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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelina West on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIT595 at University of Pennsylvania taught by D.Palsetia in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/215408/cit595-university-of-pennsylvania in Computer Information Technology at University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Course Overview CIT 595 Spring 2008 INTRODUCTION OFF 595 ZSEI Digital Systems Organization amp Design Vultage I A digital system is one that uses discrete values for input storage VD processing transmission etc ratherthan a continuous spectrum ofvalues ie as in an Vim analog system Lugle value Unde ned I In CIT 593 we studied that a V computer is one such system 0quot u lEValuE In CIT 595 we will explore the L g organization and design of a Vmsm computer system Blnary System OFF 595 aau Computer Architecture vs Organization Computer Architecture I Logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer I Such as instruction sets and formats opcode data types addressing modes I Eg LC3 ISA studied in CIT 593 I Answers the question How do I design a computer Eg Do I want 1 8 or 32 registel gtWe ll see that number of registers affects program performance due to organization of memory OFF 595 43El Computer Architecture vs Organization Computer Organization Encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems Circuit design control signals memory types Answers the question How does a computer work We will study this in CIT 595 and much more It Will be evident that both architecture and organization are interrelated and interdependent CIT 595 530 Why study computer organization To understand the physical limitations of the underlying hardware on which your software runs Design better programs including system software such as compilers operating systems and device drivers Optimize program behavior Evaluate computer system performance time price and space tradeoff CIT 595 630 REVIEW CIT 595 730 The Computer Level Hierarchy Each layer is an abstraction of the level below it Figure 1 3 7 Null and Lobur text CIT 595 830 The Computer Level Hierarchy I Level 6 The User Level Composed of application programs such as Word 39 t Processor Paint e c The implementation of the application is hidden completely from the user I Level 5 HighLevel Language Level The level allows users to write their own application with languages such as C Java and many more Highlevel languages are easier to read write and maintain User at this level sees very little of the lower level CIT 5B5 BSEI The Computer Level Hierarchy Level 4 Assembly Language Level Lowest human readable form before dealing with 15 and 05 machine language Assembler converts assembly to machine language I Level 3 System Software Level Operating System software supervises other programs gt Controls execution of multiple programs gt Protects system resources Eg Memory and IO devices Other utilities gtCompilers Interpreters Linkers Libraries etc The software can be written in both assembly and highlevel Ian uage gt Highlevel is much more portable ie easier to modify to work on other machines CIT 5B5 IEISEI The Computer Level Hierarchy I Level 2 Machine Level Also known as the Instruction Set Architecture ISA Level Consists of instructions that are particular to the architecture of the machine Programs written in machine language 05 and 15 need no compilers interpreters or assemblers I Level 1 Microarchitectural Level In Null amp Loburtext this level is called Control levelquot Detailed organization of a processor implementation gt How the control unit interprets machine instructions from fetch thru execute stages There can be different implementations of an ISA CIT 5B5 IISEI The Computer Level Hierarchy I Level 0 Digital Logic Level This level is where we view physical devices as just switches OnOff Instead of viewing their physical behavior ie in terms of voltages and currents we use two value logic ie 0 off and 1on We will briefly look at the physical electronic omponents mainly the transistor technology CIT 593 CIT 595 level 6 4 and level 2 level 3 1 0 CIT 5B5 IZau First Generation Digital Computer I On the ENIAC all programming was done at the digital logic level I Programming the computer involved moving plugs and wires Source hLIp CIT 595 1330 The von Neumann Model I The capacity to carry out sequential instruction processing I The data transfer between the CPU amp memory or CPU amp lO system done using a bus I A bus collection of electrical wires that can transfer xbits CIT 595 CamiII Prneaxalng um Mam Mmey 1430 PREVIEW CIT 595 1530 Digital Logic Design I I Fundamental concepts of electrICIty I Current voltage resistance I Electronic switches I Vacuum tube 9 transisto m I a b l r I A I Transistor basis of