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by: Alexandrine Dietrich


Alexandrine Dietrich
GPA 3.63

Ralph Stevens

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Ralph Stevens
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandrine Dietrich on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 251 at Old Dominion University taught by Ralph Stevens in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/215299/biol-251-old-dominion-university in Biological Sciences at Old Dominion University.

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Date Created: 09/28/15
UNIT3 Exam 3 is avocab examll MuscularSystem l quot quot39 quot quot mnnth mrr cle Ireletalmrr cle cardiacmrr cle E Rub H L 39 I 39 39 clennlarimtinn rennlarimtinn i lrepolarization is only possible in excitable cells 39 l H x 39J rrrrrrrrLr mic Myo brils bundled actin ii myosin lproteins Hypertrophy increase in cell size lant atrophy Hyperplasia increase in cell number Sacrcoplasm cytoplasm of the muscle cell organelles sarcopIasmic reticulum Free ribosomes make proteins laampm Sarcomere arrangement of Mlines and Z disks and Abands temperature enhances dittusion Eavyny39r uTlu Mb ra Hlll mm m remain was m mumquot a mm i band A hum A run Zc lk H runs 2 rim H nan 25 I Mymln mynllllmen min 2 disk quotVi Wm 2 um Zdlak 9 a a Continuing muscle mrn hmuma Isummm mama mm mum u 2 arm mm n ulnar mm ch other Cumming 39 muscle 39 N m quotTm I 39a A ma Ines mums m nlm39m A ma Inquot A hum Fully Colmaan muscle H m rbla fm A hum nmarm aruwuu nlmzm lunchquotnan rumm Fink ball 6 actin Factin helix oi Gactin ligandgated channel a M n my quotmama m w mm m nwmmiu anmiiwma in mummwmnmmww Race or sites Acetylchollne 0 r glineGO N C a 09 E6 9945quot 09A Closed Naquot channel Na39 can dl use v Open Na through the channel Open channel Myasthenia Gravis autoimmune disease in which the antibody destroys the AcH receptor person dies by suffocation because diaphragm cannot contract a Fiaccid paraiysis MG destroys receptor curare mustard gas atropine piocks receptor p Spastic paraiysis rigor mortis tetanus organic phosphate piocksdestroy acetychoiinesterase enzyme How many events inthe neuromuscuiar junction activation of SKM contraction invoive iigand ACh gated channeis1 15 event action potentiai 2m1 event caicium in ux presynaptic through voitagegated Ca channeis 3 1 event acetyichoiine Sodium ux voitage amp iigand gated channei Potassium effiux via voitage gated channei Ttupuies activate voitage gated channei for caicium dumped into SR Axonpresynaptic action potentiai 9 gangiionpresynapticAch 9 muscie ceHpostsynaptic norepinephrine the result is opening a sodium ligand thannel Sodium going in depolarization inside beeomes positive less polar 30 a 39 mnra mlarl 70 Which or 39 i ai39teryouadd to the ECF Cl9depolarization Ex the heart resting membrane potential SA node 60 AV node 65 to 70 Bundle of His lseptal fibers 80 Purkinje fibers 85 Myoear ium 90 Every exeitable cell has a voltage gated thannel Musele 9 nerve voltagegated taleium thannel Dominant divalent extracellularcat ion caleium Dominant monovalent 1 sodium n Wanna inqu Hill 2mm 1quot eamlnynn an leumlumnudEnilw WW Innc vlllon am closed a Inlcllvallun sate open Atilvnlion Avilvallun Acliwxlon Acllultnn gale closed glle aunnud glue npnnnd gale closed 20 n Depolarization phase I Hepollrizaklon A phase gt gt E 5 Threshold Threshold Depelarlza un 99 99 Depolarization nme ms Time ms a Depnlarizn on Is a change er me 1 During ms daunlarizalion phase charge dinerence across m plasma quot12 membrane pD EI I 1 Chan ES membrane making me charge meld from anpruxlmalely 85 mV 6 M my call lass naganve and He appruximalely 20 mV Durlng IE omsme olmc plasma membrana less epniamauen phase 0 me reslin pesmvc membrane