INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 201S
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This 52 page Class Notes was uploaded by Santa Hahn on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 201S at Old Dominion University taught by Rachel Phillips in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/215328/psyc-201s-old-dominion-university in Psychlogy at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
A J L We Ly71 am WED Biopsychology Neuroscience and Human Nature Genes and Behavior 0 Innate abilities o Abilities present at birth 0 Attributed to evolution 0 Evolution gradual process of biological change that occurs in a species as it adapts to it s environment J Quick History 0 Darwin o Naturalist on HMS Beagle 1831 o On the Origin of Species 1859 0 Made Case for evolution of species 0 Natural selection environment selects the fittest organisms also called survival of the fittest l H iii quotTX quot7 W l x quoti IL1 712 liJllLllll ll 0 Still controversial 0 May account for phobias What are people typically afraid of F39 E RgJVHEH i H o Genotype o Organism s genetic makeup anyone else o One half of your genetic material comes from mother and half from father 0 999 0 Genetic pattern that makes you different from o Phenotype o All of your physical characteristics 0 Locks 0 Internal 0 Behavior j my E K 4 jtilg iMo lecule of Life 39 39 ghrqmosomes 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid a Long complex molecule that encodes genetic characteristics 0 Gene a Segment of a chromosome that encodes the directions for the inherited physical and mental characteristics of an organism Still genetics 0 Chromosome 0 23 in each cell 0 Tightly coiled threadlike structure along which the genes are organized consist primarily of DNA 0 Human DNA contains approximately 30000 genes 0 Sex chromosomes 0 XampY o XX Female 0 XY Male J T quotF r C yr C r Lyf j r 91x1 xJL 2 RafMa UH U k mu 71 9545 2 3 73s 7 I waw J U Nah WM1HLi1 lt 1 Genetics and Psychology 0 Genes influence psychological characteristics o Account for certain mental disorders o Genes do not work in isolation J Genetics Psychology and Race 0 Race is a socially defined term 0 No physical differences between brains j lilri QllTll l ill Th o Neurons AKA nerve cells Cells specialized to receive and transmit information to other cells in the body j Types of Neurons o 3 classes 0 Sensory neurons 0 Motor neurons 0 Interneurons j Types of Neurons o Sensory o Carries information TOWARD the central nervous system from the sense receptors tig39iia il ll tl 0 Motor Nerve cell that carries information away from the central nervous system towards the muscles and glands SENS RV MD IT DR x NEWE HERVE 5139 3205 CELLS CELLS 5129315 EDTquot rag gm Hg 1 quot nut Chapter 1 Part 2 l 5 types of research II Experiment I Experimenter manipulates conditions I Correlational studies I Examine relationship between variables but do not manipulate them III Correlation does not prove causation 6 NOT TRUEH Types of correlations A Positive Correlation B Negative Correlation C No Correlation 200 400 600 800 2 4 6 7 9 1D 12 4396quot 5quot0quot 5quot6quot 6390quot 6396quot SAT Scores Number of Drinks per Week Height l 5 types of research III Surveys I Ask people questions I Naturalistic observation I Behavioral assessment in natural environment III Case studies I Focus on one or a few individuals carefully l Ethics II APA publishes Ethical Principals of Psychologists and Code of Conduct II Experiments are assessed by lRBInstitutional Review Board I 2 issues I Deception I Animal studies l Science can t answer everything Ethics Values Morality Preferences Aesthetics Existential Issues Religion EIEIEIEIEIEIEIEI Law l Psychology s 6 main perspectives Biological Cognitive Behavioral Whole person Developmental EIEIEIEIEIEI Sociocultural B 6 main perspectives Biological II Rene Descartes 1596 1650 m1 Studied El Mathematics and Humanities El Philosophy physics physiology u Examined El Ways to prevent grays El Maneuverability of Wheelchairs 6 main perspectives Biological II Contributions to modern psychology l His work led to many trends El EIEIEIEI The mechanistic conception of the body The theory of re ex action Mindbody interation Localization of mental functions and the brain Doctrine of innate ideas ideas developed Within the mind or consciousness independent of sensory experiences or external stimuli l 6 main perspectives Biological II Modern perspective I Study physical underpinnings of psychological processes III Genes brain nervous system amp endocrineharmone system III Neuroscience III Evolutionary psychology E 6 main perspectives Cognitive II Wilhelm Wundt 1832 1920 I Developed process of