98I hdd lots of business dpplicotions focused on selling the softwore not the open orchitecture 9 the BIOS wosn t open they hdd d lock on the technology Compaq gt Rod Conion Jim Harris amp Bill Murto co founded Compdq gt Reverse engineered BIOS amp mode IBM Compdtible amp become the top seller of computers within one yeor becouse they were chedp 0 IBM hdd 0 desktop computer 0 Compdq mode the first portdble PC Bob Metcolf gt Credted the next Iltiller dpplicotion LAN Ethernet ie networking 9 pocket switching amp founded 3Com Corp 0 Ethernet dddpters weren t 0 big success becouse computers needed 0 network operating system INOS to communicote gt Roy Nordo buys 3Com rendmes in Norvell 9 mode the first NOS file amp print services Xerox gt Xerox Polo Alto Resedrch Center IPARC was the mecco for innovotive technology but Xerox never copitolized on it the one compdny thdt could ve owned the world 0 PARC wos in Coli amp Xerox wos in NY so PARC was forgotten about ond Xerox focused on copiers 0 They hdd the first PC gt Xerox hired Bob Metcolf o Xerox Alto first computer but internol use only Xerox boord didn t like it becouse it wasn t about copiers gt Apple reolized they needed 0 new ided so they went to PARC to see whdt they hdd 0 Steve Jobs sow potentidl with their ideds 9 he reversed engineered their product remdde it ond mode Apple profit 9 the Mdcintosh computerwith loser printer option gt Publishing compdnies loved the loser printer option so Steve Jobs hdd Adobe rite d progrdm for the publishing industry Iltiller opp gt The Mdcintosh was marketed for home becouse it was so edsy amp hdd built in networking for info shoring Appletolk Steve Jobs not in PowerPoint lecture gt gt st still looking into the futurenew ideds amp AppleMocintosh didn t wont to amp pushed him out Apple soles fell Stdrted Nth 0 new computer w CD storoge system instedd of d hdrd drive 9 fdncier computer wos too expensive gt NextStep computerw operating system amp progrdmmoble longuoge in one 9 gt good for simuldtions amp ledd to dnimdtions 9 Pixor Apple hired him back 0 iMdc llticllt storted personol computer industry 0 iPod amp itunes compotible worked together amp edsy 0 iPhone Network Topographies gt Physicol Bu wire Bus Line 0 All devices ore connected to d linewire amp receive the some messdge 0 Problem line is cut and everyoneeverything goes down gt Logicol BusZPhysicol Std individuol wires 9 some model ds the coble but V comes out in d stdr shope o If 0 wire bredllts devices con still communicote o Broodcost bdsed environment Bdsebdnd entire copdcity bondwidth of coble is used to corry 0 single digitol signdl Ethernet Broodbdnd uses multiplexing to corry multiple signdls of the some time video voice amp ddto o Multiplexing combine different types of signdls onto one medium Lecture 3 Telephone systemI seminal legal cclsesI regulatog concepts amp Telecom Act of 1996 Brief History of the Telephone System Bell potents telephone in 1876 Bell Telephone founded l 877 0 Mr Wdtson Alex grdm bell s dssistdnt founder amp business mon 0 First monudl switch boord implemented KILLER APP Bell sues Western Union Estoblishing d Stdndord Frdnchises to spreod telephones further amp foster 0 New Engldnd Telephone Est 1879 First Fronchise model 0 Notionol Bell Est 1879 Sold technology licenses to operators ocross the country Phone numbers implemented 1880 ATampT Established in 1885 linking the system with Bell Mechdnicol 2x2 switch invented 18 KILLER APP no longer needed operotors o Needed three switches to didl 0 six digit number gt gt VV VVVV gt ATampT consoliddtes the Bell system I899 gt ATampT purchases Western Union I909 needed their infrdstructure gt Crossbdr switch invented I940 0 One of the most significont dchievements o This technology is still in use todoyI 0 Mode possible the gredt eXpdnsion of ATampT Trdnsistor Invented I 947 9 next KILLER APP o Invented of Bell Lobs o Chonged the electronics industry ond the world 9 rddios smdller amp chedper o Eventudlly used in the