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Chapter 6 notes

by: Kirsten Swikert

Chapter 6 notes Psychology 100

Kirsten Swikert
GPA 3.2

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notes from Chapter 6
Intro to Psychology
Mark Graves
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 03/17/16
Memory • The system that allows us to retain information and bring it to mind • Information processing system: there are 3 basic processes that make memory possible o Encoding: converting information into a form usable in memory o Storage: retaining information in memory o Retrieval: bringing to mind information stored in memory • Memory retrieval: the process of accessing and bringing into consciousness information stored in memory • Retrieval cues: stimuli that help gain access to memories • Context clues: types of retrieval cues that can aid our retrieval of memories • Tip of the tongue phenomenon: the inability to retrieve information that feels as if it’s just out of your reach Memory stages • Sensory memory ⇒ short term memory ⇒ long term memory • Sensory memory: the storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions for a very short time (3-4 seconds tops) o Iconic memory: a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a visual image for a fraction of a second o Eidetic imagery: a lingering mental representation of a visual image o Echoic memory: a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a sound for a few seconds after it registers in the ears • Short term memory: the memory subsystem that allows for retention and processing of newly acquired information for a maximum of about 30 seconds (also called working memory) o Chunking: the process of enhancing retention of a large amount of information by breaking it down into smaller, more easily recalled chunks o The magic 7: you can hold up to 7 bits of information in short term memory at a time o Maintenance rehearsal: the process of extending retention of information held in short term memory by consciously repeating the information • Long term memory: the memory subsystem responsible for long term storage of material o Consolidation: the process of converting short term memories into long term memories o Elaborative rehearsal: the process of transferring information from short term to long term memory by consciously focusing on the meaning of the information • Semantic networks: a representation of the organizational structure of long term memory in terms of a network of associated concepts • Types of long term memory o Declarative memory: factual information § Type: semantic memory (memory for facts), episodic memory (personal experiences) § Time frame: retrospective (memory of past experiences and acquired information), prospective (memory of future actions) o Procedural memory: actions, perceptual motor skills, conditioned responses, emotional memories (ex: riding a bike) • Flashbulb memories: enduring memories of emotionally charged events that seem permanently burned into the brain Forgetting • Decay theory: the belief that memories gradually fade and deteriorate over time • Massed vs spaced practice effect: the tendency for retention of learned material to be greater with spaced practice vs massed practice • Forgetting curve • Interference theory: the belief that forgetting is the result of the interference of memories o Retroactive interference: new information impairs previously learned information o Proactive interference: when old information interferes with new information o Serial position effect: the tendency to recall first and last items in a list better than items in the middle § Primacy effect: the tendency to recall items better when they are learned first § Recency effect: the tendency to recall items better when they are learned last • Retrieval theory: forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories o How can the retrieval process break down? § Encoding failure: memories are never stored due to a lack of encoding • Ineffective encoding: memories are never stored due to lack of attention § Lack of retrieval cues § Tip of the tongue phenomenon • Repression: a type of defense mechanism involving motivated forgetting of anxiety evoking material • Ways to measure forgetting: o Measures of retention § Recall measure: requires a person to reproduce information on their own without any cues • Free recall • Serial recall • Paired associated recall § Recognition measure: requires a person to identify information previously learned • Amnesia: loss of memory o Retrograde amnesia: early memory loss o Anterograde amnesia: later memory loss Anatomy of Memory • Hippocampus: essential to the formation of new memories of facts, general information, and life experiences • Thalamus damage can result in amnesia • Amygdala: involved in encoding emotional information • Long term potentiation: the long term strengthening of the neural connections as the result of repeated stimulation o Scientists suspect that LTP may be needed for long term memory Powering up Memory • Using mnemonics o Acronyms o Acrostics o Popular sayings and rhymes o Visual cues and imagery o Chunking • Suggestions for improving memory o Pay attention o Practice to overlearn o Use external memory aids o Link time based tasks to external cues o Don’t memorize, just google it o Control stress o Adopt healthy habits


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