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Date Created: 09/28/15
Ling255 Formal Sem and CogSci I Sample 1 Pat shouldn t Visit Ann April 19 2005 Maribel Romero Sample Semantic Computations in Intensionality 35d from page 65 1 S shouldn t S Pat Pred VP Visit Ann 2 Semantic rule for shouldn t shouldn tDm SW g 1 iff lw wDe0w gtrw Sijg Ol gt 23 lw wDe0w l AnnW g a visitW39g ltXygt X Visits y in w visit Ann w39g 2 lt2 AnnW39ggt e visitW39g 2 ltzagt e ltXygt X Visits y in w zzvisitsainw PatW39g p Pat Visit Ann W g 1 iff Patvva 6 visit Annvva 1 iff p e zzvisitsainw 1 iff p Visits a in w 0 iff p does not Visit a in w shouldn tDm Pat Visit Anns W39g 1 1H lw wDe0w m w Pat Visit Ann wx39g Ol gt 23 lw wDe0w l iff lw wDe0w m w p does not Visit a in w l gt 23 lw wDe0w l I Sample 2 Pat can t visit Ann 3 Semantic rule for can t can tDm SW g 1 iff w wDeow m w SWj39g 1 Q Same as in Sample 1 can tDm Pat visit Anns W39g 1 iff w wDeow m w Pat visit AnnW 39g 1 Q iff w wDeow m w p Visits a in w Q I Sample 3 reading cangtgtevery of sentence Every intern can go out this weekend 4 S 36 from page 65 canDeu S NP every intern VP go out this weekend g0 0ut this weekendvp W39g X X goes in w go out this weekendkred W g X X goes in w internvva y y is an intern in w eve internNa o out this weekendpred W 1 ry g 1H N W PredW See 3 on page 37 iii internW go out this weekendW iff y y is an intern in w X X goes in w canDeu every intern g0 0ut this weekends W 1 iff w wDeow m w every intern g0 0ut this weekendijg 1 i Q From 32 on page 64 iii w wDeow m w y y is an intern in w X X goes in w i Q This is allowed that every intern goes out this weekend all at the same time I Sample 4 reading everygtgtcan of sentence Every intern can go out this weekend 36 from page 65 5 s NP5 S every intern canDeu S t5 Pred VP go out this weekend g0 0ut this weekendvp W g X X goes in w go out this weekendkred W39g X X goes in w t5 go out this weekend W39g 1 iff t5W g e go out this weekend w39g 1 iff g5 e X X goes in w 1 iff g5 goes in w canDeu t5 g0 0ut this weekends W g iff w wDeow m w t5 go out this weekend ijg 1 i Q From 32 p64 iff w wDeow m w g5 goes in w i Q internW39g y y is an intern in w every internNa5 can go out this weekend S W39Ig lff N W g g X SW gX5 1 From 39 p42 iff internvva X can t5 go out this weekendW39gx5 1 iff y y is an intern in w X w wDeow mw gx55 goes in w i Q iff y y is an intern in w X w wDeow mw X goes in w i Q Every intern y is individually allowed to go out this weekend though maybe there is a supra rule that allows only a maXimum of half the interns to be out at the same time Ling 255 Sem amp CogSci Maribel Romero Jan 13 2005 Introduction Language and Grammar Syntax 1 Grammar I A language is a set of strings f1nite sequences of minimal units words for the purposes of this course with meaning The quotmachinequot that generates those strings and their corresponding meanings is its grammar A grammar must specify the following three components 0 a lexicon which contains every minimal unit with meaning every word for this course and its grammatical category 0 a syntax that is a set of rules that tells you how the minimal units combine to form longer units how this longer units combine to form yet longer units and so forth until we form full complex sentences and 0 a semantics which determines what semantic operation or function corresponds to each syntactic rule and combines the atomic word meanings to build the meaning of the complete sentence I Lexicon for a fragment of English I Syntax Syntax gives rules governing how to build sentences Eg it contains rules similar to l and 2 abbreviated in l and 2 respectively 1 If I is a proper noun and V is an intransitive verb then the sequence WI disregarding in ection is a sentence 1 S gt Npr Vim 2 If D is a proper noun 1 is an auxiliary verb and V is an intransitive verb then the sequence DWI disregarding in ection is a sentence 2 S gtNpr AUX Vim 3 a Bill walks b Bill will walk c Bill walk will Descriptive vs prescriptive grammar Note that we are using the notion of English grammar in particular English syntax in a descriptive and not in a prescriptive way The job of a linguist is to construct a grammar that generates all and only the utterances that a given group of speakers consider well formed in their dialect This grammar may coincide or not with prescriptive grammaticality Also grammaticality has to be distinguished from mere semantic anomaly the form of the sentence is ne though the meaning is strange and processing difficulty 4 a The cat the nice is saw b Who do you wonder whether Mary arrived c Who do you think that saw Joanne d Who do you think that Joanne saw e Do you wanna come for lunch f Pat didn t see nobody g The child played with Sam and I yesterday h Colorless green ideas sleep furiously i The building is nice j The building the guy built is nice k The building the guy the woman hired built is nice 1 The building the guy the woman John met hired built is nice I Semantics Semantics speci es a semantic operation for each syntactic rule The notation stands for the meaning of or the