ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MGMT 451
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Format MGMT 451 Exam3 Study Guide 50 Multiple Choice Questions Date Tuesday 120611 Content Groups and Teams 42 of the test 21 out of50 questions 1 What is the difference between a group and a team A group is a collection of two or more people A team is a collection of two or more people who work interdependently over some period of time in order to accomplish common goals related to some taskoriented purpose 2 What is task interdependence Task interdependence is the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information materials and resources needed to accomplish work for the team a What are the different types of task interdependence i Pooled Interdependence each individual works alone and then the output is combined at the very end There is almost no coordination between the team members Sequential Interdependence output only ows in one direction AgtBgtC and they only need to coordinate with the next person in line Reciprocal Interdependence output ows in both directions There is still a linear order AgtBgtC but it can also ow Alt BltC iv Comprehensive Interdependence requires everybody coordinating with everybody else Here all teammates are coordinating with each other to work on the output together rather than working separately and then handing it over to the next person in line This design requires the most coordination b How does increasing the degree of coordination required aka increasing task interdependence affect process gains Increasing the degree of coordination required increases the potential for process gains especially in terms of adaptability to novel situations c How does increasing the degree of coordination required aka increasing task interdependence affect process losses Increasing the degree of coordination required affects processes losses and requires more coordination and more potential for members to shirk responsibilities lI un ii39 3 What is goal interdependence F 0quot Fquot 9 Goal interdependence is the degree to which team members have a shared goal and align their individual goals with that vision a How does increasing goal interdependence affect process gains Increases the potential for process gains b How does increasing goal interdependence affect process losses 0 Decreases the potential for process losses What is outcome independence Outcome interdependence is the degree to which team members share equally in the feedback and rewards that result from the team achieving its goals a How does increasing outcome interdependence affect process gains Answer It depends on the situation b How does increasing outcome interdependence affect process losses Answer It depends on the situation If task interdependence is high or low how should outcome interdependence be designed to maximize the ratio ofprocess gains to process losses 0 If task interdependence is high or low then outcome interdependence should high or low as well If outcome interdependence is high or low how should task interdependence be designed to maximize the ratio ofprocess gains to process losses 0 If outcome interdependence is high or low then ask interdependence should be high or low as well What are some factors that make up a team s composition 0 Some factors that make up a team s composition are Member Roles Member Ability Member Personality Member Diversity Team Size What are the different team roles 0 Team Task Roles Initiator Contributor Coordinator 0rienter Devil s Advocate Energizer ProceduralTechnician Team Building Roles Encourager Harmonizer Compromiser Gatekeeper Expediter Standard Setter Follower o Individualistic Roles Aggressor Blocker Recognition Seeker Slacker Dominator a What team roles are generally positive What team role is generally negative In general it is best to encourage development of team task and team building roles and discourage development of individualistic roles 9 What is the relationship between team cognitive ability and team performance 0 In general a team s cognitive ability is a moderatetostrong predictor of team performance a When is this relationship stronger 0 As the task becomes more complex the strength of the relationship between a team s cognitive ability and its performance increases 10 In terms of cognitive ability under what conditions what types of tasks is it best to have 0 Disjunctive task contributions resulting from the highest ability member determines the team performance 0 Conjunctive task contributions resulting from the lowest ability member determines the team performance 0 Additive task contributions resulting from the abilities of every team member add up to determine team performance 11 In terms ofpersonality know that for some traits it is best to compose teams where the average level of the trait is high For other traits it is best to compose teams where no individual is too low Finally for some traits it is best to compose teams where all of the members differ on the trait or all of the members are the same on the trait o The best teams in terms of personality are composed of AH members are high in conscientiousness No members are too introverted but there should be variance in extraversion too many extraverts is bad No members are too disagreeable On average high levels of agreeableness and low levels of neuroticism 12 What is the impact of diversity on team outcomes More specifically a For which types of tasks is diversity generally good 0 Certain types of diversity increase process gains because they provide the team with a larger pool of knowledge and perspectives from which a team can draw as it carries out its work Especially when The task is complex and requires creativity The attributes considered are related to knowledge and perspectives ethnicity expertise personality attitudes etc b For which types of tasks is homogeneity the lack of diversity good When diversity increases process losses such as con ict and poor communication also increase c What is surfacelevel diversity Diversity regarding observable attitudes such as race sex and age 1 How does it impact process losses over time Over time these types of diversity result in less process losses d What is deeplevel diversity Diversity regarding attitudes that are less easy to observe initially but that can be inferred after more direct experience such as attitudes values and personality 1 How does it impact process losses over time Over time these types of diversity result in more process losses 13 What is social loafing Team can succeed without me Nobody will ever know if I slack off My team isn t going to succeed anyways i What steps can you take to minimize social loafing 1 Keep team size small 2 Make members accountable for their work 3 Make members work identifiable 4 Use incentives that members value 14 What are taskwork processes Activities of team members that relate directly to the accomplishment of team tasks a In terms ofdecision making why do some teams make bad decisions 16 what are the components that lead to poor team decisions Social Loafing Fear of Criticism Production Blocking 15 What are teamwork processes Teamwork processes are interpersonal work activities that facilitate the accomplishment of the team s work but do not directly involve task accomplishment itself a IfI describe behaviors and interactions within a team you should be able to tell me whether these processes are transition action or interpersonal