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Public Relations

by: Garfield Turner

Public Relations MKTG 406

Garfield Turner
GPA 3.95

Michelle Carpenter

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Michelle Carpenter
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Garfield Turner on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MKTG 406 at Old Dominion University taught by Michelle Carpenter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/215282/mktg-406-old-dominion-university in Marketing at Old Dominion University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Marketing 406 Final Exam Review Guide Chapter 8 Evaluation Evaluation is the systematic assessment of the impacts of public relations activity It is a purposeful process carried out for a specific audience Organization Itself PR Practitioners Target Publics Evaluators Evaluation Key Discussion Points 0 Gather information on honest and objective way 0 Evaluation is an ongoing process 0 Internal and External factors that might prompt evaluation Anything dealing with the CEO Anything with changing government regulation Mergers An interest group raising concern Evaluation process very much so centered around analytics Levels of Measurement Measurement of Production Measuring the amount of output from practitioners How many releases produced This is not believed to be meaningful because it bases the measurement on quantity not quality Advertising Value Equivalents AVE s Calculates how much the company would pay in terms of time and space in the media to pay for the editorial coverage of its company Disadvantages of AVE s What critics say 1 Editorial publicity can be a nontarget or low priority publication 2 Editorial publicity can be neutral or negative as opposed to advertising which is of course always positive Editorial publicity may favor the competitor over your company Advertising never 5 favorably compares and often does not mention competitors by name 4 Editorial publicity can be poorly positioned Advertising usually has great placement 5 Can be poorly presented Ambiguous misleading headlines and other errors 0 Return On Investment ROI Measurement through cost effectiveness What is the cost of reaching each member of the target audience Total Cost of Advertising in the Program Total Number of Media Impressions BaselineBenchmark Studies means attitudes and behaviors before during and after the campaign 0 Measurement of audience action is determined by a campaign ob39ective 0 Future measurement through some purchase or change in behavior Evaluation Diagram Differences Text Model vs Cutlip Model 0 Cutlip begins with preparation 0 Also includes the Social and Cultural Change section 0 This model states the ultimate evaluation of programs and the practitioner of PR is their contribution to positive social and cultural change Other Forms of Measurement 0 The Communication Audit an internal look at the organization Looks at effectiveness and origin communicating programs and materials Written Communication Memos publications website intranet etc Communication channels and frequency of interaction Communication patters between individuals and departments Communication Climate Audit usually takes seven month to a year in length 0 Media Content Analysis What it is that is being said about the organization Analyzes a broad range of texts including interviews films television broadcast and print publications social media advertising and editorial publicity History 1927 Study mass media and propaganda HeroldLoswell 1930 s Popular for evaluating content in films 1950 s Evaluation content in television specific interest in the portrayal of women racism and violence 1980 s Recognized as the fastest growing mass communication research technique 1990 s 85 of masters level research methods deal with a course in journalism include content analysis as part of their program Variables Included in Analysis 1 Audience Reach of impressions views or subscribers 2 Placement Where did the content appear in the media Page 1 or buried on page 40 3 Prominence Was the organization mentioned prominently in the headline of paragraph throughout the story or just in passing P Share of Voice Did they share story with competitors or were they the primary topic Equot Issues of Topics Reported Is the storyissue reported of strategic importance to the organization or is it more general in nature 6 Message Favorable or unfavorable message delivered 7 Visuals Photos videos etc How did it contribute to the overall understanding Framing vs Priming Framing involves the media telling the public how to think about an issue whereas priming just prepares viewers to think about certain topics Chapter 9 Public Opinion and Persuasion Public Opinion Represents more than the collected views held by a particular category of individuals at any one point in time It reflects a dynamic process in which ideas are expressed ad39usted and comprised en route to a collective determination of action What is Public Opinion Public opinion is found among publics or groups of communicating people with a common interest Collective view on an issue why is it a course of concern what should