denotation of That is semantics is built in tandem with syntax 5 If 1 is a proper noun and V is an intransitive verb then V is true if and only if i W1 Vll 6 If D is a proper noun 1 is an auxiliary verb and V is an intransitive verb then qul is true ifand only ifi m W 2 Syntax I The following is the set of syntactic rules we start with During the semester some modi cations will be made as we cover more types of sentences Diacritics X means that you can have as many X as you want including none whatsoever 7 S NP Vtrans Vintr Adv Conj quotU quotU lllllllllllllllllll NP VP Npr Det N Adj N PP N Conj N N AdV V PP Vtrans NP Vintrans P NP John Bill Philadelphia cat dog boy pig table binoculars a the some my tall nice green on from with see like help kiss run sleep quickly soon and or but I Running an example sentence 8 The girl kissed the boy S CI p NP VP i N V W o N V NP r u girl kissed Det N the N boy I Trees and syntacticosemantic units 0 Every lexical item or word is a syntacticosemantic unit minimal units 0 Every complete sentence is a syntacticosemantic unit maximal unit 0 The tree structure of a sentence specifies all its intermediate syntacticosemantic units 9 Every mother node 0c in a tree is a syntacticosemantic unit In other words for any node 0c all the lexical material under its daughter branches forms a syntacticosemantic unit that excludes material under other nondau hter branches The tree structure in 8 makes the following claims wrt the sentence The girl kissed the boy The girl kissed the boy is a unit in particular a S The girl is a unit a NP The boy is a unit a NP Kissed the boy is a unit a VP The girl kissed is NOT a unit in this sentence Girl kissed the is NOT a unit is this sentence Etc I QUESTION Draw the syntactic tree for the following sentence according to our grammar Discuss what strings form a syntacticosemantic unit and what strings do not 10 The tall man from Philadelphia helped the small boy QUESTION For each of the following sentences our grammar allows us to generate more than one tree Each of those trees makes different claims about what the syntacticosemantic units of the sentence may be and in fact each tree corresponds to a different meaning of the sentence For each sentence draw all the possible trees and explain in your own words the meaning that each tree attributes to the sentence 1 l The boy saw the girl with the binoculars 12 John called a woman from my favorite country in Europe 13 Some curious men and women from Philadelphia attended the meeting I Other ambiguities 14 Only John likes his teacher 15 Mary defended herself and Sue did A too 16 Mary defended herself better than Sue did A Ling255 Sem amp Cogsci Maribel Romero February 15 2005 Quantifiers in NatLg 1 Quantificational Noun Phrases QuNPs I Some NPs do not denote objects of type e a particular individual or entity The ones in 2a b don t If the ones in 3 did we would not expect the ambiguities in 5 1 Type e a Proper names Paul Mathias Tegucigalpa Kosovo b De nite descriptions the person next to me my older sister the older sister of mine 2 Not type e a No manW b Only SusanW Susan since 2c 2d c Only Susan came c Susan came 3 Type 63 a Every womanW the womenW the group or plural individual of all women Exactly three womenW A particular group of women that includes exactly three women eg the group formed by Stephanie Emily and Sue More than three womenW A particular group of women that includes more than three women eg the group formed by Sue Jana Eva and Kate Fquot 0 Stephanie Emily and Sue saw Erwin and Matts Stephanie Emily and Sue are such that they saw Erwin and Matts Erwin and Matts are such that Stephanie Emily and Sue saw them Exactly three women saw every man Exactly three women are such that they saw every man Every man is such that exactly three women saw him 4 5 039 I Those problematic NPs do not denote sets of individuals either QUESTION To see this tentatively consider the denotations in 6 What semantic rule would we need to combine the NPsu everything with the VP disappeared in 7 Spell out the rule in 8 What would this rule predict for 9 6 a everythingW x x e U in w b nothingW Q 34 7 Everything disappeared 8 S W r u QuNP VP 9 Nothing disappeared I The solution quanti ers like every and n0 denote relations between sets of individuals Notation X and Y are variables over sets of individuals ie XQU and YQU 10 S e i QuNP VP e i Every city smells N0 11 EveryW ltXYgt X g Y 12 N0W ltXYgt XmY Q QUESTION Spell out the meaning of everything and nothing based on ll 12 De ne the semantic rules in 15 and 16 to run the semantic computation ofl7 and 10 13 Everythingw 14 NothingW l 5 S W r u QuNP VP l6 QuNP W r u Qu N 17 IP e i DP VP Everything smells Nothing 35 I RELATIONAL THEORY OF QUANTIFIERS quanti ers denote relations between sets 18 QUANTIFIERS VENN S AS RELATIONS BW SETS DIAGRAMS For any AQU and and BQU Every A is B ltABgt e Revery i AQB No A is B ltABgt e Rno i AmB Some A is B ltABgt e Rsome iff AmB Exactly two A are B ltABgt E Rexactlyz iff At least four A are B A third ofA are B Most A are B All but two A are B 36