processes You don t have to memorize the different examples of processes like quotmission analysis quotstrategy formulation quotgoal specification etc But ifI tell you what a group is doing you should be able to tell me whether they are engaging in transition action or interpersonal processes Transition Processes Mission Analysis Strategy Formulation Goal Specification Action Processes Monitoring progress towards goals Systems monitoring Coordination Helping behaviors Interpersonal Processes Motivation and confidence building Affect management Con ict management b Also you should know 1 When are transition processes most valuable to team success When the team is preparing for future work ii When are action processes most valuable to team success When the team needs to monitor progress and adjust while working on tasks iii When are interpersonal processes most valuable to team success When deal with how the team manages relationships among members c In terms of con ict 1 How does task con ict affect team performance Increases task performance and commitment at first but then declines ii How does relationship con ict affect team performance Negatively affects team performance What are team states Feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of the team members as a consequence of their experience working together a What is cohesion Cohesion is a team state that occurs when members of a team develop strong emotional bonds to other members of the team and the team itself 1 How does cohesion affect team outcomes Too little is obviously bad but too much can also be bad What is groupthink Groupthink is a drive towards conformity at the expense of other team priorities often as an attempt to maintain cohesion b What is potency Potency is the degree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a variety of situations and tasks 1 How does potency affect team outcomes They have a positive relationship c What are mental models Mental models are the level of common understanding among team members with regard to important aspects of the team and its task When members need help do we know who to ask Do we all agree how things should be done d What is transactive memory Transactive memory is the distribution of specialized knowledge across the team Do the right people have the right knowledge Pro Efficiency Con Fragil e Leadership42 of test21 out of 50 questions 1 What is power Equot The ability to in uence the conduct of others and resist unwanted in uence in return a What are the different types ofpower Organizational Power and Personal Power i What types are derived from a person s position within the organization Organizational Power is derived from a person s position within the organization Legitimate power based on authority and position Reward power based on control of resources or rewards Coercive power based on control over punishment ii What types are derived from factors other than formal authority Personal Power is derived from factors other than the formal authority of organizational power Expert power based on expertise skills or knowledge on which others depend Referent power based on followers desire to identify and be associated with a person out of affection admiration or loyalty b What are some contingency factors that in uence whether or not a person has power IfI describe a situation you should be able to tell me what contingency is responsible for the person s poweror lack ofpower Sustainability Are there substitutes for the resources or rewards your control Discretion Do you have the power to make decisions on your own or are you limited to organizational rules Centrality Are you important to the success of others Visibility Are others aware of your power and the resources or rewards you control What are the different in uence tacticsIfI describe a situation you should be able to tell me what in uence tactic is being used In uence tactics are tactics for translating power into in uence Rational persuasion using logical arguments and facts Inspirational appeal appealing to the values and ideals of the target to create an emotional reaction Consultation letting the target participate in the deciding how to implement the request Collaboration helping the target complete the request 539quot F 0quot Ingratiation using favors complements or friendly behaviors to in uence target Personal appeals asking for something based on personal friendships or loyalty Exchange offering a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request Apprising explaining why performing the request will benefit the target personally Pressure using coercive power through threats and demands Coalitions enlisting other people to helping in uence the target a Which tactics are most effective Rational Persuasion Consultation Inspirational Appeals and Collaboration b Which tactics are least effective Pressure and Coalitions c When trying to in uence a superior which tactic is most effective Rational Persuasion What are the different responses to in uence tactics Internalization target agrees with and becomes commited to the request Behavioral and attitudinal changes Compliance target is willing to perform the request but does so with indifference Behavioral change only Resistance Target is opposed to request and attempt to avoid doing it No change in behavior or attitude a What in uence tactics often lead to internalization vs compliance vs resistance What are some personal and organizational characteristics that foster organizational politicsIfI give you a situation or describe a person you should be able to tell me whether we would expect more or less organizational politics Personal Characteristics Need for power Selfmonitoring social chameleons Machiavellianism Organizational Characteristics Limited or changing resources Role ambiguity High performance pressure Performance evaluation What are the different con ict resolution techniques Competing Win Lose High Assertiveness Low Cooperativeness Best to use When quick decisive action is vital 0n important issues for which unpopular actions need implementation 0n issues vital to company welfare when you know you re right Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive people Collaborating WinWin High Assertiveness High Cooperativeness Best to use To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised When your objective is to learn To merge insights from people with different perspectives To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into consensus To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship Compromising Neutral Best to use When goals are important but not worth the potential disruption of more assertive modes When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressures As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful Avoiding Lose Lose Low Assertiveness Low Cooperativeness Best to use When the issue is trivial or more important issues are pressing When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution To let people cool down or gain perspective When gathering information supersedes an immediate decision When others can resolve the con ict more effectively When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues Accommodating LoseWin Low Assertiveness High Cooperativeness Best to use When you find you are wrong to allow a better position to be heard to learn and to show your reasonableness When issues are more important to others than to yourself to satisfy