be done about it Selfinterest drives public opinion formation Opinions amp Self Interest Once selfinterest has occurred it is hard to change public opinion Event triggered centered public opinion around events Public Opinion Polls entertainment programing government propaganda politics corporate decision making Opinion Leaders highly educated more affluent avid consumers ofall media highly interested in subjects or issues change agents or active media users Formal Opinion Leader by nature of the officeposition they hold President of a Campus Politicians CEO Informal Opinion Leaders respected due to special characteristics or upon knowledge of the subject creditable Washington Post Model for Public Opinion Leader Identification wwwwewvve Senior Executives amp Business Leaders Influential Constituents Trade Associations amp Business Coalitions Think Tanks amp Research Institutions Journalists amp Media Independent Writers amp Bloggers Lobbyists amp Interest Groups Government Leaders TwoStep Flow Theory 1 Information flows from the mass media to opinion leaders 2 Information then goes from the opinion leaders to the public via interpersonal communication Multiple Step Flow Model for Opinion takes place between interlocking webs of social groups 0 Opinion Leaders gather information and share with the attentive public 0 Attentive Public Is interested in the issue but relies upon the opinion leaders for interpretation and information 0 Less Attentive Public Unaware or uninterested in the issue but may become aware or interested 0 Large nattentive Public Simply do not care about the issue NStep Theory Variation of the multiple step theory 0 Premise of the theory is the general public is influenced by more than one opinion leader The Life Cycle of Public Opinion 1 Definition of the issue Special interest groups raise an issue and often stage events to get the attention of the media so that they cover the issue 2 Involvement of Public Leaders Begin to talk about the issue with the general public mass media coverage of the issue 3 Public Awareness Maximum media coverage of the issue 4 Government Involvement Government gets involved with the issue 5 Resolution Legislation that needs to be enacted Agenda Setting Theory 0 1972 Maxwell Combs and Donald Shaw 0 Studying the role of the media in its 1968 presidential election 0 Surveyed over 100 undecided votes in September and October prior to the election 0 Premise Media content sets the agenda for public discussion Media Dependency o The more dependent a person is on the media to fulfill their needs the more important the media will be to that individual The media will have more influence and power over the individual If you become so dependent on the media that it is your sole source of information it is easy to set the agenda for public discussion The individual falls victim to agenda setting Framing Theory 0 The media tells us not only to think about it but what to think about it as well 0 Frame refers to the way in which the media and media gatekeepers organize and present the news The words they use the themes pictures etc o The media not only tells us what to think about but how to think about it EX Cold War War on Terror War on Drugs A person s battle with cancer Persuasive Communication Factors 0 Audience Analysis learn as much as you can about the target public ethics behaviors lifestyles and concerns 0 Credibility of the source internal or external sincere charisma expertise or knowledge 0 Appeal to selfinterest What s in it for me Emotional Appeals peace patriotism etc o Clarity Simple direct and one central idea per message 0 Timing amp Context helps in the persuasiveness of the message 0 Suggestions for Action Provide o Context and Structure of Message end notes opinion polls etc o Persuasive Speaking Propaganda lies halftruths concealing slogans o A form of communication that attempts to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propaganda it is Chapter 10 Conflict Management Different Types of Crisis 1 Immediate Crisis most dreaded type little to no time for reaction and planning Earthquake Hurricane Tornado Fires Death of CEO product tampering etc 2 Emerging Crisis more time for planning and research issue is simmering then it erupts and the organization must react Sexual abuse allegations substance abuse issues low employee morale 3 Sustained Crisis the kind of crisis that simply won t go away The media continues to report on the issue and the issue won t die Clinton in office Economy The Contingency Continuum 0 Pure Advocacy the organization completely disagree or refute all claims disputes and arguments against the organization 0 Compromise o Cooperative 0 Collaboration 0 Pure Accommodation agree with the critics change policy make the situation and offer a full apology Conflict Management Lifestyle 0 Stra Proactive Phase Organizations actively trying to prevent issuesproblems from arising Environmental Scanning careful monitoring of the firm s internal and external environment to detect early signs of opportunities that could affect the firm s current and future plans broad effort Issue Tracking A focused systematic effort as issues arise specific Issues