The Psychology of Adolescence
The Psychology of Adolescence PSYC 322
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Santa Hahn on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 322 at Old Dominion University taught by Suzanne Morrow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/215329/psyc-322-old-dominion-university in Psychlogy at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Psycholog of Adolescence Learning Objectives for Exam 1 Chapter 1 The Science of A J 39 T 39 Y 1 39 A 1 I P I 1 De ne adolescence The developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood it involves biological cognitive and socioemotional changes Adolescence begins at approximately 10 to 13 years of age and ends in the late teens Adolescence is becoming an adult and everything that comes with it such as experimenting with different roles identity development challenging boundaries separating from parents independence developing ones own beliefs and values changes in thinking physical changes bonding with peers and making careerfamily decisions 2 Describe the two developmental issues nature vs nurture and continuity vs discontinuity Identify an example of each of the 4 concepts I Nature Nurture issue Issue involving the debate about whether development is primarily in uences by an organisms biological inheritance nature or by its environmental experiences nurture Nature genetics in uences us and brings about change Nurture our environment in uences us and brings about change Continuity Discontinuity issue issue regarding whether development involves gradual cumulative change continuity or distinct stages discontinuity Continuity re ects the idea that development is very slow and gradual we change over time with little baby steps Change doesn t happen overnight Ex baby going from laying to moving to pulling themselves up to crawling to walking to running happens over a period of months Discontinuity says change happens rather quickly and abruptly Yesterday you didn t have the ability and today you do Ex menstruation 3 List the major developmental issues that adolescents must address during this time period Experimenting with different roles identity crisis Challenge boundaries Separate from parents independence Develop own beliefs and values Changes in thinking Physical changes Bonding with peers Career family decisions BECOMING AN ADULT 4 List and describe the historical periods in the study of adolescence psychological woes Teens are 39 have t problems that border of psychopathology The founder of adolescent psychology G Stanley Hall argued that it was a period of storm and stress He argued that teens go through a period of con ict in their search for the own identity and separation from parents and that this brings about mood swings and emotionality Recent researchers have also supported this view Some argue that adolescence is a time when many things happen for the first time the first crush dance date kiss job and the first love The authors argue that the newly experienced cognitive growth reasoning introspection and abstract thinking enhances the emotional experience and the combined new experiences easily overwhelm an adolescent Certainly this view is upheld in the typical stereotype of adolescents Teens are often described as immoral sexually promiscuous look at their music de ant rebellious lazy drugalcohol users selfcentered Sociocultural 7 Hall thought the storm and stress of adolescence comes primarily from biological changes that teens experience Margaret Mean sharply this view when you argued that it s our culture that determines if adolescence is a period of turmoil or not She made this argument based on the observation of Samoan teens She saw that adolescence was a period of smooth transition and free of turmoil The occurred because the culture allowed teens to observe sexual relations see babies born regard death as natural do important work Engage in sex play and know clearly what their roles are and are not The Interventionists view states that adolescence is primarily a sociohistorical creation They argue that the period of adolescence was created because of childsaving legislation that required more years in formal education and made it illegal to work until a certain age remember work permits Prior to this kids went to work at an early age and thus became adults at an early age They moved from childhood to adulthood because they were forced to work Now that kids are in secondary school longer they ve outgrown childhood but aren t yet adults so need a new category for them Adolescents 20h Century 7 1950 s laws have been established to protect children l970 s 7teen revolt against authority primarily because of Vietnam War l980s 7 materialistic concerns and getting ahead Achievement important for financial gain Now 7 increased diversity 7 60 of teens have dated someone from another ethnicity Positive and negative role of media Dumbest Generation vs IQ scores up Immediate gratification Some would argue that adolescence is a period of tremendous I I I 39 I I 39 I Developmental Theories 5 List and brie y describe the major idea of the 3 major developmental theories I Psychodynamic Theory theory that describes development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion Behavior is merely a surface characteristic and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior Early experiences with parents are emphasized Emphasis on unconscious thought processes All of our development and changes come from things that are going on in the unconscious mind Unconscious drivemotivation that brings about our development and causes us to do the things we do Freud and Erikson