others and maintain cooperation To build social credits for later issues To minimize loss when you are outmatches and losing When harmony and stability are especially important To allow subordinates to develop by learning from mistakes What types of outcomes do we expect from the different techniques a 6 What are the general negotiation strategies Distributive Bargaining winlose negotiating over a fixedpie of resources zerosum condition Assumes that your interests and other party s interests are opposed Know your BATNA and the other party s BATNA Set high aspirations make the rst offer and counteroffer immediately Avoiding Competing Accommodating or Compromising o Integrative Bargaining expanding the pie uses problem solving and mutual respect to achieve a winwin scenario Collaborating a When is it a good idea to use integrative rather than distributive negotiation strategies 0 It is a good idea to use integrative rather than distributive negotiation strategies when there is more than one issue parties have different preferences on issues and or long term relationship is more important than particular outcome of the negotiation 7 Trait theories ofleadership a Out of the Big Five and cognitive ability which two traits are the strongest predictors of leader emergence Out of the Big Five and cognitive ability the two traits that are the strongest predictors of leader emergence are Conscientiousness and Extraversion b Out of the Big Five and cognitive ability which two traits are the strongest predictors of leader effectiveness Out of the Big Five and cognitive ability the two traits that are the strongest predictors of leader effectiveness are Cognitive Ability and second is a tie between Extraversion and Openness c According to the trait theories ofleadership 1 When is it best to use personality to predict leader outcomes It is best to use personality to predict leader outcomes when looking for leader emergence ii When is it best to use cognitive ability to predict leader outcomes It is best to use cognitive ability to predict leader outcomes when looking for leader effectiveness d Basic premise of trait vs behavior theories If traits predict leadership then organizations should focus on hiring people with general dispositions to be leaders Ifnot then organizations should not focus on hiring the right people but instead should focus on training people to be good leaders Research shows that both traits and behaviors predict leadership So organizations should focus on hiring people that are predisposed to be better leaders and then training these people how to be the best leaders they can be 8 Behavior theories ofleadership a What are the two general categories of leader behaviors IfI describe a particular behavior you should be able to tell me whether it is an example of quotConsiderationquot or quotInitiating Structure 0 The two general categories of leader behaviors are Initiating Structure which is the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his her roles and those of employees in the search for goal attainment Consideration is the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust respect for employees ideas and regard for their feelings What outcomes do these leader behaviors predict o The outcomes that Initiating Structure and Consideration predict are Subordinate evaluations of leader effectiveness Subordinate motivation Subordinate job satisfaction Unit performance 9 Contingency theories ofleadership a According to the Life Cycle Theory of Leadership i When followers are unable initiating structure is important ii When followers are unwilling consideration is important iii Followers usually progress through 4 stages 1 Unable but Willing 2 Unable and Unwilling 3 Able but Unwilling 4 Able and Willing iv So in Stage 1 Unable but Willing initiating structure behaviors are required In Stage 2 both initiating structure and consideration behaviors are required In Stage 3 consideration behaviors are required And in Stage 4 since the group is both willing and able neither initiating structure nor consideration behaviors are necessarily requiredthe team will excel on its own b According to the TimeDriven Model of Leader DecisionMaking Styles i What are the different decisionmaking styles and how do they differ in terms ofwho is responsible for what Autocratic Leader makes decision Consultative Leader makes decision Facilitative Both Delegative Subordinate ii I am not going to ask you to memorize the quotdecisiontreequot But you need to know that the effectiveness of the decisionmaking style is contingent upon the situation In some situations an autocratic style is most important in others a facilitative style etc iii What might happen ifleaders use inappropriate styles 0 If leaders choose the inappropriate styles You may end up making an incorrect decision He decisionmaking process may be inefficient take more time or cost more money The subordinates may not buy in to the decision According to LeaderMember Exchange Theory i Who gets invited into the quotingroup 0 Members who share highquality exchanges with leaders get invited to the ingroup P P ii What are the advantages ofbeing in the quotingroup The advantages to being in the ingroupquot is that they are more trusted receive a disproportionate amount of the leader s attention and receive special privileges iii What are the disadvantages ofbeing in the quotingroup Disadvantages of being in the quotingroup include the rise and fall with the success of the leader iv How do people in the quotingroup differ from people in the quotout group in terms of performance turnover and satisfaction Those in the ingroup experience higher performance less turnover and greater job satisfaction compared to those in the outgroup Rate the leader as more effective d According to Critical Theories of Leadership 1 If substitutes or neutralizers are present is it best to spend a lot of money hiring training and developing leaders If substitutes or neutralizers are present money is best spent in areas other than recruiting and training leaders e What are the different leadership stylesIfI explain a leader you should be able to tell me whether the leader is using a laissezfaire passive managementbyexception active managementbyexception contingent reward transformational etc The different leadership styles include LaissezFaire French for let do hands off style of leadership leader avoids getting involved Transactional Leaders reward or discipline followers depending on the adequacy of their performance 1 quot L by 39 r c r Leader only gets involved when mistakes are made 2 ManagementbyException active Leader monitors group looking for mistakes and gets involved only when mistakes are made 3 Contingent Reward Leader makes rewards contingent on favorable performance Transformational Leaders inspire followers to transcend their own selfinterests for the good of the organization 4 Idealized in uence provides a vision and a sense of mission instills pride gains f What are the factors that separate transformational leaders from other leaders The factors that separate transformational leaders from other leaders are Followers of transformational leaders work harder and are more committed to the group and organization Research shows that transformational leadership is strongly related to leader emergence and leader effectiveness Research shows that leaders can be trained in transformational leadership styles Organizational Culture 16 of the test 