Electronic Switching System ESS digitol switch orchitecture KILLER APP 9 brought the phone to the mosses Electronic Switching System I965 0 E88 Switch I o Toddy we see the 4th ond 5th generdtions of these switches in service 4 ESS in lorger toll offices 5 ESS in the locol exchdnges V V Critical Regulatory Decisions gt Corterfone Decision I968 0 FCC forced ATampT to provide Corter dccess to their ldndlines 0 Decision prompted other compdnies to offer simildr services PBXs onswering services etc gt FCC MCI Inter City ADDrovol II 969 o Microwove Communicotion Int opplies for microwove interconnection between ldrge metro dreds 9 no longer need wires MCI needs dccess to locol phone system 0 ATampT protests sighting thdt it is unfdirly mdnddted to provide costly locol loop service 0 Long Distonce rotes compensote ATampT for locol loop expenditures 0 MCI Wins 9 lower prices amp increose usecommunicotion 0 Decision Iltnown ds EQUAL ACCESS Decision prompts SPRINT into Telecom Business SPRINT Southern Pdcific Rdilrood Interconnection Sprint dlreddy hos right of woys amp loys fiber optic coble in I970 0 Right of Way gt Mony of today39s Telecom gidnts storted out in completely different businesses 0 BUT they dlmost dll hove one thing in common gt They owned Right of Wdy o Pipeline Compdnies o Gds ond Electricol Utilities 0 Rdilroods ATampT AnTiTrusT gt A SuiT filed in 1974 ond seTTled in 1982 o 23 Regiondl Bell OperdTing Compdnies RBOCs were spun off To provide service in The Locol Access ond TrdnsporT Ared LATA buT ATampT would hove dccess To The long disTonce neTworllt ATampT lltepT Bell Ldbs ond WesTern ElecTric 0 ATampT dllowed inTo oTher venTures 9 compuTers dde neTworllting eTc O TelecommunicoTions AcT1996 VV VVV V V V VV V DereguloTion of ndusTry biggesT Locol phone compdnies dllowed To compeTe in long disTonce amp inTerneT service 0 nTerneT is bdsed on Telephone sysTem Long disTonce corriers dllowed To compeTe in locol exchdnges Coble compdnies dllowed To compeTe Locol volue ddded compdnies dllowed To compeTe in locol exchdnge CAPs o CAPs CompeTiTive Access Providers LecTure 4 LATA vs nTerExchonge Carrier 3 Types of SoTelliTe Technology amp SoTelliTe services and Globaliza on SoTelliTes oquerform ldndline eg frdme reloy Technologies in relidbiliTy 9998 To 995 Why 2 o No locol loops 0 No swiTches o No mulTiple corriers o No rouTers ie nTerneT n sdTelliTe sysTems There is only one mdjor poinT of foilure o The SdTelliTe iTselfl SdTelliTes by Their very noTure ore builT wiTh mony redunddnT sysTems SoTelliTes hove Two serious problems 0 Trdnsmission Deldy ond o NoThing in spoce To proTecT Them from elecTriciTy or rddidTion which fry circuiTs o SoTelliTes ore messed up by rodioTion porTicles The edrThs mdgneTic field collisions wiTh oTher spoce sTuff gt NASA onches ouT for This sTuff Three Types of services in The offering 0 GEO Geosynchronous EorTh OrbiT gt Currenle GEO providers offer The mosT compleTe line of services voice ddTo video 0 MEO Medium EorTh OrbiT o LEO Low EorTh OrbiT gt more prominenT in The dde communicoTion field gt mdrllteTed To dddress The high speed dde requiremenTs of wide dred business communicoTion GEO gt AT 22238 miles dbove The equdTor spdced 120 degrees dpdrT Three sdTeIIiTes con cover mosT of The globe gt GEO s hove hisToricolly been used ds supporT neTs ond ds bocllt up buT in recenT yedrs ds The Technology hos improved mony compdnies hove swiTched from dnd bdsed neTs To dll soTelliTe neTs This Technology makes sense for one woy broodcosTing ond poinT To poinT broodcosTing eg cenTrdl office To mulTiple ouTleTs 0 Oil compdnies gds sToTions o Frdnchises o Reril chdins o WedTher o Bdnllting chdins 0 GPS V MEO gt 8000 mile orbiT gt EXpecTed use 0 dde rdTes ore low speed 96 lltbs 384 lltbs o MEO s ore posiTioned To service The niche communicoTions morllteT o dde communicoTion for mobile voice pdging ond personol communicoTion devices gt MEO s were 0 high prioriTy d few yedrs ogo becouse dde communicoTion resedrchers were looking