pelemlal me Inside a lhe plasma membrane changes l harge no a m ly 20 Dif fusion is stimulated by heat look at dif39fusion events 65 of body mass is skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is in a 100 optimal stretch Table 92 Events That Occur During Each Phase of a Muscle Twilch ugvnm Normal 1 Dmv galed m m nmynlpit mumml at m mm mmquot 5 he pemeahlllry a me mam Ermmnl u llamas gt a me my punmini Ruse svnavrm deli mm m m mm li mm a dl use lmm um satcunlasmk larkulum inm he mmnmm comma Pm Crussvbrldgashu n 1 1 u a u h M iquot m mu 1 m mam mnlcmlrnllnws myt n must hind n nu mmm Ileam le ms is mm down in my 4 Lama n Mn maismlz to quotHave buck r n r I i dv in 1mm anal Nu head and is um um Rdlmllnn Phase aquot 5 nahEly vanivnmd lnm Ina samuulnsmlz nlculum 1n xmpnnrnnmpumww mmnines lnhlbil mm bride lormnllun The musm quothers lengIhen nasslvuly Assumm m the mm mm wm smug amt petunia m m mmar mm Smooth Muscle Binding protein calmodulin Ch 13 N CNSPNS Epinephrine neural hormone comes from adrenal medulla neural tissue PNS acetylcholine autonomic parasympathetic norepinephrine sympathetic Epinephrine is released in the blood travels by blood Parkinson s disease the inability to make dopamine reticular activating system medulla Triptiphine amino acid serotonin Melatonin serotonin awake vs asleep GABA activates chloride channel inhibitow know your neurotransmitters Cells of the Nervous System Neurons egtltcitable cells that conduct the impulses Gliaglial cellsneuroglia do not conduct impulses but support the function ofthe neurons Types of neuroglia CNS astrocytes microglia ependymal cells ogliodendrocytes PNS satelite and Schwann cells neuroglia divide neurons do not CNS Sensow afferent neurons motor ef39ferent neurons interneurons connect sensory amp motor neurons Melvnus system mst Pennhem us Cemml us Amnnnmlc us Snrmllc us Bum spml Cum Slrrl39mlhelchS Pamsymrmlhellcus Fnrehrzn Mmhmln Hlndhmln telencenmlnn Dlencwhzlnn Musencqlhzlnn Mamcenhannn J J J J J Cemhmlcnnex thalamus Iaclum Pnns Wbdullz azszcznunz anhzznus IEumemum cerebellum Hm c Aw I Bram grey maner uumde hudet wh le matter nS dE msu a myehhated r hn m m mn nn A erentrlu the bran Sensurv E erenli awaylmm the bran mumr mn the heura tube became the vehtndes 4 chambers m the bran Hed w lh CSH Nudew r a cuHecImn u as budwes wwth a pamcu ar mctmn Vesubu ar NUC EW ra ects ba anc Substanna mgra rmakes mewahh Red nudeus 7 molar murdmalmn nuvmhrrngucamw gtIII cumming Inn Wrmiazlnnreculre Cummqu quotom clencvvmlun Plnmcwhalon MHIIanhaIun 4 A Rhamhlncapmlun 5 mnlancuyhalum Canllum 7 1mm memncuphllon m melannephslnn Buinllum MIdnlla moan lrum I Elvly mum m m myelencaphnlnn 1 card x A Snln Splnll wrd Telamphnlon C Vquot Op Vusl a 7 I hlenmpmlun mme 4 y mmmplmon i Mylllncwhnlnn Snmal card 2 Lake emhrvn 0Ifactory frontal lobe smell telencephalon cortex chemoreceptors Optic II vision crosses w optic chiasm X 70 of info goes tothe opposite side depth perception photoreceptor afferent goes to diencephalon optic foramen of sphenoid bone Oculomotor III all other eye muscles sends parasympathetic fibers to the eye constriction iris mechanoreceptors proprioception Trochlear IV superior oblique muscle swings eye down and out proprioception Trigeminal V 3 branches ophthalmic maxillary mandibular facial sensations proprioception Abducens VI lateral rectus muscle moves eye out peripheral vision proprioception Facial VII sense of taste facial expressions associated with Bell s palsy Vestibulocochlear acoustic VIII Vestibulo balance cochlear hearing GIossopharyngeal XIItongue amp pharynx taste swallowing saliva secretion Vagus X everything taste speech heart lungs liver stomach spleen pancreas intestine follows the carotid artery Accessory XI or spinal accessory nota spinal nerve