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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brice Torp on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING001 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/215411/ling001-university-of-pennsylvania in Linguistics at University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Who has a more sophisticated communication system molluscs or monkeys frequency and length of communicative interactions role of communication in social life number of distinct communicative displays information content entropy of communicative exchanges complexity of psychological states resulting from communication 952009 LNGOOl After 450 million years Cephelopods 1535 distinct displays Nonhuman primates 1535 distinct displays H mam 2 Primates are more evolved than molluscs More complex bodies and brains More complex social structures More complex and flexible behavior Longer lived Better at learning and problem solving BUT no real change in vocabulary size 952009 LNGOOl 3 Evolution in action it s notjust squid and monkeys For most relatively social adult fishes birds and mammals the range or repertoire size of communicative displays for different species varies from 15 to 35 displays Encycopedia Britannica Animal Communication 952009 LNGOOl 4 3 unique things about human language Big discrete vocabulary 10000100000 words or more Recursive compositionality making bigger messages by combining smaller ones more complex meanings by combining simpler ones Action to change others minds we know others may have different knowledge and beliefs we communicate to inform persuade etc 952009 LNGOOl 5 Many other little things Displaced reference Doubly digital vocabulary words are discrete and well individuated words are patterns of digital sound elements phonemes Variability in sound system and word meanings constant spontaneous social change new dialects adults have trouble adapting shibboleths Singingchanting stylization of pitch and time in ratios of small integers Various specific formal properties eg morphological blocking 952009 LNGOOl Language is weird Quantitativer and qualitatively unique like elephants trunks No similar evolutionary trends in other species other species don t want to pick up peanuts with their noses all mammals have flexible noses some use them as manipulators no general trend to develop anything like trunks other species don t want to exchange very complex messages nearly all mammals make noises some use them to communicate no general trend to develop anything like human speech 952009 LlNGOOl 7 Human linguistic progress No primitive languages in terms of sound structure in terms of word structure in terms of sentence structure There is variation in linguistic complexity but no clear correlation with social structure or cultural stage eg simpler versus more complex syllable structures but French amp Japanese aren t more primitive languages than English maybe civilization leads to more syntax less morphology le more sentential embedding less complex word structure evidence is anecdotal at best Vocabulary tends to grow in written languages in languages with old classic literature in languages with a large population in diverse occupations but vocabulary is easy to gain or lose for homo sapiens 952009 LlNGOOl 8 Spontaneous communication among nonhuman primates is limited to a small repertoire of signals whose categories are built in meanings change a bit according to the environment reference is immediate not displaced theory of mind abilities are nonexistent or at best very limited just like lower animals including some invertebrates 952009 LNGOOl 9 With training many creatures can be taught to makes sounds or gestures when they see a referent or when they want something It s even easier for them to learn to associate particular sounds gestures or icons with types of objects This can look a lot like human speech communication but such abilities make it all the stranger that other speechlike communication systems haven t evolved Relationship of this kind of operant conditioning to human linguistic behavior is controversial more on this later in the course 952009 LNGOOl 10 Communication theory of mind To attribute beliefs knowledge and emotions to both oneself and others is to have what Premack and Woodruff 1978 term a theory of mind A theory of mind is a theory because unlike behavior mental states are not directly observable Even without a theory of mind monkeys are skilled social strategists It is not essential to attribute thoughts to others to recognize that other animals have social relationships or to predict what other individuals will do and with whom they will do it Moreover it is clearly possible to deceive inform and convey information to others without attributing mental states to them However the moment that an individual becomes capable