for MEO s To move ldrge volumes of dde o The inTerneT wos developing ond if was edsier LEO V SdTelliTe Technology become very price compeTiTive KILLER APP for Ldrge Scole Globolionion o Hordwore prices fell Telecom ond soTelliTe o Lounching fees begon To foil gt CompeTiTion from Russio Europe Chino 0 French hdd on ddVdange close To The equdTor for speed of The ronTion of The edrTh o Russidn rocllteTs were big amp could Tollte loTs of sTuff up gt PrivoTe inTerndTiondl compdnies ocTed ds lounch fee brollters gt nsurdnce rdTes decredsed gt EveryThing is less cosle becouse now off The shelf pdrTs noThing is proprierry o SysTem SofTwore wos commodiTy priced gt 400 lOOO mile orbiT would be edsier To fix in The fuTure gt LEO is KILLER becouse iTs chedper close amp more common gt Three LEO Specificolions o Lillie LEO 24 lltbs 3OO lltbs gt Low medium volume voice and ddld services eg privole users and smdll business amp Texl messdging 0 Big LEO 24 lltbs 96 lltbs gt Low volume voice and fox services To remole dreds also very low speed ddld for persondl communicolion devices e mdil 0 Broadband LEO expecled role 65 Mbs i 55 Mbs gt Repldcemenl for ldnd bdsed Ti T3 and OC services simildr roles gt Combine voice ddld video conferencing for ldrge corpordle users gt Will be The gredl equdlizer super high speed gt As 0 high volume ddld lrdnsfer lechnology MEO wos dbdndoned for LEO gt LEO required more solelliles bul now They were chedper To build and lo mdndge gt LEO Killer App 0 TCP IP bdsed services ore The Killer A licolion for LEO solelliles o Propdgdlion deldy hos been The problem wilh TCPIP bdsed services in GEO lhough spoofing hos reclified lhdl problem if is nol d solulion for redl lime ddld LEO dnd MEO syslems ore close enough To The edrlh lo couse less propdgdlion deldy MEO dnd LEO syslems ore less dffecled by wedlher condilions dnd soldr rddidlion sun spols becouse lhey ore closer To The edrlh LEO providers ore oollting lo supporl Frdme Reldy and ATM bdsed services over lheir inllts wilh d polenlidl copdcily of T55 Mbs ISP s ore oollting lo pdrlnerwilh solellile compdnies in order To provide direcl poinl lo poinl high speed IP Telephone and ddld services To Their cuslomers n olherwords lhey wonl lo cul oul lhe locol and long disldnce corriers ldnd bdsed corriers complelely O O O O 0 Current Problems gt Hond off lechnology nol mdlure yel 0 Since LEO dnd MEO solelliles ore so close To edrlh lhere musl be mdny more of Them gt Your conneclion To The solellile musl lherefore be consldnlly swilched from one solellile lo dnolher o LEO s will cross The sky every 14 minules lhus your conneclion musl be hdnded off every 14 minules MEO s cross every hour They ore more chedply mode so more of on opporlunily To break Spdce Junllt Solelliles somelimes crdsh becouse edrlhs dimosphere is nol sldble Il s slill expensive Technology from d smdll business and privole consumer poinl of view 9 ldrge inilidl inveslmenl VVVV 0 Current ISP rates average around 2500 month and the cost of a local Telephone call or a dedicated ISDN or Fract Tl 12000 60000 per month 0 MEO and LEO satellite pricing is expected to average 100 300 per minute gt The price will fall when there are enough satellites in orbit and competition will force price restructuring Lecture 5 History and influence of guild Significant occurrences that curtailed guild influence Henry Ford s influence WWII and the dominance of Unions amp Organizational CheckStations lll ll w 39l Mid 19th century AmericanVictorian social norms of the time contributed to the cultural bias and organizational structures of the modern industrial revolution 0 Victorian era enlightened social behavior refined split from traditional norms not only in Europe but had an affect on America Protestant moral and social ethics defined the American business model Class based advancement incentive and compensation models dominated the business culture Robber Barons dominated the political and social discourse of the time 0 These Robber Barons