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by: Gabe Schmitt


Gabe Schmitt
GPA 3.84

Linda Eure

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About this Document

Linda Eure
Class Notes
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This 99 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabe Schmitt on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 101R at Old Dominion University taught by Linda Eure in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/215290/comm-101r-old-dominion-university in Communication at Old Dominion University.

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Date Created: 09/28/15
Listening Chapter 5 Listening barriers are created when you fail to Select To select a sound is to single out a message from several competing messages A listener has many competing messages to sort through Yourjob as a speaker is to motivate listeners to select your message Listening barriers are created when you fail to 0 Attend to To attend to a sound is to focus on it One of your key challenges as a speaker is to capture and hold the attention ofyour listeners Your choice ofsupporting material is often the key Listening barriers are created when you fail to 0 Understand To understand is to assign meaning to the stimuli that come your way As a speaker it is yourjob to facilitate listener understanding by making sure you clearly eXplain your ideas in terms and images to which your listeners can relate Listening barriers are created when you fail to 0 Remember what was said To remember is to recall ideas and information The main way to determine whether audience members have been listening is to determine what they remember As a public speaker you can keep your audience from tuning out by 0 Delivering a message 0 Building redundancy that is clear and easy to into your message so underStand that if listeners miss 0 Using interesting and an idea the first time vivid supporting material you present it to keep your listeners perhaps they win l39sten39ng catch it during your concluding remarks As a speaker focus on maintaining your audience s attention and use occasional wakeup messages such as Now listen carefully because Check out the room ahead of time sit where your audience will be seated and look for possible distractions Do the best you can to reduce or eliminate distractions To counteract prejudice use your opening statements to grab the audience s attention Focus on your listeners interests needs hopes and wishes Use arguments and evidence that your listeners will find credible Ifyou think audience members are likely to disagree with you use careful language sound reasoning and convincing evidence Most peOpIe talk at a rate of 125 words a minute but are able to listen up to 700 words a minute The difference gives you time to ignore a speaker periodically Eventually you stop listening Listen more effectively by mentally summarizing what the speaker is saying from time to time Receiver apprehension is fear of misunderstanding misinterpreting or not being able to adjust psychologically to messages spoken by others Com quot39cators are Who are successful in Qmmunications and actions the Old Cbmunicators are not It39s got charm LR paneling matches m 7 ee ta Its quaint The truth is if you want to persuade or motivate peo 1e youhave to make emotional contact with them V Vrong neighborhood Lea p um mg ng is shot I can39t afford the payments up tea 39 written mam In the spoken 1119 diunl What Belief is deter mined at a pre conscious level Appearance Humor Movement Storytelling Impressive Entry A Call to h C01 dent Behavior There is a gate between us threugh which eemmuhieetieh must pee The gene ins tended by e Gatekeeper standing guard hefere the Heels 01 the Ilhtelllet 39 The Getekeper s name is FilmSE grimquot New Bram 39 2 censid The First Brain is the nonreasoning nonrational part of our brain Simply put it is the seat of human emotion composed of the brain stem and the limbic system Thea magma FEU S39E Bra m ES SQ mpfarmm m f39fec m mmmmm ca icm ES pmc m y QCEIUSE it is Em f39 meuticm amd mm ama rcggpcmssa Errmsiymi n39tact emotional 39 evability and 39h39scious realm of the First Brain 395 istener s First Brain 39 kes the decision 9 at to trust and i I 39 weaker It s the 39 st Brain iat decides er a person represents 7 fort and nurture or anxiety and menace It quickly analyzes all incoming data in light of the question Is this situation safequot rth listening to gt2 39 n y 95111 stimuli we is filtered and modified by the t Brainquot before it is sent on to his Brain the cerebral cortex to be malyzed and acted upon WW ifquot WE BECOME 4 quot 1 Iquot 391 iasm motion net Become freer less inhibited nor39e naturally ourselves We wilm mamquot V To communicate persuasively and effectively you must win the trust of your listeners To communicate effectively we must relearn the language of trust the language of emotional contact y is likable quotty is the 39rvdominates in politics It dominates in has in our dayto day lives Likability is the keyin tmst and believability The Eye Factor The Energy Factor 1 Eye C ommunicath 5 Voice and Vocal Variety 3 Words and Nonwords like the Pause 2 Posture and Movement Dress and Appearance estures and the Smile You mcommunication is gscommunications and 39roup communication dy eye contact mt allay the ad attempt a s h a ca tween an actual quot one vividly I increase nfidence vz t o visualize a onsin 39 ave the situations in which you have the greatest r mind as opportunities to present A to change the directkm of your life The AudienceCentered Speechmaking Process Chapter 2 61139 may scove a Spit ask g three standard questions D What is the occasion 0 What are my interests talents and experiences 39 w OSpecific purpose a concise statement indicating what you want your listeners to be able to do when you finish your speech OShould guide your research and help you Choose supporting materials that are related to your audience AS you continue to work on your speech you may even decide to modify your purpose 0 Your central idea identifies the essence of your message 0 Think of it as a onesentence summary of your speech T v r f f L i L quotleHirJ f39 g f JJi39 7 3 0At the end of my speech the audience will be able to describe the significance of kachina dolls t0 the Hopie Indians 13911 0 Kachina dolls carved wooden figures used in Hopi Indian ceremonies are believed to represent spirits of the dead that