Learning Theory behavior is learned and learning occurs through interacting with the environment Overt observable behaviors learned through interacting with the environment Classical respondent conditioningPavlov Operant Conditioning Skinner Social Learning Theory Bandura Cognitive Theory Emphasis on thought processes intellectual abilities acquisition of schemata Cognitive developmental Theory Piaget Information Processing 6 Describe the general idea behind Freud and Erikson s theory of development Know how these theories are alike and different I Freud Psychosexual development Internal sexual drive causes the change Freud was one of the first people to being studying children Id I want it I gotta have it unconscious sexual drive Super Ego No you cant have it demands from reality Ego resolves the con ict between the two moderator Psychosexual Stages Id same gratification from different erogenous zones depending on the age of the child Oral 018 monthsputting everything in mouth Anal 18 months 3 years Phallic 36 years own genitals Latent 6 years pubertyleaming sexual drive takes a back seat Genital puberty and on contact with others genitals 39 39 d 39 IT 39 motivation to relate to I EriksonI s 39 1 other people have a connection and interact Basic Trust vs Mistrust 01 Autonomy vs Shame and Guilt 13 Initiative vs Guilt 36 Industry vs Inferiority 6 puberty Identity vs Identity Confusion adolescence Intimacy vs Isolation young adulthood Generativity vs Stagnation middle adulthood Integrity vs Despair late life 7 Be able to identify an example of the operant conditioning techniques I Operant conditioning the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of that behavior happening again If you do something and it if followed by something good you are more likely to do it again and vice versa I 4 operant conditioning principles w can use to change someone s behavior I positive reinforcement present pleasing stimulus to increase the likelihood that the behavior will happen again have to nd whats pleasingmotivating punishment present an adversive stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior happening spanking a child for putting feet on the table negative reinforcement take away something that s adversive in order to increase the lilkelihood that the behavior will happen again shock a starving rat until the presses a lever to get some foodtaking an asprin for a headache smoking to make yourself less anxious extinction take away something that s pleasant in order to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will occur time out 8 Explain how social learning theory describes how behavior is learned and how it is different from the other behavioral theories I Social learning theory cognition environment and behavior are all important in the occurrence of behaviors I Bandura I Environment kids learn by imitation mocking I Behavior use classical or operant conditioning to either continue or discontinue behavior I Cognition we decide what we want to imitate We are our own free individuals 9 Describe the general idea behind Piaget s theory and informationprocessing theory And describe the differences between the two theories I Cognitive developmental theory emphasis on thought processes intellectual abilities acquisition of schemata I Piagets theory I Sensorimotor Stage 02 years coordination of sensory and motor abilities I Preoperational Stage 27 years ability to represent symbolically I Concrete Operational Thought 712 years ability to use logic I Formal Operational Thought 12 years ability to think abstractly I Information Processing uses the computer as a metaphor to explain how thinking develops Research Methods 10 Identify an example of the ways to collect data observation sampling behavior with tasks selfreport I Observation I Naturalistic observation is observing behavior in real world settings I Survey and interview I Interview is asking someone directly I Survey is a questionnaire good for large groups of people I Standardized test test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring Many standardized tests allow a persons performance to be compared to the performance of others I Physiological measures I Ex assessment of the hormones in the blood stream body composition brain activity I Experience Sampling I Experience sampling method esm participants are provided with electronic pagers and then are beeped at random times at which point they are asked to report on various aspects of their lives I Case study in depth study look on a single person 11 Explain the difference between a correlational study and an experimental study I Correlational studydescribes the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics NO CAUSATION I Experimental study involves an experiment that is carefully created measured and monitored One or more factors believed to in uence behavior are manipulated while all other factors are held constant Systematic way of manipulating factors to determine the effect 0 some variable on another variable IV variable being manipulated DV variable being measured 12 Interpret an r value in terms of strength and direction 13 Explain why correlational studies can not be used to attribute causation l4 Identify an IV and DV I IV independent variable The variable being manipulated I DV dependent variable The variable being measured 15 Identify the types of developmental designs Crosssectional different people 1 point in time I Quick and easy I Not a true measure of development I Cohort effect I Longitudinal 7 same people different points in time I Time consuming and expensive I Attrition I Sequential 7 combination of both I Some results quickly I