needed to control their vast holdings with unconditional power 0 Nepotism dominated these institutions WASP Families ruled early businesses Vanderbilt Morgan Carnegie Rockefeller Gould Ford etc 0 They peddled influence in local state and national politics to keep government interference to a minimum Late 19th and early 20th century Two significant influences 0 Large numbers of ethnically diverse immigrant laborwas flooding into the US 0 The role of skilled craft guilds in traditional manufacturing sector Note guilds are not unions guilds represent traditional skilled trades based on the European Model o Apprentice 9 journeyman 9 master tradesman Guilds wouldn t lets just anyone in Guilds middle managers educated people of their day To take advantage of the cheap labor pool the dominant Departmentalized management model of this time was augmented with Scientific Management principles 0 Set up rules amp organized worllters basically management consultants Frederick Taylor was the father of Scientific Management O 0 Time ond motion study 9 increase efficiency need to optimize amp moke foster wonted moximum output from workers Worker ignordnce Efficiency through tedious tdsks Fred dctudlly showed workers exoctly how to do theirjobs Extensive Formdl Trdining vs OJT Frederick Taylor 0 O O nnovotor Inventor High Speed Steel Mondgement GURU bredk 0 job into its component ports ond medsure edch to the hundredth of 0 minute introduction of his system was often resented by workers ond provoked numerous strikes Late 19th and early 20th century cont Skilled trodes were leery of the chedp Idbor infux hence they 0 Pressured mdndgement for more control in job execution work dssignments woges ond hiring proctices Why would mdndgement moke these concessions O OO 0 Higher mdndgement Fords Cornegies etc were mdking so much they gave the guids more outonomy 151 time midde mgmt hdd so much power Mondgement needed the support of the skilled trodes If the skilled trodes were to dllow unskied Idbor into their rdnks they could subvert monogement s outhority Hence it was beneficidl for mdndgement ond the skilled trodes to segment the orgdniZdtion into highly controed groups or Deportments Deportments were 0 mdndgeridl construct designed to vest contro ond influence in the hdnds of skilled croftsmen ond upper level mdndgement This high level infuence remoined fdirly stoble until 1914 Henry Ford s Influence Ford shocked the world in 1914 by offering 0 5 per ddy woge which more than doubled the rote of most of his workers 0 It was the first time workers mondged to significontly bredk the troditiondl guildmdndgement powerstructure The guids were furious and collectively moved to consolidate power within the middle mdndgement ronks to protect their power Why did Henry Ford toke this sionificont step ond bredk with trodition O O 00 Note Historidns hove noted thdt Ford wos somewhdt bigoted vehemently opposed coective borgoining ond ddvoc0ted totdl mdndgement control of workers Unskied dssembly ine work wos tedious strenuous ond demeoning dlmost sldve like in the working conditions permission system Guild onol midde mondgers regulorly couded amp dbused the rdnk ond fie Hence the turnover rotes of Ford pldnts was very high O The 5ddy woge wos mednT To dddress These issues in Two woys Ford redsoned Tth The old guilds were oeTTino Too powerful and he decided To supporT The new Technology orienTed mechdnicol Trddes welders pipe fiTTers mochine operoTors eTc These newer Trddes were noT dligned wiTh The old guilds buT were closer dligned wiTh The ordindry workers 0 Ford also knew Tth wor wos on The horizon and if he could hove d sToble workforce his compdnies would make hdndsome profiTs from governmenT conTrdcTs o GovernmenT conTrdcTs mednT some governmenT oversighT 9 he needed To moderdTe ldbor reldTions in his focTories The move proved eXTremely profdeble InsTedd of consTdnT Turnover of employees The besT mechonics in DeTroiT flocllted To Ford bringing in Their humdn copdel ond