8 out of50 questions 1 1 What are the different factors that make up an organization s culture 0 The shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules norms and values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employees a Which factors are easiesthardest to change 0 Basic Underlying Assumptions hardest Taken for granted beliefs so ingrained that employees simply act on them rather than question their validity o Espoused Values medium beliefs philosophies and norms that a company explicitly states 0 0bservable Artifacts easiest manifestations of an organization s culture that employees can easily see or talk about b What are some manifestations of an organization s culture What are some different general types of organizational cultures and how do they differ IfI describe a culture you should be able to tell me whether it is Communal Networked Mercenary or Fragmented o Networked High Sociability Low Solidarity o Communal High Sociability High Solidarity o Fragmented Low Sociability Low Solidarity o Mercenary Low Sociability Low Solidarity What are the advantages of a strong culture 0 Some advantages of a strong culture include High consensus employees agree about the way things are supposed to happen High intensity employee s behaviors are consistent with their expectations What are the disadvantages of a strong culture 0 Some disadvantages of a strong culture are Subcultures a united smaller subset of employees whose culture supplements the overall culture Counterculture subculture that interferes with overall organizational culture differentiated Two theories have been offered to account for how culture is maintained a According to the attractionselectionattrition model why are individuals in an organization likely to be more similar to each other and the organization s culture than the general population 0 Attraction individuals will be attracted to organizations whose cultures match their own personalities and values 0 Selection organizations will select job applicants whose personalities and values match the organization s culture o Attrition employees who don t fit with the organization will leave either voluntarily or involuntarily b What are the different stages of socialization i un un iii Here what I want you to know is that socialization actually occurs even before the individual ever starts working In the anticipatory stage the individual gathers information about the norms values and rules through means such as the media the internet recruiters friends or family that work at the company etc This information in uences the individual s attitudes and behaviors when he or she starts working at the company Then in the encounter stage the individual starts gathering this information directly through his or her personal experiences rather than indirectly through friends or recruiters like before This is an important stage because if the individual s initial expectations based on the anticipatory stage are very far off from his or her actual experiences during the encounter stage then the individual will experience reality shock aka be very upset and probably want to quit So it is important for employers to minimize reality shocks What can employers do 1 Manage initial expectations through realistic job previews so that job applicants know exactly what the organization is like This way if they aren t going to fit in they can decide to get a job somewhere else Or at the very least they can prepare themselves for the experience Think of a u shotThe doctors inject you with a weakened version of the virus and then your body builds a resistance to that virus When you encounter the full edge virus your body is able to fight it Likewise if you are told beforehand about the negative aspects of the job during a realistic job preview then you can prepare yourself That way when you take the job and experience these negative aspects they don t bother you as much because you are prepared for them Hire people that fit well with the organization This way even if expectations aren t met the individual s attitudes and values will be consistent with the attitudes and values of the organization and the shock will be more like a pleasant surprise Finally in the understanding and adapting stage employees internalize the norms and expected behaviors of the organization N c Know the relationship between personorganization fit and High Fit Higher Satisfaction amp Commitment MGMT451 Exam 2 Study Guide Format 50 Multiple Choice Questions Date Monday 110811 General Stuff 5 out of 50 questions 10 1 Same format as last time 2 For each topic you should know how the primary characteristics or mechanisms relate to the outcomes At the end of each chapter there is a section called something like llHow Important is X Be comfortable with this section especially the llEffects of X on Performance and Commitment figure see p 125 For instance you should know a What is the strength and direction of the relationship between Job Satisfaction and i Task Performance ii Citizenship Behavior iii Counterproductive Behavior iv Organizational Commitment b What is the strength and direction of the relationship between Stress and i Task Performance ii Citizenship Behavior iii Counterproductive Behavior iv Organizational Commitment c What is the strength and direction of the relationship between Motivation and i Task Performance ii Citizenship Behavior iii Counterproductive Behavior iv Organizational Commitment d What is the strength and direction of the relationship between Trust and i Task Performance ii Citizenship Behavior iii Counterproductive Behavior iv Organizational Commitment e What is the strength and direction of the relationship between Learning and i Task Performance ii Citizenship Behavior iii Counterproductive Behavior iv Organizational Commitment f What is the strength and direction of the relationship between Conscientiousness i Task Performance ii Citizenship Behavior iii Counterproductive Behavior iv Organizational Commitment g What is the strength and direction of the relationship between Cognitive Ability and i Task Performance ii Citizenship Behavior iii Counterproductive Behavior iv Organizational Commitment Job Satisfaction 8 out of 50 questions 16 1 8 What is Job Satisfaction Obviously it has to do with how satisfied you are with your job But more than thatis it an emotional feeling Or is it an appraisal based on a cognitive evaluation of the job Or it is both a quotA pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal ofone s job orjob experiencesquot It is based on both cognition what you think about yourjob and affect how you feel about your job We talked about different theories that can be used to explain predict and understand job satisfaction Make sure you are comfortable with the basics of each theory Sowhat is ValuePercept Theory This theory says llA job is dissatisfying ifquot a ValuePercegt Theog says that a job is dissatisfying if it doesn39t supply what you value Common value categories include pay promotions supervision coworkers work itelf altruism status and the environment When we cognitively evaluate our job we often appraise some major job components What are these typical components a More importantly research shows that some of these components are more strongly related to our overall evaluation ofjob satisfaction than others According to these findings 39 Which components ofjob satisfaction are strongly related to overall job satisfaction The