Assesses for cohort effect 16 List the pros and cons to each of the developmental designs I Crosssectional different people 1 point in time I Quick and easy I Not atrue measure of development I Cohort effect I Longitudinal 7 same people different points in time I Time consuming and expensive I Attrition I Sequential 7 combination of both I Some results quickly I Assesses for cohort effect 17 Book Question Explain the ethical concerns involved in doing research Pg 38 I Informed consent all participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop Even after informed consent is given participants must retain the right to withdraw from the study at any time and for any reason Confidentiality researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individuals completely confidential and when possible completely anonymous Debriefing after the study as been completed participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used Chapter 2 Pubertya Health and Biolog39cal Foundations 18 List the average age of onset for puberty for both girls and boys and list and explain the determinants for age of onset I Average age is between 9 and 16 starting earlier for girls I Onset of puberty I Genetic determinants I Hormonal determinants I Weight and body fat determinants I Environmental determinants I Birth weight determinants l9 Explain the hormonal changes that occur during puberty and the physical changes that the hormones bring about know the chart I Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH I Luteinizing hormone LH I Follicle stimulating hormone FSH I Adrenocorticotrophic hormone ACTH 20 Describe the evidence we have supporting the psychological impact of hormonal changes and evidence concerning the fact that hormones don t have psychological consequences I Androgens linked to aggression I Estrogen linked to depression in girls I Adrenal androgens linked to negative affect and emotional arousal in girls I BUT social factors accounted for more variance 21 List the physical changes that occur during puberty I Height spurt I Weight spurt I Sexual maturation I Male increase in penis size straight pubis hair minor voice change first ejaculation curly pubic hair armpit hair voice change facial hair I Female breast enlarge or pubic hair armpit hair height growth hips become wider menarche 22 N L N 4 Explain why body image is important during adolescence and discuss the relevant gender and ethnic differences I Developing individual images of their bodies looking in mirrors to see if they can tell whats changed I Gender differences I Girls become more dissatis ed with their bodies because their body fat increases I Girls are less happy and more negative than boys I Boys become more satis ed because their muscle mass increases Identify which girls are most likely to describe menarche as something positive and which girls are most likely to describe menarche as negative Identify which boys and girls are most likely to experience positive outcomes as a result of maturation early or late maturation and discuss when these ndings might be different Book question Explain the likelihood of risktaking behaviors in teens Pgs 66 68 I The prefrontal cortex the brains highest level that is involved in reasoning decision making and self control matures much later than the amygdala which is the main structure involved in emotion in the brain which may explain the dif culty younger adolescents have in putting the brakes on their risk taking adventures Book question Identify an example of how heredity and environment work together to in uence development Pgs 80 7 81 under the section titled HeredityEnvironment Correlations I Passive genotype environment correlations occur because biological parents who are genetically related to the child provide a rearing environment for the child Ex parents are smart and good readers the child is very likely to become a skilled reader Evocative genotype environment correlations occur because an adolescents genetically shaped characteristics elicit certain types of physical and social environments Ex active and smiling children receive more social stimulation than passive and quiet children Active niche picking genotype environment correlations occur when children seek out environments that they nd compatible and stimulating Chapter 3 Brain Development 27Explain the ow information across a neuron You ll need to know the 4 basic parts of a neuron and the order in which they are involved in transmitting neurotransmitters across the neuron I Neuron nerve cell the nervous systems basic units I Synapses gaps between neurons where connections between the axon and dendrites take place I Dendrites receive information form other neurons muscles or glands I Axon transmits information away from the cell body I Terminal nuttons at the end of the axons I In the dendrite down the axon and out the terminal buttons 28 Describe the 3 neuronal changes that occur during adolescence and explain when they are most likely to occur and the impact of the change myelination the axon portion of a neuron becomes covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells called the myelin sheath which increases the speed and efficiency of information processing in the nervous system synaptogenesis is the dramatic increase in connection between neurons neurotransmitter increases 29 List the four lobe of the brain in the order in which they develop and brie y describe what each lobe is responsible for frontal lobe parietal lobe occipital lobe temporal lobe 30Describe the two studies that indicates how irrational adolescent behavior might be attributed to brain development Cognitive Development