Management specific involves many resources by the firm along with top management39 try and avoid issues 13 years out will identify issues selectively but contains anywhere from 510 specific issues at a time Takes its cues from the cultural environment Development of a Crisis Plan tegic Phase an issue that was quotemergingquot in the proactive phase is now evident and requires action by a PR office Rea Risk Communication 1990 s outgrowth of issues management particularly relevant where there are health and environmental concerns high levels of emotion sadness anger frustration It provides the publics with information and next steps so that the level are better managed Development of a specific crisis communication plan to deal with the issue at hand Ex flugov for the H1N1 virus Conflict Positioning strategies to favorably position the organization could be in the advance of boycotting a product advance of legislation elections etc ctive Phase Do s and Don ts 1 Do the following a Begin with the Crisis Plan get in touch with the crisis management committee crisis management experts Get Top Management Involved inform top management to he crisis plan Set Up News Center Be Open to Full Plan Demonstrate Concern Designate someone on quotcallquot during crisis anhrvsnPsr Reevaluate crisis management terms following incident Use each crisis as a learning opportunity make recommendations Don t do the following Speculate publicity about what we do not know is true Minimize the problem or underplay the situation Let the story quotdribblequot out Release information if it blames someone or violates someone s privacy Say quotno comment rhgumptrgn Play favorites with the media g Capitalize on media attention Recovery Phase the crisis has ended and te organization must try to bolster or repair its brand with the target publics Reputation Management Reputation Audit assess and monitor the firm s reputation following the crisis 1 Basic Reputation Audit Fortune Magazine s list of top 100 admired companies a 9 Criteria ranging from social responsibility to investment value 2 Media Reputation Index MRI seen as a more complex type of reputation audit looks at the top 100 top US firms Image Restoration a Benoit s Image Restoration Model 5 Choices 1 2 PS Denial deny responsibility for event Evade Responsibility Shift the blame Company says it was provoked it was an accident lacked sufficient information Reduce offensiveness Strengthen positive feelings toward the organization Corrective Action restore the situation to the previous state of attitudes mend our ways make sure it never happens again try b Coomb s Image Restoration Model 7 Choices Chapter 11 The Audience and How to Reach It Characteristics of Audiences PPN networking 5quot Diversity is the biword differs in geography history and economy An expanding international market Technology is more critical than ever How do we find the critical pieces of information We are visually oriented and we have a short attention span Cell phones internet social Audience is in control of the information The customer determines how much information when and where they receive it 9 Various Age Groups Become more singleissue oriented maybe a time issue focus on what is most important Heavy emphasis on personality and celebrity status Strong distrust and suspicions of companies 0 Generation 2 Digital Natives Ages 115 Born between 19952010 1 Tween Market a b c 53 Ages 815 Approximately 25 million in size They account for 40 Billion in spending with their money also have a 150 Billion worth of influence on their parent s spending Average weekly allowance 12 o Reaching Diverse Age Groups Meet Generation 2 Behavioral Traits 1 Materially satisfied yet financially conservative a Born to older Gen X parents smaller families recent economic downturn 2 Well educated involved in mextracurricular More savvy 3 More connected to their parents moreso than previous generations Implications for Marketers 1 Spend more time online and have a preference for interactive media Marketers must do more online 2 Companies will need to better integrate the marketing and sales channel a Mobile advertising online gaming texting S More cautious and guarded with their spending P Not only is brand name important but a company s impact on the environment green marketing 0 Youth and Young Adults Generation Y Millennials Echo Boomers EGeneration Ages 1530 Born between 19801995 Approximate spending power 1 350 Billion in spending power Approximately 78 Million consumers 24 of the US Market Interesting Facts 1 SelfConfident 2 Team Spirited 3 Digitally literate than generations before them 4 Emotionally and financially attached to parents 5 Like to indulge their inner child 0 Generation X Ages 3146 Born between 19651980 Approximately 50 Million consumers 15 of US Market Interesting Facts Characteristics 1 Prize individuality 2 Question Authority 3 Belief No one will take care of me but me 4 High premium on quality of life 5 Value family and leisure time over a fat paycheck 6 Nicely integrated technology with the business pursuits 0 Baby Boomers Ages 4765 Born between 19451964 Approximately 7880 Million consumers 24 of US Market Interesting