will help produce a good harvest 0The ability to develop or discover ideas that result in new insights or new approaches to old problems your central idea into key points 0 Are there several reasons why the central idea is true 0 Can the central idea be supported with a series of steps x x it quotW 0 With your main ideas in mind gather material to support them facts examples definitions and quotations from others that illustrate amplify Clarify and provide evidence It is important to be an audiencecentered speake I39 a Tell stories Trigger senses with Words 0 Relate abstract statistics to something tangible Oln order to speak intelligently about a topic you will need to do some research mmm a if i amlusign Indicate your maj m ideas by Raman numerals 939 Um fwiymrzsugm mm 3 BECOME A BETTER LISTENER Listen with your eyes as well as your ears Monitor your emotional reaction to on message Avoid iumping to conclusions Be c selfish listener Identinyour Listening Goal Listen for pleasure Listen to evaluate Listen for information Understand your listening style 0 Peopleoriented listeners are comfortable listening to others express feelings and emotions Actionoriented listeners listen for actions that need to be taken Action oriented listeners tend to be skeptical and prefer being given evidence to support recommendations for action Contentoriented listeners prefer to listen to complex information laced with facts and details They reject messages that don t have adequate support Timeoriented listeners like messages to be delivered succinctly Time is important to them so they want the speaker to get to the point They don t like long winded messages with lots of fillers Become an active listener 0 Resort disorganized or disjointed ideas Seek ways to rearrange them into a new more logical pattern Rephrase or summarize what the speaker is saying Listen for main ideas and then put them into your own words Repeat key points you want to remember Go back to essential ideas and restate them to yourself Lookfor information handles provided by the speaker Listen for the overall structure of the message conveyed through an overview transitions signposts and summary statements Listen Ethically 0 Communicate your 0 Hold the speaker expectations and feedback responsible 0 Demonstrate to and 0 Is the speaker presenting tolerance of differences both sides of the issue 0 Is the speaker disclosing all the information to which he or she has access or is the speaker trying to hide something 0 Is the speaker being honest about the purpose ofthe speech Improve your notetaking skills Make your notes meaningful Listen and think critically 0 Separate facts from 0 Evaluate the quality of inferences evidence An inference is a 0 Evidence consists of the conclusion based on partial facts examples opinions information or an and statistics that a speaker evaluation that has not uses to support a been directly observed conclusion Facts are in the realm of certainty lnferences are in the realm of probability and opinion Some speakers support a conclusion with examples 0 But ifthe examples aren t 0 An opinion is a quoted typical or only one ortwo comment from someone examples are offered or A credible source is other known examples someone who has the differ from the one the credentials experience speaker is using then and skill to make an you should question the observation about the conclusion topic at hand 0 Astatistic is a number that summarizes a collection of examples Evaluate the underlying logical and reasoning Logic is a formal system 0 Reasoning is the process of rules applied to reach a ofdrawing a conclusion conclusion from evidence within the logical framework ofthe A speaker is logical if he arguments or she offers appropriate evidence to reach a valid wellreasoned conclusion 0 lfa speakerwants to change your behavior listen especially carefully to the logic or structure ofthe arguments presented Rhetorical criticism is the process of using a method or standard to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of messages National Communication Association Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 0 The message should be 0 The message should be effective ethical 0 An ethical speaker tells the truth gives credit for ideas and words where credit is duel and who doesn t plagiarize Rhetoric is the use of symbols to achieve goals Symbols are words images a flag a crossl a six pointed star and behaviors that create meaning for others Rhetorical strategies are methods and techniques that speakers employ to achieve their speaking goals Be conscious ofthe goal ofthe message its organization the speaker s role the overall tone ofthe message the intended audience and the techniques the speaker uses to achieve the goal Rhetorician Robert Rowland offers a simple but comprehensive framework for describing and analyzing rhetorical messages Give Feedback to Others 0 Be descriptive 0 Be constructive 0 Be specific 0 Be sensitive 0 Be positive 0 Be realistic 039 Demographic Audience Analysis 0 Age 0 Gender 0 Sexual Orientation 0 Culture Ethnicity and Race 0 Group Membership 0 Socioeconomic Status Psychological Audience Analysis 0 An attitude re ects likes or dislikes 0 A belief is what you hold to be true or false 0 A value is an enduring concept of good and bad right and wrong lt9 Analyze attitudes toward your topic 4 Analyze attitudes toward you the speaker Situational Audience Analysis 0 Situational Audience Analysis includes a consideration of the time and place of your speech the size of your audience and the speaking occasion 0 As an audiencecentered speaker try to find out as much as you can about the audience before planning the speech There are two approaches you can take Informal Analysis 0 Observe your audience informally and ask questions before you speak 0 Also talk with people who know something about the audience you will be addressing What is their average age What are their political affiliations What are their attitudes toward your topic Formal Analysis Surveys and Questionnaires 0 1 Openended questions allow for unrestricted answers rather than limiting answers to choices or alternatives Use openended questions when you want more detailed information from your audience 0 2 Closedended questions offer several alternatives from which to choose Multiple ohoioe truelfalse and agreeldisagree questions are examples of closedended questions


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