components ofjob satisfaction that are strongly related to overall job satisfaction are 0 Supervisors o Coworkers o The Work 1sef Which components are moderately related to job satisfaction The components ofjob satisfaction that are moderately related to job satisfaction are 0 Pa 0 Promotions 4 Another theory we mentioned was the Job Characteristics Theory a According to the theory jobs are more satisfying if they have satisfying levels of certain characteristics What characteristics of a job will result in higher job satisfaction and performance The characteristics of a job that will result in higherjob satisfaction and performance are 1 Variety performing different activities requiring different skills 2 Identity completing a whole identifiable piece of work 3 Signi cance having a substantial impact on others 4 Autonomy having freedom independence and discretion 5 Feedback having clear information about how well work is done b This theory does a pretty good job of predicting individual job satisfaction But ifjob satisfaction were only a function of the job characteristics then everybody in the same job would have the exact same satisfaction This obviously isn t true right So the theory expresses some llboundary conditionsquotconditions that influence the extent to which the theory predicts job satisfaction i What are these boundary conditions In other words what individual differences moderate the extent to which the tasks influence the states and the extent to which the states influence job satisfaction The individual differences that moderate the extent to which the tasks influence the states and extent to which the states influence job satisfaction are 1 Knowledge and Skills to perform jobs that have high levels ofthe job characteristics 2 High GrowthNeed Strength need for personal accomplishment and developing oneself beyond where one currently is 5 Aside from the cognitive factors that influence job satisfaction we talked about affective factors like moods and emotions What is the difference between a mood and an emotion The differences between mood and an emotion are as follows a Mood quotstates of feeling that are mild in intensity last for an extended period of time and are not explicitly directed at or caused by anythingquot b Emotions quotstates of feelings that are intense last only a few minutes and are clearly directed at and caused by someone or some circumstancequot 6 What is emotional labor a Emotional labor is the need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully For example the difference between what is felt an individual s actual emotions versus what is displayed emotions that are organizationally required to show and considered appropriate to the job b There are two different types of emotional labor What is the difference between deep acting and surface acting a There are two different types of emotional labor They are deep acting and surface acting The difference between these is Deep Acting is modifying one s feelings in order to display the appropriate emotions and is genuinely feeling the emotions 2 Surface Acting is suppressing one s felt emotions and faking desired emotions Can be viewed as putting on an quotemotional maskquot Finally what is emotional contagion a Emotional contagion is why emotional labor is valuable It is the belief that people can quotcatchquot or be quotinfected byquot the emotions of other people Squot Stress 5 out of 50 questions 10 of test 1 According to the quotStress in Americaquot survey what are the major factors contributing to stress at least know the top 3 a According to the quotStress in Americaquot survey the major factors contributing to stress are 1 Work 74 2 Money 73 3 Workload66 2 What is the difference between a quotstressorquot quotstressquot and a quotstrainquot a The difference between a stressor stress and a strain are as follows 1 Stressor quotThe demands that cause people to experience stressquot In other words the quotcausequot of stress 2 Stress quotA psychological response to demands for which there is something at stake for the individual and where coping with these demands taxes or exceeds a person s capacity or resourcesquot In other words the quotpsychological experiencequot 3 Strains quotThe negative consequences of the stress responsequot In other words the quoteffectquot of stress 3 We talked about quotConsciousquot and quotUnconsciousquot phases to dealing with stress What are the two conscious phases a The two conscious phases of dealing with stress are 1 Primary Appraisal where you experience a demand and determine whether it is a stressor Stressors 2 Secondary Appraisal where you can determine what you can to alleviate your stress Stress and Strains What is the difference between a challenge stressor and a hindrance stressor If I give you a behavior you should be able to tell me whether it is a challenge stressor or a hindrance stressor Also you should know whether it exemplifies role conflict vs role ambiguity vs role overload etc Hindrance Stressors are quotstressful demands that are perceived as hindering progress toward personal accomplishment or goal attainmentquot They may trigger negative emotions such as anger and anxiety Some examples at work are 1 Role Con ict conflict between different peoples demands or con ict between others demands and individual values 2 Role Ambiguiy lack of information regarding what needs to be done in a role as well as unpredictability regarding the consequences of performance 3 Role Overload work requirement are so excessive they exceed the limit of time andor ability 4 Daily hassels relatively minor daytoday demands that interfere with work accomplishment Some examples outide of work are 5 Workfamily Conflict role conflict in which the demands of a work role hinder the ful llment of the demands in a family role quotwork to family conflict or vice versa quotfamily to work conflict 0 52 responded work interferes with home responsibilities 5 o 43 responded home interferes with work responsibilities Challenge Stressors are stressful demands that are perceived as opportunities for learning growth and achievement They may trigger positive emotions such as pride and enthusiasm Some examples at work are 9quot gt 9 H LO 0 H H Time Pressure a sense that the amount oftime you have to do a task is not quite enough Work Complexity the degree to which the requirements at work in terms of knowledge skills and abilities tax or exceed the capabilities ofthe person responsible for performing the work Work Responsibiliy the nature ofthe obligations that a person has to others Some examples outside of work include Family time demand the time that a person commits to ful lling family responsibilities Personal Development participating in activities outside of work that foster growth and learning Positive Life Events events that tend to be appraised as a challenge b There is a reason we draw this distinction between challenge stressors and hindrance stressors they have different impacts on organizational outcomes So i What is the relationship between the different Stressors and Strain Challenge stressors and Hindrance stressors are both positively associated with strain What is the relationship between the different Stressors and Job Satisfaction Job Performance and Organizational Commitment Challenge stressors have an invertedU shaped relationship with many important outcomes Hindrance stressor are negatively related to these outcomes 5 What is coping a If I