Facts Characteristics 1 Diverse 2 Individualistic 3 Insistence on maintaining an active and youthful lifestyle 4 Concerned about planning meeting needs health care personal investing 0 Seniors Ages 65 Prior to 1945 Approximately 36 Million consumers 12 of US Market Interesting Facts Characteristics Travel Eat Out Leisurely Activities Look younger than they are Active Media Consumers P F PS JE JE Excellent source of volunteers The MultiCultural Economy 0 Hispanic Americans 157 of Market Buying Power in 2009 was 10 Trillion 91 By 2050 they will equal 30 of the population Characteristics 1 Geographically concentrated Household size is larger 32 vs 24 people per household Tend to have more children under 18 years of age PP Where do they spend their money a Food Phone Services amp Utilities ClothingFootwear men amp children housing 0 African Americans 129 of Market Buying Power in 2009 was 978 Billion 85 Youthful Market a Median US age is 364 vs 314 Are not geographically concentrated What do they spend their money on a Groceries Phone Services amp Utilities ClothingFootwear children 0 Asian Americans 47 of Market Buying Power in 2009 was 509 Billion 47 357 Asian vs 367 US Have enormous economic clout Primarily urbanites Better educated than the average American Hold many top level jobs in management in business What do they spend their money on a Food Clothing Footwear Housing Vehicles Insurance Education Furniture 0 Native Americans 1 of Market Buying Power in 2014 projected at 872 Billion Overall Use of Media 0 Print If we read we reflect on material and comprehend it 0 Television Emotional Impact 0 Radio Specialized audience 0 Online Media Personalization of the media Chapter 14 News Releases Media Alerts Pitch Letters and Media Kits Inverted Pyramid o If readers lose interest early they won t finish the story 0 The inverted pyramid places the critical facts up top 0 If the reader loses interest or the story is cut the essential facts remain intact Most important facts in the lead 2quotd level facts 3rd level facts 4 h level facts The First News Release 0 Train accident in Pennsylvania declaring 57 dead Released by The New York Times Why News Releases are Sometimes Not Used 0 They are poorly written maybe due to other edits which made it difficult to read and comprehend 0 They are rarely localized CNU Example 0 They are NOT newsworthy How do we make them so Impact Include a major announcement that affects the organization community or society Oddity llOne Millionth Customer Conflict or significant dispute or controversy Known Principal Proximity localization and timeliness of the release Press Release DO s and DON Ts Have a defined reason for sending the release One topic per release Make sure the subject is newsworthy company community ampor society Include facts about productservice Include relevant facts such as shipping availability of products and cost Localize it or find something unique about the company to serve national coverage Includes approximate quotes from principals within the firm Includes a brief description of the company boiler plate Write clearly concisely and fully accurate be direct Customize the news release to the media Purpose of the News Release 0 Introduce a new productservice o Announce a major change for the company 0 To announce llbad news 0 Announce a major policyprice change 0 To report a significant milestone 0 To follow up on an earlier story 0 The management speech Print News Release vs Internet News Release Differences 0 Internet contact is at the bottom whereas the print is at the top 0 Internet individually addresses the person that it is going to Key Components Media Alert 0 Contact Info 0 Organization and Activity 0 Who 0 What 0 When 0 Where 0 Why 0 Contact Key Components Pitch Letter 0 A pitcher letter is a short letter or note desired to grab the attention of the editor Asking a reporter to cover your story Highly Personalized 0 Find the Story Before You Sell Think Like A Reporter Give a Clear Call to Action It s Never A Good Time They Won t Buy if You Don t Believe Become a Valued Source Key Components Media Kit 0 Bac The Main News Release The Biography Organization Brochures Photos Accompanying CD ROMS Fact Sheet Organization s Full Name Typically At Top Brief overview of products and services offered Overview Annual Resume Number of Employees within firm Brief OverviewBio of the CEO Markets Served Position within the Industry kgrounder Provides background and additional info on the company s issue beyond the press release Talk about significant historical events An legislation enactments Any channel to government Corporate Policy Distribution of Media Materials Mail Fax Email Electronic News Services Business Wire PR Newswire Online NewsroomsPressroom Harris Teeter Chapter 13 Social Media Social Media Objectives Branding and Awareness Reputation Protection Community Building Facilitate and Supplementary Customer Service Facilitating Research P F PS JE JE Directing Sales and Leads o 2009 Awareness 1 Generating Dialogue 2 o 2011 Visibility 1 Awareness 2 Strategies to Consider 0 Define your business goals What is your business objective 0 Know your audience and how they use social