Piaget 31 Identify an example of accommodation and assimilation Assimilation incorporating new information into an existing way of thinking of the world no change Accommodation adjustment of a schema to new information change Describe each of the 5 characteristics of formal operational thought abstract thinking ability to think about situations that aren t concrete idealistic thinking thinking about ideal characteristics hypothetico deductive reasoning ability to think logically test hypotheses introspective thinking thinking about thought emotions characteristics egocentric thinking inability to accurately consider others thoughts Identify an example of the 5 characteristics of formal operational thought abstract thinking understand verbal representations of concrete events ex agtb bgtc so agtc ex algebraic equations think about the future and abstract concepts ex human existence ex religion idealistic thinking look for one idealcorrect answer imagine possible outcomes before they happen or about situations they have not experienced imagine other ways of organizing the world analyze theories and create their own L N LA LA draW conclusions about abstract or hypothetical data hypothetico deductive reasoning 20 questions chemistry test introspective thinking thinking about thinking feelings emotions or cognition metacognition re ective abstraction egocentrism imaginary audience extreme concert that everyone is focusing on them center of attention personal fable a belief in ones uniqueness Describe each of the 3 characteristics of postformal operational thought postformal operational thought realistic thinking ability to recognize constraints of reality relativistic thinking ability to recognize the relative nature of things provisional thinking full understanding is ever changing List the criticisms of Piaget s theory not all reach formal operations focus on mathematical and physics problems over emphasis on pure logic problems have different levels of difficulty under emphasis on pragmatics of life formal operation dependent on secondary schooling U 4 LA UI nonitive T 39 InformationProcessin Theorv 6 Describe how each of the informationprocessing resources capacity and speed change with age discuss the evidence that shows that these things change with age capacity cognitive resources allotted to processing information speed the speed with Which the steps in information processing is carried out Identify an example of a type of attention attention the concentration and focusing of mental effort resources selective attention focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant divided attention concentration on more than one activity at the same time sustained attention the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time executive attention type of attention that involves action planning allocating attention to goals error detection and compensation monitoring progress on tasks and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances Describe the age related changes that occur with each type of attention selective attention focusing on one voice among many in a crowded room divided attention text messaging while listening to an instructors lecture sustained attention staying focused on reading a book from start to finish without stopping LA LA 1 LA 00 LA 4 4 executive attention effectively deploying attention to effectively engage in he aforementioned cognitive acts while writing a 10 page paper for a history course Describe the AtkinsonShiffron Model of memory Be sure to fully describe each of the types of memory and how they change with age Explain the role of metacognition in the explanation for long term memory differences metacognition cognition about cognition or knowing about knowing adolescents have an increased capacity to monitor and manage cognitive resources to effectively meet the demands of a learning task This increased metacognitive ability results in improved cognitive functioning and learning Describe how capability in the different types of executive functions are measured and list the findings that are related to developmental changes in executive functions executive functions decision making teens aren t very good at it reasoning shifting when you go from one way to another way Changing your mindset changing what you think developmental trait measured with the Wisconsin card sorting test handed a stack of cards and told to put them into categories ex by shape color or number of items on the card The dependent variable is the number of times you persist with the wrong sort or category in the Wisconsin card sorting test adult accuracy wasn t reached until age 15 important because it allows us to change our mind when we realize something is wrong and we can adapt specific strategies for specific situations inhibition of responses inhibition is the ability to stop yourself stroop test Trial one every time you see a red smiley face you hit the space bar Trial two every time you see the upside down smiley face you hit the space bar Trial three every time you see the red upside down smiley face you hit the space bar For trial three you have to use your inhibition to stop yourself from hitting the space bar when the green upside down smiley face comes up accuracy continued to improve into adulthood Teens aren t very good at this planning tower of London test given a picture that looks like the rst wooden bar and then you are given beads and a wooden bar and told to make it look the same measure the amount of time you spend planning before you move the first ball how long you look at it and think about it and the
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