give you a scenario you should be able to tell me what coping strategy is being used eg cognitive vs behavioral problemfocused vs emotion focused Coping is the behaviors and thoughts used to manage stressful demands and the emotions associated with those demands Scenario You have the most important exam ofyour life in one week stressor and you are feeling stressed How do you cope with this 6 I ProblemFocused I EmotionFocused I Behavioral I Study I Shop I Cognitive I Strategize I Shrug off In our discussion of the unconscious reactions to stress we mentioned a theory called the General Adaptation Syndrome that identifies the physiological reactions to stressors and explains how these unconscious reactions influence our physical reactions to stress In other words a theory that explains changes in the body as it adapts to stressors What are the phases of GAS The phases of GAS are a 1 Alarm Reaction temporarily susceptible to stress Body responds by releasing chemical compounds that increase blood pressure and heart rate 2 Stage or Resistance Increased arousal due to increased blood pressure and heart rate helps individual physically and mentally adapt to stress 3 Stage of Exhaustion Repeated or prolonged exposure to stressors leads to strains 7 Stress can cause a myriad of different outcomes or llStrainsquot What are the different types of strains The types of strains are a Physiologial Strain 1 Immune System decreased ability to ward off illness and infection 2 Cardiovascular System high blood pressure high heart rate coronary disease etc Musculoskeletal System tension headaches back pain etc Gastrointestinal System stomachaches indigestion diarrhea constipation etc b Psychological Strain 1 Depression P 2 Anxiety 3 Anger 4 Hostility 5 Reduced selfcon de nce 6 Irritability c Behavioral Strain Drinking AlcoholSmoking 2 Overeating 3 Counterproductive Behaviors 4 Quitting an Organization 50 we built a theory connecting Stressor Stress Strain This theory is helpful because by differentiating between these three constructs we can understand how individual difference factors like personality and organizational interventions like ODU s comfort chairs impact individuals experiences with stress and their ability to cope with stress We talked briefly about two examples a How does Type A moderate the Stressor Stress Strain relationship A Type A moderates the Stressor gt Stress gt Strain relationship by having a strong sense of time urgency is impatient harddriven competitive controlling aggressive and hostile b How does social support moderate the Stressor Stress9Strain relationship Social Support quotThe help people receive when they are confronted with stressful demandsquot 9 What can organizations do to combat stress at work Here you need to realize that organizations have two options a They can attempt to reduce the amount andor intensity of stressors experienced by employees i How could they do this l 339 They can eliminate workplace hindrance stressors and maintain healthy levels of challenge stressors b Or they could help employees cope with strains i How could they do this Reduce strains by training employees or by providing health and wellness programs or hire employees less susceptible to stress Motivation 8 out of 50 questions 16 of test 1 Motivation determines three characteristics of effort What are they The three characteristics of effort that motivation determines are a b c Direction Intensity Persistence 2 Expectancy Theory a 57 What are the three components of expectancy For instance If I tell you quotRyan isn t motivated to write this study guide because he doesn t value the rewards he receives you should be able to tell me which component of expectancy Ryan lacks 1 Expectancy f exert the effort what are the chances that I will succeed 2 Instrumentality f succeed what are the chances that I will receive an outcome 3 Valence How much do I value the outcome How do the components combine to impact overall motivation Is it an additive relationship Motivation A B C such that if one component is really high motivation will be high even if the other components are low Or is it a multiplicative relationship Motivation A x B x C such that if one component is 0 motivation will be 0 no matter how high the other components are Motivation is a multiplicative relationship If one component is 0 motivation will be 0 no matter how high the other components are Motivation Expectancy x I nstrumentality x Valence For the expectancy component besides knowing the stuff above you should know how we can maximize expectancy Also what factors influence selfefficacy Expectancy can be maximized by 1 Remove physical barriers ie give someone the opportunities and resources they need to succeed 2 Remove psychological barriers ie increase an individual s self efficacy Self efficacy is the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success The factors that in uence an individual s self efficacy are Personal Experiences Vicarious Experiences Social Persuasion Emotional Factors Psychological Factors 3 Goal Setting Theory a What is the relationship between goal difficulty and performance as well as specificity and performance More likely to pay attention to the task at hand and create strategies to accomplish the goal focused direction and more likely to exert more intensity and persistence to accomplish the goals What factors moderate the relationship between specificdifficult goals and performance How In other words are difficult and specific goals more effective i when individuals do or do not receive feedback along the way Yes because individuals receive feedback about their performance when tasks are simple or complex Complex when the task is relatively simple when individuals are or are not committed to the goals When individuals are committed to their goals and are trying to accomplish the goal c How can you make individuals more committed to their goals You can make individuals more committed to their goals by Making rewards contingent on achieving the goal 2 Making goals public 3 Providing support and resources for goal achievement 4 Allowing individuals to participate in setting the goals 4 Equity Theory 3 50 equity theory says Individuals compare themselves to others in terms of outcomes and inputs When the comparison is equitable all is well The individual maintains the direction intensity and persistence of effort maintains motivation When an individual perceives inequity the individual feels tension and negative emotions and attempts to get back to an equitable relationship i Some things an individual can do to get back to an equitable relationship 1 Change behavior increase or decrease inputs or outcomes 2 Change cognitions 3 Change the comparison other 4 Leave the situation b So here is what I think is most important for you to know about equity theory 39 How is a person expected to feel if they perceive they are overrewarded If a person perceives they are overrewarded they are expected to feel negative emotions guilt or anxiety How is a person expected to feel if they perceive they are underrewarded IF a person perceives they are overrewarded they are expected to feel negative emotions anger or envy What does it mean to increase inputs Under which condition of inequity overreward or underreward is a person most likely to increase inputs Likely to increase inputs ifthey are overrewarded iv What does it mean to decrease inputs Under which condition of inequity overreward or underreward