media 0 Look at other companies 0 See what are they saying and where 0 Set milestones and track your progress Best Practices 0 Talk to People Engage with the target audiencepublic 0 Reply when you are spoken to o Retweet others What others are saying 0 Links to others content 0 Admit when we are wrong 0 Be Human Offer personal examples show emotion Best Buy and Cisco Social Media Policies Overlaps 0 Both state to identity yourself as an employee 0 Do not disclose financial info 0 Do not post confidential information andor copyrighted information 0 Protect yourself reputation Twitter Micro Blog 0 140 Character Limit 0 User Profile Page 0 The World of Twitter 20062007 Used by Web 20 Geeks and Techies 2009 Mainstream social media tool tweeting celebrities 2010 Became a predominate news and information source 2011 175 Million World Wide Users More than half outside of US 0 Who is using this tool Fortune 100 Companies Individuals and Businesses 0 What are they using it for News Feed Brand Awareness Sales Customer Service Thought Leadership Other Blogging 0 Growth 2003 20 Million blogs in the US 1 California is first at 14 2 NY at 7 3 Texas at 5 4 Virginia at 4 0 Blogger Demographics Gender 6040 Split Men Ages 1844 65 of all bloggers Education College Degree Income 13 at 75000 more affluent 0 Types of Bloggers Hobbyists 64 blog about topics of personal interest not paid PartTimer13 blogging is not their fulltime job but receive compensation Corporations1 blog full time for a company they work for SelfEmployed921 Blog full time for their own business Exam Review Guide Public Relations Chapter 1 Key Terms used to describe Public Relations Deliberate intentional in its attempt to influence gain understanding and proved information Planned involves research analysis and organization Performance publics will judge our actions as well as our words Public Interest mutually beneficial to the organization and its publics TwoWay Communicatio presence of feedback 4 Steps in the Public Relations Process quotRACE 0 Research Public Relations professionals gather feedback from media government public and others on what they see as a quotproblemquot 0 ActionProgram Planning assess the inputs and convey recommendations to management on how to proceed o CommunicationExecution determine what action to take and how to respond news release news conference sponsorships etc 0 Evaluation the effectiveness of the action taken Public Relations vs Journalism 0 Scope Public Relations is wide in scope Journalism has two functions Writing and Media Relations 0 Objectives Public Relations officials inform publics on the issue serve as advocates llattempt to change opinions and attitudes toward the organizationquot Journalists objectively observe o Audiences Public Relations officials focus on multiple specific defined audiences Journalists focus on a mass undefined audience 0 Channels Public Relations uses mobile channels direct marketing social media broadcasting etc Journalist use only one channel Public Relations vs Advertising 0 Tools Advertising uses mass media outlets Public Relations relies on a variety or tools 0 Audience Advertising addresses external audiences Public Relations targets multiple specific audiences Internal and External 0 Scope Advertising is specific to the communication function Public Relations is much broader in scope 0 Function Advertising is a tool Public Relations fill a support role Public Relations vs Marketing 0 Focus Public Relations is concerned with relationships Marketing is about selling productsservices 0 Language Marketing llTarget Market quotConsumerquot quotCustomerquot Public Relations quotPublicsquot quotAudiencesquot quotStakeholdersquot 0 Method Public Relations relies on a two way dialogue accommodative Marketing relies on persuasion Chapter 2 Article Women in Public Relations 0 17 h Century About escape of Religious Persecution free assembly 0 18 h Century Letters as communication Adams Consultant Madison Event PlannerManager 0 19h Century Filled with a lot of speakers A large focus on women s rights Evolution of Public Relations Ancient Beginnings 0 Early Archeological Findings 1800 BC Iraq Pamphlets on best practices for harvesting sewing and irrigation 0 Early Greeks Sophists individuals known for reasoning and tactics speak on behalf of the political candidates The Romans Julius Caesar master of persuasive technique published pamphlets staged events Middle Ages 0 Roman Catholic Church 1600 College of Propaganda instruction to publics on the Catholic religion 0 Early Corporate Philanthropy Bankers sponsoring artists Michelangelo Early Beginnings in America C 39 39 39 39 39 I 39 and the 39 39 y quotquot o Colonization Sir Walter Raleigh British Explorers Distributing flyers and brochures Early college 84 university use of Public Relations gt Harvard College First fundraising effort 1640 gt Kings College Now Columbia Issued first press release 1750 Independence The Boston Tea Party Stage Event Revolutionary Movement Tom Paine s llCommon Sense 120000 copies of the pamphlet handed out 1900 to 1950 The Age of the Pioneer 0 First ever public agency Publicity Bureau Boston 1900 0 Chicago Edison Company and its early