Chapter 4 Physical changes
Chapter 4 Physical changes
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Date Created: 09/30/14
Body Composition Height Weight Muscle Mass and Size Regional Adiposity Bone Density Body Composition Height Get shorter with age Loss of bone material in vertebrae Spine collapses and shortens in length Body Composition Body Mass Index weight heightz x 703 BMI lt185 Underweight 185249 Normal 250299 Overweight 2 300 Obese 2 400 Morbidly Obese BMI and Health in Young Adulthood and Midlife Body Mass Group at Normal BMI Overweightl N166 Obese N505 Diabetes at Age 48 1 06 31 61 N32 Hypertension at Age 38 229 213 422 48 N251 Franz e1 a Twin Res amp Hum Generics 2007 Metabolic Syndrome Lifestyle related diseases FOR MEN Waist Circumference 3 40 Inches Triglycerides 3 150 mgdL HDL Cholesterol lt 40 mgIdL Blood Pressure 3 13085 mm Hg Fasting Glucose 3 100 mgIdL FOR WOMEN Waist Circumference gt 35 Inches Triglycerides gt 150 mgIdL HDL Cholesterol lt 50 mgdL Blood Pressure gt 13085 mm Hg Fasting Glucose gt 100 mgdL Body Composition Waist Hips Waist to hip Ratio Divide your waist measurement by your hip measurement AppleShaped more weight around waist PearShaped more weight around hips Abdominal Obesity WHR above 90 for men WHR above 85 for women Exercise Aerobic exercise training Body s large muscles move for sustained periods Resistance exercise training Causes muscles to work or hold against an applied force or weight Muscular Function Muscle Strength and Power Muscle Endurance and Fatigability Balance and Mobility Motor Performance and Control Flexibility and Joint ROM Muscular Function Sarcopenia Progressive age related loss of muscle Reduction in number and size of muscle bers Muscle strength reaches peak in 20s and 30s Plateaus until 405 and 50s Declines at a faster rate of 1215 per decade Target Heart Rate 20 years 25 years 30 years 35 years 40 years 45 years 50 years 55 years 60 years 65 years 70 years Target HR Zone 5085 100170 beats per minute 98166 beats per minute 95162 beats per minute 93157 beats per minute 90153 beats per mmute 88149 beats per minute 85145 beats per minute 83140 beats per mmute 80136 beats per minute 78132 beats per minute 75128 beats per munute Average Maximum Heart Rate 100 200 beats per minute 195 beats per minute 190 beats per minute 185 beats per minute 180 beats per minute 175 beats per minute 170 beats per minute 165 beats per minute 160 beats per minute 155 beats per minute 150 beats per minute Exercise For substantial health bene ts Older adults should do at least15o minutes 2 hours and 30 minutes a week of moderateintensity or 75 minutes 1 hour and 15 minutes a week of vigorousintensity aerobic physical activity For additional and more extensive health bene ts 3oo minutes 5 hours a week of moderateintensity or 150 minutes a week of vigorousintensity aerobic physical activity Older adults should also do muscle strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week httpwwwhealthgovpaguidelinesguidelineschaptersaspx Exercise When older adults cannot do 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity a week because of chronic conditions they should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions allow Older adults should do exercises that maintain or improve balance should determine their level of effort for physical activity relative to their level of tness with chronic conditions should understand whether and how their conditions affect their ability to do regular physical activity safely httpwwwhealthgovpaguidelinesguidelineschaptersaspx Aerobic Walking Dandng Swimming Water aerobics Jogging Aerobic exercise classes Bicycling riding Gardening such as raking and mowing the lawn Muscle strengthening 0 Callisthenic exercise 0 Diggin lifting and carrying as part o gardening 0 Carrying groceries 0 Yoga exercise 0 Tai chi 0 Exercise using exercise bands weights machines hand held weights Exercise Flexibility Activities designed to preserve or extend range of motion around a joint Balance Combination of activities designed to increase lower body strength and reduce likelihood of falling Bones Decrease in bone mineral content Microcracks from stress on bones Increased susceptibility to fracture Genetic factors account for 7o of bone mineral content in adulthood Bones Bone mineral content Heavier people have higher bmc so they lose less in adulthood Rural areas higher bone density Bone loss greater in women Bones Bones signi cant problem until 5os 6os Lifestyle factors to slow down bone loss Physical activity Not smoking BMI 25 Resistance training Calcium Vitamin D lvlagnesium Skin Largest organ in the body Most vulnerable to agerelated changes Wrinkles Loss of resilience Color changes Translucent Skin Epidermis Outermost layer Dermis Middle layer f Flexibility and elasticity decrease Co agen Cross links less exible Elastin Less able to bounce back Skin Sebaceous Glands Provides oils for the skin Become less active Skin is dryer amp more vulnerable to damage Subcutaneous Fat Provides cushioning Opacity and smoothing Fatty layers thin with age Older Vounger Epidermis 1 Subcutaneous fat layer Muscles to Muscles to Adjust the Lens 0 Move the Eye Iris I Pj Optic