Logic gates NOTORAND I Computer components such as ALU memory are built from logic gates CIT 595 8K memory Source www Lechuee com Other sources hmp www computa39museum IITestpageIntro39l39 oVacuumTubes mm 1630 Computer System Example m3 DDR miiniiiii i 7 n on tmni i mini nun 5mm 32 ti naive attended m riuid dint i720n mii usn writ i mi wii i paidiiei Wii 1339 min A6 121m 1024at7539i1 M vii PCi uiiiirimiu iiiiewtu m wn anion Li imu Before we jump into the example Measurement Metric quot0 K 1 thousand 103 and 2m Mega M 1 million 10E and 22n Giga G 1 billion 109 and 23n Tera T 1 trillion 1012 and 24 I Whether a metric refers to a power of 10 or 2 typically depends upon what is being measured Power of2 is associated with memory size Power of10 is associated with speed ie how fast is information transferred cir 595 imu Pentium 4 20 GHz I 2 0 GHZ refers to clockspeedrate of the Pentium 4 Clock is used to syncnreinize events in tne computer system Events are syncnronized un tne clucktick or pulse or cycle Cluck SpeedRate 1Ciuck C HZ Hertz cycles per second frequency Eg 1GHZ 109HZ Giga 10 CiockSpeed is crucial ror computer performance 2 oiiiion instructions can be executed in one second 0R1 instruction ta es x10g soro 5ns owever we Will see that tne number or instruction executed in a second is only proportional to tne speed not equal cir 595 ism 400 MHZ 256MB DDR SDRAM I DDR SDRAM is type ofmemory Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory R 7 Dual Data Rate has to do With how data accessed on the clock pu se I 400 MHz refers to rate at which data is transferred between CPU and Memory ie bus transfer rate I The memory capacity is 256MB ie how much information you can store More DRAM mechanics in chapter 6 Null amp Lobur cir 595 mm 32KB L1 and 256KB L2 Cache I Memory speed has not caught with processor speed I To avoid bottleneck provide small fast memory in between CPU and main memory called Cache Cache isfaster than main memory in terms of data access Caches can be hierarchical 2 levels is common I Constructed from memory called Static Random Access Memory SRAM We will look into the cache mechanics in chapter 3 amp 6 Null amp Lobur text CIT 595 2130 80 GB serial ATA hard drive I Hard Drive is nonvolatile information storage device I Its storage capacity is greater than memory Eg 512 MB DRAM vs 80 GB Hard Drive But they are inherently slower in term of accessing data gt This due to medium of storage used gt Many techniques ofplacing data blocks on disk can increase drive performance I ATA stands for advanced technology attachment Describes how the hard disk interfaces with or connects to inside a computer system Brief discussion on interfaces on IO topic gt Other Interfaces eg SCSI SATA Fibre Channel CIT 595 2230 Peripheral Component Interface PCI I A peripheral is a type of computer hardware device that is added to a computer in order to expand its abilities I PCI is dedicated lO bus for peripherals such as video audio fagtltmodems amp Ethernet etc I The PCI specification covers The physical size of the bus including wire spacing Electrical characteristics bus timing and protocols The specification was formed by PCI Special Interest Group CIT 595 2330 More realistic view of computer system Memory bus DCl bus Figure 230 Structured Computer Organization 7 Tanenbaum CIT 595 2430 Other components in Example I USE Universal Serial Bus Designed to allow peripherals to be connected using a single standardized interface socket Improve plugandplay capabilities by allowing devices to be connected and disconnected without rebooting the computer I CDRNV or DVD RW Optical data storage More recent eg BlueRay and HD format I Ethernet Display Monitors Note Not be able to touch on the above topics If interested take it up as project topic ClT 595 ZESEI One more thing I Anything missing from the example An Operating System OS I System is really incomplete without 08 Why Controls execution of multiple programs Protects system resources Eg Memory and lO devices Manages the File System on Hard Disk I Topics Operating System OS design OS serv39 Concept of processes and threads Programming Tools ClT 5B5 ZBSEI Other Advanced Topics 1 or 2 from the list below due time constraint I Virtual Machines I Look at Java Virtual Machine JVM I Garbage Collection in Collection in modern programming languages I Processor Architectures I Multiprocessors and Parallel ClT 5B5 273EI Looking Fonvard I Learn the components introduced in detail and also see their interaction with other components Project I You will also get a chance to do some exploring of you own on hardware or software technology I It may be existing or emerging technology ClT 5B5 ZESEI Next Time I Historical Development amp some background on transistors I Boolean Algebra OFF 595 ZBSEI
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