of recognizing that her companions have beliefs and that these beliefs may be different from her own she becomes capable of immensely more flexible and adaptive behavior Cheney and Seyfarth How monkeys see the world 952009 LlNGOOl 11 Animals theory of mind Gaze following Attentiongetting behavior Cooperative action Deception empathy grudging reconciliation etc Argument by analogy when we do X we attribute knowledge and beliefs to others so when animals do X they make similar attributions 952009 LNGOOl 12 However If you design an experiment to test other minds reasoning in animal analogues it always more or less fails so far For details see this article and discussion later in the course 952009 LNGOOl 13 Evolution of language Possible evolutionary adaptations for spoken language 952009 larynx loweringpharynx expansion sexual dimorphism in larynx size and position pitch perception and speech perception more generally speech motor control general and specific brain expansion Functional localization in Broca39s and Wernicke39s areas LINGOOl 14 Development of the pharynx 9999 09 Sexual dimorphism in larynx size and position 952009 uNeom m Sex differences in laryngeal measurements Data from Hirano et al 1997 Male Female Ratio MF AnAC in degrees 16 25 LMF in mm 154 98 157 GWP in mm 43 42 102 LAG in mm 151 95 159 LPG in mm 95 68 140 LEG in mm 245 163 150 952009 LNGOOl 17 952009 Sex and F0 5 ring r r Sna e A 10 20 3O 40 SO 60 AGE years 70 80 UNGOm IE Phylogeny of singing in primates lndridas Daubenlon iidae Msgalqdapldae Lsmundns Weercsed Primates cnsimgsiemas Gala nnidaa Lari mm Tarsievs Cllmnchldas Cabinae m nae Callicablnae New World Monkeys 5 ins CB39WPi heclnaE gt Old World Monkeys Ponglula x Apes and Humans Hominldas 2 Singing is rare in mammals It occurs in members of 26 species in four primate genera lndri Tarsius Callicebus Hylobates These are 11 of primate species and 4 of primate genera Since the four singing genera are Widely separated they are thought to have evolved singing independently In all singing primates both males and females sing and duetting usually if not always occurs All singing primates are monogamous with the possible exception of humans Most bird species sing often bird song is mostly male duetting bird species are also usually monogamous 962009 LlNGCOl 19 Are humans monogamous In most mammalian species sexual access is either determined by rank and results in polygyny or else two individuals become attached to one another and then isolate themselves from other members of their species In humans what is common is cooperative mixedsex social groups with significant male care and provisioning of offspring and relatively stable patterns of reproductive exclusion mostly in the form of monogamous relationships Reproductive pairing is not found in exactly this pattern in any other species Terence Deacon The Symbolic Species 952009 LNGOOl 20 Gular sac Some gibbons have developed a large gular sac apparently involved With breath control andor resonance Gular sac size and song complexity seem to correlate across species Symphalangus syndaclylus Siamang the siamang duet is probably the most complicated opus sung by a land vertebrate other than man Marshall and Sugardjito 1986 952009 LNGOOl 21 Localization of brain function Mmuv Cumvm Smp S W E E quotEW Summsensuvy mmnv 2122 mm Vuczhzznun vegmn m mmnv 2122 Asuz cunex Wemmke s A122 2 anzvy zudnnvy cunex 952009 UNGOm 22 Broca s aphasia ME Cinderellapoorum 39dopted herscrubbed floor um tidypoor um 39doptedSisisters and motherball Ball prince um shoe Examiner Keep going ME Scrubbed and uh washed and untidy uh sisters and mother prince no prince yes Cinderella hooked prince Laughs Um um shoes um twelve o39clock ball finished Examiner So what happened in the end ME Married Examiner How does he nd her ME Um Prince um happen to umPrince and Cinderalla meet um met um met Examiner What happened at the ball They didn39t get married at the ball ME No um no don39t know Shoe um found shoe 952009 LNGOOl 23 Wernicke s aphasia Examiner Yeah what39s happening there 08 I can39t tell you what that is but I know what it is but I don39t now where it is But I don39t know what39s under I know it39s you couldn39t say it39s I couldn39t say what it is I couldn39t say what that is This shu that should be right in here That39s very bad in there Anyway this one here and that and that39s it This is the getting in here and that39s the getting around here and that and that39s it This is getting in here and that39s the getting around here this one and one with this one And this one and that39s it isn39t it I don39t know what else you39d want 952009 LNGOOl 24 Why in these places Broca s area is next to the motor strip in the orofacial area control of speech articulation there makes sense Wernicke s area is next to auditory cortex towards the visual and somatosensory areas grounding of