is a person most likely to decrease inputs Likely to decrease inputs ifthey are underrewarded What does it mean to increase outcomes Under which condition of inequity overreward or underreward is a person most likely to increase outcomes Likely to increase outcomes when you are underrewarded What does it mean to decrease outcomes Under which condition of inequity overreward or underreward is a person most likely to decrease outcomes Likely to decrease outcomes when you are overrewarded What does it mean to change cognitions Cognitive Distortion convince yourself that your input or outputs are more or less than you originally thought viii What does it mean to change the comparison other lt S S Leaving the situation Trust Justice and Ethics 8 out of 50 questions 16 of test 1 What are the factors that influence whether or not you trust someone in a given situation a In terms of dispositionbased trust what personality trait explains a person s trust disposition 1 Trust Propensity a general expectation that the words promises and statements of individuals and groups can be relied upon Faith in human nature b In terms of cognitivebased trust what are the attributes of a trustee that inspire us to trust What do these attributes tell us about the trustee 1 The attributes of a trustee that inspire trust are 0 Ability Does the person have the skills abilities and areas of expertise that enable him or her to be successful in this situation 0 Integrity Does this person adhere to a set of values and principles such as integrity and honesty that I find acceptable 0 Benevolence Does this person want to do good for me apart from any sel sh or profitcentered motives 2 How do we rely on the different factors of trust to a different degree over time That is what guides our willingness to trust someone a when we barely know the person DispositionBased Trust Trust Propensity b when we know the person well enough to know what kind of person they are CognitionBased Trust Trustworthiness c when we know the person very well AffectBased Trust quotTrust them because you like themquot more emotional than rational 3 What are the four dimensions ofjustice a For distributive justice what are the norms people commonly use to evaluate whether an outcome is fair Distributive justice is the perceived fairness of decisionmaking outcomes Eguiy Norm outcomes allocated based on inputs Egualiy Norm outcomes allocated equally to all Need Norm outcomes allocated based on need b For procedural justice what are the steps one can take to make the procedure for allocating outcomes fair Procedural justice is the perceived fairness ofthe decisionmaking process Some steps that one can take to make the procedure for allocating outcomes fair are 1 Voice Were those affected given a chance to provide input 2 Correctability Were there mechanisms to correct or appeal the decisions 3 Consistency Were procedures consistent across people and time 4 Bias Suppression Were procedures neutral and unbiased 5 Representativeness Were procedures fair to all groups represented 6 Accuracy Were procedures based on accurate information c For interpersonal justice what are the steps one can take to ensure people feel they are treated fairly Interpersonal justice is the perceived fairness of the treatment received by employees from authorities Some steps that you can take to ensure people feel they are treated fairly is Respect Were those affected treated in a digni ed and sincere matter 2 Propriety Did the authority make improper or offensive remarks d For informational justice what are the steps one can take to ensure that people feel the communications they receive are fair Informational justice is the perceived fairness ofthe communications provided to employees from authorities Steps one can take to ensure that people feel the communications they receive are fair are 1 Justification Were the outcomes and procedures explained in a comprehensive and reasonable manner 2 Truthfulness Were the communications honest and candid 4 What is the relationship between distributive and procedural justice That is what is the impact of procedural justice when distributive justice is low if someone believes the outcome they receive is unfair wi procedural justice make a difference or are they going to be upset regardless of whether procedural justice is high or low Procedural justice is more strongly related to satisfaction with superiors overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment than distributive justice Yes if someone believe the outcome they receive is unfair procedural justice will make a difference We talked about a classic justice study where a manufacturing company was forced to reduce its payroll by temporarily cutting employee wages in two separate plants What was the outcome of the study The outcome of the study was that low interpersonal justice during a wage cut resulted in increases in counterproductive work behaviors in plant Awhile B was ne What are the four steps of the Model of Ethical Decision Making The four steps of the Model of Ethical Decision Making are 1 Moral Awareness the ability to recognize that a moral issue exists in a situation or that an ethical standard is relevant Moral Awareness is influenced by 0 Characteristics ofthe individual 0 Characteristics ofthe moral issue 2 Moral Judgment the ability to accurately identify the morally quotrightquot course of action 0 Preconventional phase Egocentric Judge morality based on direct consequences of actions 0 Conventional Phase Judge morality based on social views and expectation o Postconventional Phase Realization that individuals are separate entities from society 3 1 57 Squot 53 5 r fan individual makes an unethical decision you should be able to identify whether The employee was never aware of the ethical dilemma vs The employee was aware of the dilemma but exercised poor moral judgment vs The employee was aware of the dilemma and knew the difference between right and wrong but intended to be unethical What factors influence whether an individual will become aware of a moral dilemma a Magnitude of Consequences How much harm or benefit would be done to other people b Social Consensus How much agreement is there that the proposed act would be evil or good c Probability of Effect How likely is it that the act will actually occur and that the assumed consequences will match predictions d Temporal Immediacy How much time will pass between the act and the onset of i1 consequences e Proximity How near in a psychological or physical sense is the authority to those who will be affected f Will the consequences be concentrated on a limited set of people or will they be more far reaching What factor influences whether an individual will identify the morally right thing to do PreConventional Punishment Driven or SelfInterest Driven Conventional Conformity Driven or LawandOrder Driven Principled PostConventional Social Contract Drive or Universal Principles Driven What factors influence whether an individual will intend to act morally The degree of commitment to the course of action actually wanting to act ethically is influenced by 0 Characteristics ofthe individual 0 Characteristics ofthe situation onthejob pressures role con ict rewards and incentives for unethical behavior etc You will not have to know the different phases and stages of moral development But you should know that individuals who are not very llmorally developed are less likely to identify the