parasympathetic sternocleidomastoid trapezius Hypoglossal XII muscles below the tongue proprioception Sphenoid bone superior orbital ssure II III IV V VI Unit 3 N Digestive Maltosegg sucrosegf lactosegga disaccharides Fructose galactose manose glucose monosaccharides Starch glycogen polysaccharides Isomerase converts monosaccharides to glucose In saliva we can find salivary amylase and lipase The amylase enzyme has carbohydrates as its substrate The lipase ezyme has lipids as its substrate Pepsinogen inactive no substrate Cephalic phase stimulation H ions pepsin lipase Increase time of mastication decrease gastric emptyinglipase enzymesacetyl CoA Not a serine protease isomerase Tryspin chymotripsin elastasepancreas prothrombin plasminogen liver thrombin plasmin blood Crohn s disease autoimmune destruction of GI tract maldigestion malabsorbtion Lactose intolerance maldigestion Ulcerative colitis malabsorbtion Inflammatory bowel disease malabsorbtion Cephalic phase of digestion cranial nerves I II VIII Gastric phase Intestinal phase stretch induced peristalsis Submucosa mucle layer moves microvilli Lacteal lymphatic capillary lipids C02 H20 lt gtcarbonic anhydrase H2CO3 bicarbonate Acidosis hypoventilation TCOZ Alkalosis hyperventilation ICOZ vomiting diarrhea Pancreatic insufficiency deficiency in enzymes Carbontetrachloride CCI4 causes a fatty liver by destroying RER Renal Steroids usually bound to carrier albumen nuclear receptor Proteins extracellular receptor intracellular second messenger Cyclic amp glucagon epinephrine Diabetes insipidus ADH vasopressin UNIT 2 CH 567 Facilitates diffusion simple squamous Transitional epithelium diffusion of urea Stratified squamous diffusion of skinpermeable drugs C02 faster diffusion more soluble Does not facilitate secretion cuboidal columnar absorption columnar or stretching transitional stratified squamous Duodenum absorption amylase sucrase maltase lactase Stomach absorbs acids and alcohol columnar The 39 39 39 I of the 39 U is most clearly associated with the dermis hypodermis Ectoderm mesoderm endoderm form 18 days after conception Ectoderm skin brain nervous tissue epidermis Mesoderm muscle bone glands dermis hypodermis everything in the middle Endoderm lining of trachea esophagus stomach intestines etc GI tract Associated with hair root apocrine gland Skin Vitamin D Calcium homeostasis Adrenal medulla epinephrine neural tissue ectoderm Cell junctions tight junctions bloodbrain barrier selective permeability intestinal cells Glycoproteins keep membranes separated channels fuse membranes together gap junction Lygandgated channel acetylcholine Boltagegated channel action potential 3 proteins make up the extracellular matrix loose areolar connective tissue elastin collagen fibronectin Fibroblast makes collagen Cortisol stimulates protein wasting causes scar tissue to break down Hypodermis highest collection of fat tissue Thickness of the skin up to an inch Matrix collagen condroitin sulfate support cushioning Matrix calcium phosphate crystals bone ossified hyaline cartilage Rickets deficiency of Vitamin D3 Scurvy deficiency of Vitamin C Carbonic acid H2CO3 Hydrochloric acid stomach Cancellous ltrobecular bone tissue spongy bone bone marrow lstem cells woven bers in ammation lredness edema lput ness zit Ch 6 Skin Epidermal layers and keratinizationquot Not associated with stratum basal tightjunctions lle tiaht illnrtinn ha ement membrane Associated with stratum granulosum desmosomes keratinocytes cnpnmems mimenmme n palmsquotisqursaamwaumNew Superllclal 5 Stratum carneum Dead cells with a hard protein envelope the cells Contaln keratln an are surrounded b H ids 4 stratum Iucidum Dead cells containing dispersed kermohyelin a Stratum granulosum Keralohyalin and l hard protein envelope