use of Public Relations First in terms of Public Relations for Corporations gt Created a monthly customer magazine gt Issued press releases and films gt Started the llbill stufferquot Additional info included in the customers bills 1950 to 2000 Public Relations Comes of Age Reasons for the expansion of Public Relations Economy Major increases in urban and suburban populations Growth of big business and big government Scientific and technology advocates The communication revolution Founders of the Field Ivy Ledbetter Lee July 161877 November 9 1934 First Public Relations counselor opened the gates for modern public relations Began as a reporter for the New York World 1906 Coal Industry Strike Issued the Declaration of Principles 1 Honesty and Canter 2 Beginning of the llpublic be informed era 3 Emphasize news value over ads and publicity stunts 4 Believed companies must strive to earn public confidence 1914 Hired by the Rockefellers Fuel amp Iron plant strike Able to humanize the family George Creel December 1 1876 October 2 1953 Edward L Bernays Growth of Public Relations in government Hired by Woodrow Wilson in World War I Advise Wilson and his cabinet on public relations program Helped to carry out the Public Relations programs Influencing US amp war opinion in World War I Responsible for free advertising of war liberty bonds in newspapers and magazines 39 221891 March 91995 quotFather of modern day Public Relations Growth of Public Relations in terms of counseling Institutions and Corporations 1920 s Wife Doris Fleischmann Campaign for Ivory Soup Wrote llCrystalizing Public Opinionquot 1923 Ivy Lee Accurate description of news Bernays Advocacy amp Scientific persuasion Two Way A synthetic Mode Beginning of Public Relation firms developing Taught the very first Public Relations class at NYU Arthur W Page September 10 1883 September 5 1960 o Credited with laying the foundation in corporate Public Relations 0 First Vice President of Public Relations for ATampT 1927 o llSix Principles of Public Relations 1 Tell the truth Let them know what is happening Prove it with action M to the customer and understand their wants and needs Manage for tomorrow Anticipate Conduct Public Relations as if the life of the company depended on it Remain wand Patient and Good Natured P P PP E J 4 Classic Models of Public Relations Model 1 Press Agentry 0 Time Period 1880 to 1900 0 Primary Purpose About hype and Exaggeration 0 Type of Model OneWay Communication Model 0 Leading Figure PT Barnum Model 2 Public Information 0 Time Period 1900 1920 0 Primary Purpose Dissemination of Information Public Relations viewed as an extension of journalism function 0 Type of Model OneWay Communication Model Quality of info is important 0 Leading Figure Ivy Lee Model 3 TwoWay Asymmetric 0 Time Period 1920 1960 0 Primary Purpose Getting the communicator to understand the audience and how to persuade it o TwoWay Communication Model Added Feedback Imbalanced More weight on organization s end 0 Leading Figure Edward Bernays Early In Life Model 4 TwoWay Symmetric Time Period 1960 Today Primary Purpose Mutual Understanding TwoWay Communication Model Balanced Organization and Public can influence each other Leading Figure Edward Bernays Later in Life Evolution of the Two Way 39 Model 0 Investor Relations 1970 s 0 Management Function 1980 s Management by function 0 Reputation or Perception Management 1990 s Build Credibility and maintaining 0 Dialogue Model Today Maintaining the relationship interpersonal channels Trends in Today s Public Relations 0 Feminization of the field 7030 Split Transparency Openness of the firm Increased emphasis on evaluation Managing the 247 News Cycle 0 New direction in mass media Chapter 3 Ethics refers to the values that guide a person an organization and society it is the difference between right and wrong fairness and unfairness honesty and dishonesty 3 Ethical Orientations o Absolutist in this view every decision is right or wrong regardless of the consequences 0 Existentialist choices are based on the immediate practical choice Exists between the two extremes o Situationalist Utilitarian each decision is based on what will cause the least harm or them M Public Relations Society of America PRSA Code of Ethics PRSA founded 1947 in NYC 1st code of ethics 1954 latest version 2000 The Six Professional Values Advocacy Respective advocate for the organization Honesty Highest standards of accuracy and truth Expertise Specialized knowledge and experience Independence Objective counsel Loyalty Faithful to the organization and serving all Fairness Deal fairly with all parties International Association of Business Communication IABC Code of Ethics 0 IABC founded 1970 in SF 0 Based on 3 Different yet interrelated essential principles Professional communication is legal Professional communication is ethical Professional communication is in good taste Code of Good Practice for Video News Releases 0 VNR s must be 1 2 PS Accurate and Reliable Must be identified as a VNR on the tape plus any accompanying scripts or advertising material Sponsor of the VNR must be clearly identified Persons interviewed must be identified by name title and the extent