morally quotrightquot course of action Learning and Decision Making 7 out of 50 questions 14 of test 1 What is the difference between explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge 8 3 5 E Explicit Knowledge knowledge that is easily communicated and available to everyone Tacit Knowledge knowledge that is dif cult if not impossible to communicate and is generally learned through experience In terms of reinforcement what are the different reinforcement contingencies Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Extinction a Which attempt to increase desired behaviors Positive and Negative Reinforcement Which attempt to decrease undesired behaviors Punishment and Extinction c Which involve positive outcomes Positive Reinforcement d Which involve negative outcomes Negative Reinforcement and Punishment e Which involve receiving an outcome Positive Reinforcement and Punishment f Which involve removing an outcome Extinction In terms of reinforcement what are the different reinforcement schedules Fixed Interval Variable Interval Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio a Which are based on time Fixed and Variable Intervals b Which are based on behaviors Fixed and Variable Ratios c Which have fixed schedules Fixed Ratio and Intervals d Which have variable schedules Variable Ratio and Intervals If I give you an example of reinforcement you should be able to tell me what type of contingency andor schedule is being used What are the different predispositions towards learning If I give you an example you should be able to tell me whether the person has a learning or performance orientation Learning Orientation has positive effects PerformanceProve Orientation mixed effect PerformanceAvoid Orientation have detrimental effect 6 What are common reasons for making bad decisions a In terms of limited information what is bounded rationality and how does one s decisionmaking technique differ between a quotrationalquot person and a llboundedly rational person Bounded Rationality decision makers do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision b In terms of faulty perceptions what is selective perception Selective Perceptions tending to perceive things according to our beliefs more than as they really are and react accordingly c In terms of reliance on heuristics i What is the representativeness heuristic The representativeness heuristic is when one makes a judgment of the likelihood that a person or an object is a member ofa speci c category based on feature similarity The more object A resembles class B the higher probability that objectA is a member of class B ii What is the availability heuristic The availability heuristic is an assessment of the frequency or probability of an event based on the ease with which instances or occurrences can be brought to mind Letter quotKquot more likely to appear in the rst position of the word or the third position ofthe word The easier it is to think of examples of Class A or event A the larger the frequency or greater the probability iii What is the anchoring and adjustment heuristic People make estimates by starting from an initial value and then adjusting to yield a final answer People rely too heavily on one piece of information quotthe anchorquot and do not adjust far from it iv What is hindsight bias Hindsight bias is tendency to alter one s perception of the inevitability of an event once they know the outcome v If I give you an example you should be able to tell me whether the person in the example relied on one of the above mentioned heuristics cl In terms of faulty attributions i What is the fundamental attribution error The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to judge others behaviors as due to internal factors ii What is the selfserving bias Selfserving bias is the tendency to attribute ones own failures to external factors and successes to internal factors iii If I give you an example ofan attribution error you should be able to tell me which error is being made iv What are the three types of information that can be used to determine whether someone else s behavior should be attributed to internal factors or external factors The three types of information that can be used to determine whether someone else39s behavior should be attributed to internal factors or external factors are 1 Consensus Did others act the same way under similar situations 2 Distinctiveness Does this person tend to act differently in other circumstances 3 Consistency Does this person always do this when performing this task v If I give you an individual s behavior you should tell me how you would determine whether to attribute the individual s behavior to internal or external factors Personality and Ability 9 out of 50 questions 18 of test 1 What determines our individual characteristics Personality is the structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought emotion and behavior a Is personality and ability determined by our genes our environment or some combination of both A combination of both hat r C of our is 39 39 39 by our genes 3549 of our personality is predetermined by our genes c What percentage of our ability is determined by our genes 60 ofour ability is determined by our genes 2 What are the different taxonomies for classifying an individual s personality a The Big Five This taxonomy consists of five traits Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness to Experience and Extraversion t reliably measures personality traits and validly predicts many job outcomes b The MyersBriggs Type Inventory This taxonomy is one of the most popular Unfortunately it is not very reliable take it once and you might be classified as an EST take it again and you might be classified as an ISFP It also isn t very valid Why isn t it valid Well for one it isn t reliable And remember reliability is a precursor for validity For another it doesn t really separate good from bad performers This scale is not commonly used for selection or promotion purposes but it is commonly used for teambuilding purposesWe both take the test then we say llWow look at me I m an ESTJ m such an extraverted senser What are you An ISFJ Oh that s so cool We are both senser and judgers Let s be good teammates nowquot c Holland s RIASEC model named after a dude not the region of the Netherlands This taxonomy is commonly used to guide people into career fieldsnot much else d So the main takeaway here is that on the question that asks quotWhich taxonomy is best for making selection and promotion decisionsquot Choose the Big Five 3 The Big Five a What are the Big Five Adjectives that reliably measure personality traits and validly predict man job outcomes b Which two traits predict task performance across nearly all jobs The two trait that predict task performance across nearly all jobs are Conscientiousness and Neuroticism c In what types of jobs are the other three traits valid predict of task performance The types ofjobs that the other three trait are valid to predict task performance are Service job agreeableness salesjobs extraversion and leadership roles extraversion d How does the strength of the situation impact the degree to which personality predicts task performance The more clear and strong the situation is the less potential of personality being used as a valid predictor ofjob performance The more ambiguous and weak the situation is the higher the potential of personality being used as a valid predictor ofjob performance b