introspection El Process of reporting one s own conscious mental experiences l 6 main perspectives Cognitive II Wundt history I Established the rst psychology lab El El El Psychology was a science based on experience Reported results in a journal Attempted to develop systematic theory regarding the nature of the human mind H 6 main perspectives Cognitive I E B Titchener 1867 1927 Wundt s student a Came to US to establish lab El Established structuralism El Sought the elements of conscious experience H 6 main perspectives Cognitive El William James 1842 1910 D Inspired functionalist psychology El DID NOT start it D Famous for El Principles of Psychology El One of the most in uential textbooks l 6 main perspectives Cognitive II James I Not an experimentalist I Left psychology for philosophy I His book Talks to Teachers 1899 beginning of educational psychology 6 main perspectives Cognitive II Functionalism l Mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function III Became interested in potential applications of psychology to everyday life I There was not a single formal version of functional psychology III Titchener was possibly the informal founder i 6 main perspectives Cognitive II Gestalt Psychology I Wertheimer Kof lta Kohler etc III Perception is more than just the sum of the parts cannot be reduced to mere elements 6 main perspectives Cognitive II Development of modern cognitive psych l Combination of different elds and techniques I Development of computer gave new conceptualization III Brain considered to be a processor 6 main perspectives Behaviorisrn i 39 39 I John B Watson 1878 39 quot quot 1958 l Attacked structuralism and functionalism for lack of scienti c rigor El Objective science should deal solely with What could be directly observed II Watson I Instincts I Emotions El Physiological responses to speci c stimuli Conditioned emotional responses Inspired Mary Cover Jones precursor to behavioral therapy Baby Albert I a 6 main perspectives Behaviorism I B F Skinner 1904 1990 3 Very in uential Q Did not deny existence of mind states just the validity of using them as explanatory mechanisms 6 main perspectives Behaviorism II BF Skinner I Operant Conditioning III Behavior is due to some kind of reinforcement thus all behaviors are learned III Behavior modi cation through application of possitive reinforcement you can modify behavior I Skinner BOX gt 6 main perspectives WholePerson II Sigmund Freud 1856 1939 a Psychoanalysis El Refers to both the treatment method amp theory 6 main perspectives WholePerson II Freud l Id unconscious l Ego rational aspect of personality responsible to controlling instincts I Superego moral aspect of personality derived from internalizing parental amp societal values amp standards l 6 main perspectives WholePerson II Freud I Controversial gure Within psych III Penis Envy Really I There are still psychoanalysts III MD s with specialized training 6 main perspectives WholePerson II Psychodynamic approach I Clinical approach emphasizing the understanding of mental disorders in terms of unconscious needs desires memories and con icts 6 main perspectives WholePerson II Humanistic Psychology I Carl Rogers 1902 1987 El Positive Regard I Abraham Maslow 19081970 El Hierarchy of needs l 6 main perspectives WholePerson II Humanistic Psychology I Did not greatly impact mainstream psychology III Most practitioners were clinicians not academics I Did in uence counseling amp therapy practices 6 main perspectives WholePerson II Trait and Temperament Psychology l Differences among people arise from differences in persistent characteristics and dispositions III Traits introversionextraversion Big Five III Temperament disposition 6 main perspectives Developmental II Developmental perspective I Distinguished by emphasis on Nature and Nurture III People change in predictable ways as the in uences of heredity and environment unfold over time III Used to focus solely on children this has changed Children went through the most change 6 main perspectives Sociocultural II Sociocultural perspective I Emphasizes importance of social interaction social learning and a cultural perspective I Culture III Complex blend of language beliefs customs values amp traditions developed by a group of people amp shared with other in the same environment l 6 main perspectives Sociocultural I Do not deny other disciplines of psychology l Seek to add the additional concept of culture and examine it s in uence Psychology the next generation II Cognitive biological and developmental psychology are currently the most popular I Opposing factions are combining cognitive behaviorists II Socioculturalists are gaining ground I Increasingly minority dominated