of the relationship Public Relations and the Internet 0 Principles of the Code Fact Based Content Be an Objective Advocate Earn the Public s Trust Educate the public relations professional on best practices on the Internet Internal Code of Conduct a set of rules outlining the responsibility of or proper practices of an individual or organization Chapter 4 Differences between Line and Staff Functions Line Functions Product and profit producing functions authority and responsibly to set policy and oversee operations Receive and depend upon advice and assistance from staff 0 Engineering 0 ProductionOperations 0 Marketing Staff Functions Advise and assist the line staff 0 Public Relations 0 Human Resources 0 Legal Department 0 Finance Department Proximity and Access Proximity and Access are the top two factors in influencing the role of public relations in management For example Allowing the CEO and PR Consultant to work handinhand together so that the PR Department has all of the necessary details 0 Other factors include Organization Changes Management or Structure Characteristics of Practitioners Extent to which research is used Views of line managers and practitioners themselves Influence and Authority 0 Advisory Lowest level of authority and responsibility within an organization Line management has no obligation to take recommendations or to request them 0 CompulsoryAdvisory Line management must at least listen to the advice of the staff 0 ConcurringAdvisory All materials must conform to the standards set by the public relations department and legal department Internal Public Relations Department Advantages 0 Team Membership 0 Knowledge of the organization intimate firsthand knowledge of the organization 0 Economy lf need for public relations is consistent then there are economies of scale Availability of staff practitioners being across the hall for example Disadvantages 0 Loss of objectivity o Domination and Subservience Avoid becoming llYes Manquot and llYes Women 0 A confused view of missions and goals External Public Relations Department Advantages o Objectivity They have a fresh look into the firm 0 Variety of skills and expertise 0 Extensive resources 0 Possibly have office around the countryglobe 0 Special solving skills 0 Creditability Disadvantages o Superficial group of clients could be a problem 0 Lack of full time commitment to the problem 0 Need for a prolonged briefing period 0 Resentment by internal staff 0 Need for strong direction from management 0 Expensive Chapter 5 Problem Statement vs Situation Analysis Problem Statement 0 Present Tense o Describing the situation in specific and measurable terms 0 Does not imply solutions or place blame Situation Analysis Internal and External 0 llWhat positive and negative forces are operatingquot 0 llWho is involved andor affected 0 llHow are they involved andor affectedquot Types of Secondary Research 0 Archival Research product warranty registration cards sales data firm s past research survey and polls 0 Major Polling Firms Public opinion polls AC Nielson Gallop Roper Harris 0 Library and Online Databases Trade Journals and Magazines lnfotrac Dun and Bradstreet Factive Lexus Nexus 0 Online Sources Government Agencies US Census Bureau Bureau of Labor Statistics University Research Centers Professional institutes and organizations Online Resources Claritas Survey Monkey Search Engines Google Bing etc Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Qualitative 0 Soft Data 0 Usually Open Ended Unstructured o Exploratory in nature 0 Usually valid but not reliable o Rarely projectable to larger audiences Generally uses nonrandom samples Quantitative 0 quotHardquot Data 0 Usually uses closeended questions requires forced choices highly structured 0 Descriptive or explanatory type of research 0 Valid amp Reliable 0 Usually projectable to larger audiences 0 Generally uses random samples 0 Two Basic Approaches Random Sampling Scientific gt gt gt gt Simple Random Sample Each person has a known and equal choice of being selected for the purpose of the study Ex Election Polling Systematic Random Sample Randomly select a person for the study by choosing every n h person Ex Random telephone digit dialing Stratifed Sampling Interested in different segments or strata of the population Ex 01 Years 23 Years 46 Years 7 Years Cluster Sampling Looking at geographic areas or election districts Ex How many people in Chesapeake have a NonRandom Sampling gt gt Convenience Sample at the personal judgment of the researcher and includes whoever happens to be available during the time of the survey Ex Interviewing every person that walks past the survey for a certain amount of time Quota Sample similar to stratified sample but it s not because it does not include the entire population choosing respondents on the basis of certain characteristics such as age race gender etc Ex Only interviewing Caucasian males between 1825 Harris Teeter Focus Group 3 Types that they use 1 Economic Impact 2 Customer Interests 3 Decors Semantic Differential Technique vs Likert Scale of Question Semantic Differential Technique 0 Gives respondents a range of choices from best to worst 0 Respondent is asked to