term iameiier bodies release lipids cells die 2 Stratum spinusum Kerstin fibers and lamellsr bodies interceilular lipids Keralin Lamallar body releases lipids Protein envelope Keratonyaiin 39 granules Lipidfilled lamailar body Keratln llber Desmosome super cial strata membiene Tight junctions selective barrierto dittusion Electrical activity homeostasis of calcium potassium sodium Know calcium homeostasislllllll Vitamin D3 active Primary hormones lligands PTH lparathyroid hormone TCTCT lthyrocalcitonincalcitonin Damn e rue mower cue he Mew were i New arme 1 Ostaoclasls break down bone and release calcium and and into the bl osteoblasls remove calcium train the moon to ggn w i dc5r make ho ne blood calcium indirectly grim osteeciast activity m P resuking in increased car calcium release into the quotam the lee s a PTH regulates release into the blood levels by ulaling 9 ea e um maintenance by Inhibiling asteociast activtty 7 2 in me kidneys PTOI increases calcium reabsorption from the 95 urine 5 in the kidneys PTH also quot39139quot simulates the formation at active vitamin D which Increases mlnlum vitamin D ebsorptlun quotam the small Mm Inlesiine RANKL receptor ligand PTH increases ligand TCT decreases ligand Glucocorticoids Monocyte blood diapedesis macrophage dumps digestive enzymesacid bone osteoclast breaks down collagen dissolves calcium phosphate cwstals calcium is deposited in another bone PWP OPG decreased by PTH increased by TCT competitive antagonist of RANKL TCT osteoblasts more calcium cwstals OPGIRANKLIRANK system activator of nuclear factor Show mum ermmr m t oar09mm and part ofthe r r 1 and OPG a gly ecep or mmu RANKL m w W 39Iquot r Tl i rm W st are modulated ous cytokines MN m 39 I mnng z m Gmlmx al stralns s wwmmg oweWm s A I r ernmm amtnullquot 339 rm the rec o my mama cl asts av to pron c v lm New w 7 anmmlnoaul om mum c lear 5mm om mumcum innMud Dy ammo by x mares momma 7 ow w m momm Mwam We W V immunity engstlk nteret nTGF tra growthfactorbetaBMP bonemorphog39 rote 1 2 PTH parathyrold i orm PDGFE plateletrde growth factor B Adapted froth quot r lt uer choppet M JAMA 2924 4907495 mamIan STUDY Junctions Dermal layers Calcium homeostasis Ions from the rst test Ch 5 Review Extracellular matrix connective tissue w interstitial matrix collagen elastin fibroblasts basement membrane sodium ntraceuar matrix cytoskeleton microtubules intermediate filaments cytosol potassium Proteoglycans hyd rophilic n rquotri n porn y y Hoiocrineceii ruptured compieteiyto reiease secretory productsinsidethem M min quot 39 quot nndamaaencrurs mnstrnmmnn giandtype Ch 6 Review lntegumentary system skin hair naiis giands Epidermai iayers gt liiii 39 sing iuy ruicuiumnai 39 39 then migrate through the other iayers untii they are shed spiny shapes ceiisrich in RNA it i n i it may i 39 my iy granuies contain high ieveis oi iysosomai enzymes iriipiini Mimi 39 iur i i a n i Pii i i iiriiiii n Dermai iayers ln u mqump y y y y y i r m r i i i r r givesindividuai iingerprints Reticuarayer quot d 39 39 39 quot 39itwr IiIiuahPfhP shin tough yet stretchahie when processed irom animai shin produces ieather Ch 7 Review Caicium homeostasis Thyroid paraioiiicuiar ceiis TCT Caicitonin iosteohiast Parathyroid PTH resuitsin activation otosteociasts With 2 addition ai hydroxyi s Vit Di becomes Vit DWe Unit 2 quot Cardiovascular Arteries and veins do not form where there is no flow thus everyone has a different circulatory system blood blow determines the path Heart is pumping 18 days after fertilization Left ventricular hypertrophy can be caused by aortic stenosis 1 mitral valve prolapsed steroids Right 258 Left 12080 stroke volume 70 mLbeat Anna 9060 Capillary hydrostatic 35 mmHg Propranerol Lisinopril beta adrenergic dilation of lungs keeps