Disk V and blind spot Optic Nerve M 0 brain Nearsightedness Normal Eye Shape Farsightedness Retina Normal Eye Shape Focus Point Falls Behind lt Retina K 20200 DN3939RASTTEST SYSTEM 0 1 2 20100 47 2 V i 3 2070 4 2050 5 2040 6 2030 IE I L O P Z ID 7 2025 DIIPPOTEC 8 2020 2 1 I r o 1 r c 39139 9 rnr139rcro 10 PEZOLCPTD Cataracts Clouding that develops in lens Images cannot be focused clearly on the retina Macular Degeneration Leading cause of b ndness Destruction of the macula Glaucoma Changes in pressure created by a buildup of uid in the eye Loss of peripheral vision Third most common cause of blindness in US Hearing Semicircular Canals Hammer Pinna Auditory Nerve Stirru p Ear Drum Auditory Canal Inner Ear Middle Ear External Ear Hearing Auditory Nerve Cochlea Presbycusis Degeneration of the Cochlea aditory nerve to the brain Loss of high pitched sound Hearing Tinnitus Perceive ringing noises with not external source Olfactory Bulb Olfactory Axons O O A l Olfactory Cilia receptor cells Nasal Passage Smell Olfactory receptors decrease with age 33 of older adults suffer some form of olfactory impairment Smoking interferes with smell and taste Dementia loss of odor identification Taste Taste Buds Cardiovascular System superior vena cava aorta pulmonary arlery pulmonary veins DU39m0quot33939 Vein W left atrium v 139 39 A quot pulmonary valve f or semilunar valve quot9quotquot quot milral valve tricuspid valve lelt ventricle right ventricle cardiac muscle inferior vena cava Right atrioventricular Right semilunar valve valve Rigf1 Tricuspid Valve Pulmonary Valve quotquotquot39 Atrium 39venfhcIe Q cave Pulm onary artery V lwngsl Aorta Pulmonary vein k Left Left Verrtntle Alri um Aortic Valve Mitral Valve httpswwwgooglecomsearch Vil P 1 5 l 39ll j l flowchartamphlenampqscrl1amprlz1 a GveUTnM3A3BJewctgKHHpw 2 25252oSystem252Fcirculatory 25252oSystems252FCirculator t crcampimgdiiampimgrcrlp2dHW 1 5252olectures252Fcirculatory W 2520Lectures252FOrgan Cardiovascular Disease Changes begin in middle age Left Ventricle Walls thickenless able to contract Reduced diastolic functioning Ejecting less blood into the aorta Arteries less able to accommodate the ow of blood Plaque etc Cardiovascular Disease gr 133 Vquot HA Cardiac Output P Amount of blood that the heart pumps per minute Aerobic Capacity Maximum amount of oxygen that can be delivered through the blood Pathophysiology of Hypertension Cardiac output B jlt httpswwwgooglecomsearchqpathophysiologyof hypertensionampsourcelnmsamptbmischampsaXampeiGH M8Ut2Wcvh4AOxioH4DAampsqi2ampvedoCAcQAUoAQampbiw1133ampbih624ampdpr1facrcampimgdiiampimgrcocWWdH ntQFROM3A 3BRx9LYFoAcQAmfM3Bhttp253A252F252Fuploadwikimediaorg252Fwikipedia252Fcommons252F9252F92252FArterialpressurediagrampng3Bhttp253A252F252Fenwikipediaorg252Fwiki 39lquot ID393Iv39rIv39c39rlrrf n39F IquotIIquotQV39Ql 1quotIl 1 3DWWAQO 3DffW httpswwwgooglecomsearchqanklearmindexamphlenampqscrl1ampsourcelnmsamptbmischampsaXampeiTlY8UruVKe7i4APr oHYDgampved0CAcQAUoAQampbiw1133ampbih624ampdpr1facrcampimgdiiampimgrcfG BUON NCXCWm PM3A3 BVzn7jMn1Cqxu7M3Bhttp253A252F252Fpaddoctororg252Fimages252Fpatients 252FIRperformingABtestjpg3Bhttp253A252F252Fpaddoctororg252F3B4oo3B27o Erectile Dysfunction Strongly linked to Emotional well being Physical well being Life satisfaction 8o due to physiological etiologies Vascular disease most common in uence Early indicator of microvascular disease Erectile Dysfunction Precedes onset of angina by 23 years Cardiovascular events by 35 years 75 of coronary artery disease patients experience some degree of ED A man with ED and NO cardiac symptoms is a cardiac patient until proven Q Nehra et al 2012 Respiratory System Respiratory muscles loose the ability to expand and contract the chest wall Agerelated loss from about 40 on Smoking BMI Respiratory System T Susceptible smoker Never smoked or not susceptible to smoke Stopped smoking at 45 Stopped smoking at 65 Disability Death O O U1 Ln C M U 0 50 75 Age years httpswwwgooglecomsearchqsmokingandlung capacityampsourceInmsamptbmischampsaXampeiizw7UrmaNq6p4APwuI HgCQampsqi2ampvedoCAcQAUoAQampbiw1133ampbih624ampdpr1facrcampimgrcxbmcKAvtob3ywM3A3BrXOVbMGSxvw M3Bhttp253A 252F252Fwwwbmjcom252Fhighwire252F lestream252F4o7598252F eldhighwirefragmentimagel252Fojpg3Bhttp253A252F252Fwwwbmjcom252Fcontent 252F336252F7644252F5983B128o3 B1122 Lung function FEV1 of value at age 25 M U39 Respiratory System Diagnosis of obstructive disease requires several factors depending on the exact disease being diagnosed However one commonalty between them is a decreased FEV1FVC ratio which is the ability to exhale 70 of their breath within one second In restrictive lung disease both forced expiratory volume in one second FEV1 and forced vital capacity FVC are reduced however the decline in FVC is more than that of FEV1 resulting in a higher than 80 FEV1FVC ratio Urinary System Kidneys bladder ureter urethra Nephron cells Kidneys cleanse the blood of metabolic waste Risk factors Smoking Illness Exertion Heat Urinary System Glomerular Filtration Rate G FR Volume of uid ltered through the kidneys measured by creatinine clearance Elasticity of bladder no longer ef ciently retain or expel urine Urge Incontinence