choose where his or her position lies on a scale between 2 bipolar adjectives Likert Scale 0 A statement in which the respondent is asked to evaluate according to any kind of objective or subjective criteria generally the level of agreement or disagreement is measured 0 Often a five ordered response level is used Chapter 6 Characteristics of Planning 0 Strategic Systematic plan including long term goals and objectives for the organization Involves making decisions about program goals and objectives identifying key publics and setting policies or rules to guide in the selection and determination of strategy Must be a connection between goals objectives and strength s Interrelated o Proactive forward thinking an open system vs closed 0 Coordinated With multiple activities integrated approach 5 Step MBO Process Organization Objectives Reviewed gt Employee Objectives Set gt Progress Monitored gt Performance Evaluated gt Achieve Reward Repeat SMART Method Specific Specifically describes results desired Measureable Did the individual meet the objective or not Achievable Don t reach too far into the stars Realistic Have to understand the limitations and resources with the firm Time Based Must be a reasonable time frame 8 Elements of the Public Relations Plan Situation Objective Audience Strategy Tactics CalendarTimetable Budget Evaluation WNP P PF N Situations requiring a Public Relations Plan Developing or Expanding an existing program Specific one time project Overcome problem or negative situation Defining the Audience or Targeted Public 0 Geographic natural boundaries voting districts 0 Demographics age gender ethnicity religion etc o Psychographics psychology of public and lifestyle characteristics values 0 Position Who holds an office 0 Reputation Opinion leaders May possess special knowledge 0 Membership In a certain organization 0 Role in the decision making process Most active participants Strategies vs Tactics 0 Strategies the overall concept approach or general plan for the organization 0 Tactics actual events the media sees and the methods to implement the strategy the llnuts and bolts of the campaign Ex PSAs Press Releases etc GNA39I39I39 Chart Uses 0 Timing of a campaign 0 Scheduling taskstactics in order they need completion Budgeting Application to fixed and variable costs 0 Fixed Costs Things that relate to the normal course of business Ex salaries benefits etc 0 Variable Costs Relate to the specific project Ex special events fees Ads photography etc Chapter 7 Goals of Communication To Inform or to educate a particular audience Ex AAA To Persuade the public to take a particular action Ex Mutual Fund Company To Motivate motivation of employees to quotpullquot for the team Ex FS Drive To build Mutual Understanding attainment of understanding of a group that maybe an opposition Ex Northrup Grumman amp Historical Area Evolution of the Communication Models Shannon Weaver Mathematical Model 1949 by Claude Shannon 0 Flow senders and receivers did not play an equal role in the communication process David Berlo s Model 1960 SMCR 0 Message was the central component of this model 0 Four critical elements present in this model Sender Message Channel Reciever 0 Flow No feedback present Believed all problems could be solved with technical accuracy Wilbur Schramm s Interactive Model 0 Contains all five of the communication elements Sender Channel Message Receiver Feedback 0 Has simultaneous encoding and decoding between the sender and the receiver of the message 0 TwoWay Interchange 0 Feedback maybe delayed 0 Continuous cyclical process Six Elements of the Communication Process 0 Reading the message Goal is persuasion Feedback is essential o Paying attention to the message Two Audiences Passive and Active Use five senses 0 Understanding the message Avoid Jargon Clich s Hype Words Etc 0 Believing the message Credibility Context 0 Remembering the message Repetition sells multiple communication channels 0 Acting on the message Strategies to get the attention of the audience 0 Triggering event Planned Ex Political Season Natural events Ex Hurricanes 0 Use the five senses 0 Major points up front grab attention 0 Hit the needs of the publics 0 Values and predispositions of the publics into account Get the message to resonate with the target audience 0 Use of symbols acronyms and slogans Symbol Compress and convey a complex message Acronyms NASDAQ Slogans 0 Avoid Jargon Semantics or science of words mean Ex Texting Google etc 0 Avoid Clich s and Hype Words Examples new record end result general public ultimate outcome etc 0 Avoid Euphemisms an inoffensive word or phrase that is less direct and less distasteful than the one that represents reality 0 Avoid Discriminatory Language Chairperson vs Chairman The Fesch Reading Ease Readability Formula 0 Introduced in 1948 o How easy it is to understand o RE 206835 105 x ASL 846x ASW RE Readability Ease ASL Average Sentence Length ASW of Syllables Per Word 0 Scale 0100 gt 90100 Average 5 h Grader should be able to understand gt 6070 Average Sill9 h Grader should be able to understand gt 030 College Graduate should be able to understand


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