heart rate normal BP goes down ACE inhibitors epinephrine alpha adrenergic constricts blood vessels increases heart rate and BP BP pregnancy elephantiasis cause big proteins to leak into greatest resistance arterioles resistance vessels serine proteases convert plasminogen to plasmin Figure 67 Sympathetic norepinephrine epinephrine Na channels depolarization heart rate goes up Parasympathetic vagus nerve Ach K channels hyperpolarization heart rate goes down Threshold of the heart conducting system resting membrane potential Threshold 55 mV SA node 60 AV node 65 to 70 AV bundle 70 to 75 Bundle of His septal fibers 80 Purkinje fibers 85 Myocardium 90 Arteries 14 Arterioles 14 smooth muscle resistance vessels Precapillary sphincter smooth muscle Capillaries simple squamous epithelium Only 70 of capillaries are filled with blood at any moment in time Diastole stretch induced contraction of the aorta Residual volume end of systole Migraine vasospasm of Circle of Willis m ewe Ya mumdann LvdEmY magma mepams w pm 2 Wm cme Mew Hm symx mm mm Fume Mum Acllvu WWW hwnmm c m Imuwm mmammmmsu wnlnnl tm ewequot n mung mung Sam mm whim Syslula u slols Syslole Pr depmanzauun Mama rm depu arizaliun ulvenlrides Ts repu anzalmn ulvenmdes m unarva ves upenluHuwmgsuvu ummcumramun ulthevemndes SEmHunarVahEs usejuslpriurlu ismmmi re axaliun unhe Venmdes AV VahEs upenmuuwmg suvu umw unlramun a the aims AV VahEs emse pnurlu smumrm unlraclmn unhe Venmdes Resgwamry System 1 alm so arr A 100 pama pressure P 152 16 P 20 7 PCDZ qwm cm 113V Brunchu e quot991114 Ten ary bruncmmeserespmm brunchm es respwramm A Veuhssimpk squamuus mmsmn Unit 1 Clotting mechanism Serum clotting has occurred Plasma no clotting Cumerin vitamin k inhibitor Vitamin k essential for clotting Extrinsic pathway Intrinsic pathway Common pathway prothrombin becomes thrombin inactive to active enzyme activates Fibrinogen protein inactive becomes fibrin Blood clot 2 out of 3 Vessel constriction Platelet aggregation Fibrin formation Cell Biology Microtubules Polymer of tubulin Tubulinprotein calcium G actin calcium factin filamentfiber Intermediate filaments make up cytoskeleton Mitochondrion Power house of the cell Oxidative phosphorilation Requires oxygen Blah blah blah Cell membrane Inside lipid soluble Iipophylic Outside hydrophilic Fatty acids headhydrophilic tail hydrophobic ER Smooth lipid biosymphisis no ribosomes Lysosome Digestive enzymes Optimal pH 55 Nucleus Dna proteins chromatin ara nucleolus makes ribosomes Golgi Packages anything makes on the rough ER Continuous with rER Small vacuoles Endocytosis and pinocytosis Centrioles Found in cells undergoing mitosis Epithelia blood cells Ribobosomes Glycolitic enzymes Intracellular fluid 28 liters Extracellular fluid 14 liters 11 liters lymph 3 liters blood Avg person weights 70 kg about 150 lbs 42 liters body water Creatine solute made from amino acids draws water into the cell blood viscosity goes up schemia decreased blood blow lack of oxygen nterstitial extracellular fluid lymph alexis was here Edema movement of water out of cells into the interstitial Nonspecific active immunity Decreased capillary oncotic pressure cirrhosis Elephantiasis Four vectors of extracellular fluid flux inout of blood vessels Interstitial hydrostatic pressure leg wrap knee brace postsurgical stockings Gsuit air splint interstitial oncoticosmotic pressure capillary hydrostatic pressure blood pressure capillary oncoticosmotic pressure Extracellular matrix collagen fibronectin elastin Liver failure cirrhosis hepatitis Decrease in blood albumen fibrinogen complement Decrease in metabolism ofalcohol glycogen storage Decrease in capillary osmotic pressure Triple organ failure liver gt kidneys gt heart


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