spoken word meanings there makes sense 952009 LNGOOl 25 Deaf Aphasia Taken together studies of the neural basis of sign language processing highlight the presence of strong biases that left inferior frontal and posterior temporal parietal regions of the left hemisphere are well suited to process a natural language independent of the form of the language David P Corina MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences Left inferior frontal Broca s area left posterior temporal parietal Wernicke s area For example deaf signers with Broca s aphasia show telegraphic signing with difficulties in sign morphology though their ability to mime is unaffected 952009 LNGOOl 26 Interpretation Speech is vocal output auditory input Sign is manual output visual input But deaffrombirth signers show functional localization in the brain similar to speakers Suggests that Broca s and Wernicke s areas began as convenient processing regions for speaking and listening then became adapted for more general language functions 952009 LNGOOl 27 Brain changes in hominid evolution There are four major reorganizational changes that have occurred during hominid brain evolution viz 1 reduction of the relative volume of primary visual striate cortex area with a concomitant relative increase in the volume of posterior parietal cortex which in humans contains Wernicke39s area 2 reorganization of the frontal lobe mainly involving the third inferior frontal convolution which in humans contains Broca39s area 3 the development of strong cerebral asymmetries of a torsional pattern consistent with human right handedness leftoccipital and rightfrontal in conjunction and 4 refinements in cortical organization to a modern human pattern most probably involving tertiary convolutions this last 39reorganiziation39 is inferred in fact there is no direct palaeoneurological evidence for it Hooway R 1996 quotEvolution of the human brain 952009 LNGOOl 28 Note that of the four brain reorganizations cited by Holloway three have to do with speech and language while the forth is a somewhat vague catchall category refinements in cortical organization to a modern human pattern 952009 LNGOOl 29 The hominid brain also got bigger 3392 Homo Hi 30 Ba Homo 1 Gorma as z Prosimians21 Chimpanzee D Monkeys 2396 F Old New World 24 I A es4 E 22 p D a D Orangutan g g 20L 0 U n quot39 1 E1 in 18 r a 3 D 1 r2 3 El E 16 DZ 3 g 1 4 F D D IZI EiaZ Z 2 1 2 D U D 2 1 0 15 D 2 22 3 El 2 08 39239 39239 2i n 04 L O2 Z 1 l i i 1 I 4L 1 41 l l AL I 1 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 log10 body weight mean 952009 LNG001 30 Brain weight vs gestation time 2 n n n a n n n s n nu 962009 Maw 31 Why the connection between brain size and body size Aren t bigger brains always better No because neural tissue is expensive human brain is 2 of weight uses 20 of energy this imposes an economic costbenefit tradeoff Bigger animals both need and can afford bigger brains just as bigger countries needcan afford bigger governments Bigger body needs more sensory amp motor nerves and a fixed energy tax supports a bigger CNS Human central government is enormous relative to our size if we predict brain size from body size across species human brain is about 7 times larger than expected EQ 952009 LNGOOl 3 2 Paying the price Each adaptation makes language work better but at a cost choking danger energy requirements of a bigger brain problems of neoteny 952009 LNGOO1 33 So why d we do it From the perspective of hindsight almost everything looks as though it might be relevant for explaining the language adaptation Looking for the adaptive benefits of language is like picking only one dessert in your favorite bakery there are too many compelling options to choose from What aspect of human social organization and adaptation wouldn t benefit from the evolution of language From this vantage point symbolic communication appears quotoverdeterminedquot It is as though everything points to it A plausible story could be woven from almost any of the myriad of advantages that better communication could offer organizing hunts sharing food communicating about distributed food sources planning warfare and defense passing on toolmaking skills sharing important past experiences establishing social bonds between individuals manipulating potential sexual competitors or mates caring for and training young and on and on Terence Deacon The Symbolic Species 952009 LlNGOOl 34 If language is so great why doesn t every species get one Possible answers It s too expensive relative to the benefits eg in terms of brain tissue requirements It s hard to get started eg requires an unlikely evolutionary invention notjust an extension of animal communication systems or early releases are not very useful theory of mind lacking displaced reference can be confusing 952009 LNGOOl 35
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