experTise roising producTiviTy and lowering Trdining cosTs This efforT poved The woy for one of The mosT significonT DeporTmeanlionion innovoTions in indusTridl hisTory World War II PldnTs such ds Rouge River Ford and similorly verTicolly designed fdciliTies were The monufocTuring engines Tth helped The US defeoT Ndzi ond Jdpdnese oggression during WWII o VerTicol InTegrdTion EveryThing for your oquuT is produced by your orgdniZdTion ulTidee insource model They conTinued To domindTe well info The loTe I950 s 0 US could ouT produce in number noT qudliTy indusTridlisTs benefiTed from VerTicol InTegrdTion ds well ds worllters l As profiTs soored ond worllter s woges increosed collecTive bdrgdining iniTidTives become increosingly successful and by The mid I930 s hdd lelten hold in mony ldrge pldnTs The firsT monumenTol chdllenoe To ldroe scole DeporTmeanlionion ond Therebv mdndoeridl conTrol wos WWII Since mosT dble men of fighTing oge were drofTed or oTherwise conscripTed info The wor efforT indusTry needed worllters In Times of need indusTry Turned To ldbor sources Tth if hdd hisToricolly oliendTed even for skilled Trddes 0 Women mony women were edger To enTer The job mdrllteT Rosie The RiveTer o Immigranfs and minoriTies previously mony immigronTs ond eThnic minoriTies were discriminoTed ogoinsT These new enTrdnTs info The wor economy presenTed d direcT ThredT To The TrodiTiondl ond discrimindTory middle mdndgemenT guild sysTem Tth hdd dominoTed for so long However governmenT reguldTion of indusTry during The wor and record high profiTs mode indusTridlisTs occepT The siTuoTion J Alfhough guilds resisfed some highly deporfmenfdlized orgonizofiondl sfrucfures were forced fo occepf non guild skilled ldbor o Nofe remember fhdf guilds were mosfly sfdrfed ds brofherhoods of like minded profesfdnf monofheisfic croffsmen Posf World War II J lt This forced infegrdfion of volues culfures and skills foresow fhe end of fhe frodifiondl guild influence in US monufdcfuring and provided for fhe very ropid growfh of fhe more inclusive Union Movemenf 9 fhere wos 0 need for ldbor To dccommoddfe fhis movemenf highly deporfmenfdlized orgonizofiondl sfrucfures hdd fo chdnge reolized fhey needed fo be more flexible Posifive ldbor relofion chdnoes hoppened during WWII o Overfime pdy o Vocofion 0 Sick pdy o EquolifyWomen s issues Affer fhe wor US indusfry wonfed fo reverf fo pre wor sfdfus 9 guilds wonfed influence dgdin women amp minorifies were firedquif for servicemen coming home Lobor amp mdndgemenf become incredsingly ddversoridl in bdrgdining However unions wifh fhe supporf of governmenfdl reguldfors prevoiled in keeping amp incredsing fheir influence Unexpected Consequences J As unions begon fo influence indusfridl dgendds in fhe lofe 1940 s and 1950 s xxx lt indusfry wos fdced wifh d significonf dilemmo Collecfive bdrgdining confrdcfs incredsingly ceded more shop floor confrol ond benefifs fo unions The frodifiondl guild sysfem evenfuolly collopsed under incredsed union power Since indusfry wos sfill highly deporfmenfdlized verficolly infegrdfed union concessions effecfed profifs ond confrol Indusfry responded by slowly oufsourcing monufocfuring of cerfdin componenfs fo non union subsididries dndor confrdcfors less employees needed This model wos more profifdble fhon fhe verficolly infegrdfed model fhdf hdd dominofed fhe firsf hdlf of fhe 20fh cenfury Supply Chain Infegrafion J J J Bosed on fhis diversified oufsourcing model and incredsing compefifion union influence and membership sfdrfed fo decline from fheir high poinf in fhe mid 1960 s BUT fhis new model evenfuolly highlighfed fhe infernol wedlltnesses of fhe highly Depdrfmenfolized or ds if was now know Sfove Piped orgdnideion To be 0 compefifive pdrficipdnf in fhe Infegrdfed Supply Choin mony compdnies reolized fhdf fheir infernol sfrucfures needed rddicol chonge needed fo become fldf in order fo be more responsiveflexible specificolly Business Processes Orgdnideiondl Hierorchies ond Informdfion flows