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by: Enoch Jenkins

IntroductiontoSociology SOC1176

Marketplace > Temple University > Sociology > SOC1176 > IntroductiontoSociology
Enoch Jenkins
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Enoch Jenkins on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC1176 at Temple University taught by GeoffreyMoss in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/215463/soc1176-temple-university in Sociology at Temple University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
SOCIOLOGY A Brief Introduction This lesson relates to Chapter 1 39 Understanding Sociology Main Topics Week One Whatfis Socioloqv The invention of Socioloqv Who invented it What Is Socioloqica Theory Major Theoretica Perspectives in Sociology Who developed these theories Whv Studv Socioloqv What is Sociology 39 Science a body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation Natural Sciences Social Sciences History Psychology Political Science Economics Anthropology and Sociology Sociology is broadA Sociologist can study anything that s social What is SociologyDefinitions Sociology Schaefer s Definition Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior in human groups What is SociologyProfessor Moss s Definition Sociology is the science of the social for example interpersonal interaction between men and women American culture social class race social change media and society Advantage of Moss s definition Avoids using the terms behavior which implies that sociologists only study individual behavior and group which implies that Sociology covers such behavior only in small group settings g e What is Sociology Levels of Analsis SOcioflogy covers many levels of analysis Global Societal Organizational Small group Interpersonal 0 Individual we don t focus on this level we focus on how the individual is effected by the other social levels o notewe can cover one issue eg inequality between man and women on many levels What is SociologyA Key Socioloical Concet Social Construction Socioogy focuses on studying that i which is socially constructed rather than due solely to human biology Most aspects of our human life are socially constructed What is SociologySocioogical Evidence Social Sciences Soft Sciences BUt Social Sciences like the natural sciences often involves hypothesis testing 0 If we believe that elementary schools for the poor are inferior to elementary schools for the rich we have to develop a specific hypothesiss about this and get evidence to support and hopefully prove this When we have evidence that proves something we call this evidence conclusive l I What is SociologySociology vs Common Sense TheEarth is flat 0 When it comes to getting ahead it doesn t matter if your parents are rich or poor America is a society of equal opportunity 0 Americans clearly have much more personal freedom than any other people in the world 1 The Invention of Sociology A product of the Enlightenment and later The Enlightenment Project Use reason and science to achieve social progress instead of leaving this to god What is social progress Main Values The Invention of Sociology o Auguste Comte 1798 1857 0Coined the term sociology Wanted Sociology to make society better achieve social progress replace religion didn t work out TheOry Set of statements that seeks to explain problems actions or behavior Effective theories have explanatory and predictive power eg a theory of classroom disruption in elementary schools Theories never a final statement about human behavior What Is Sociological Theory SociologyTheory vs Theoretical A roach A Specific Theory is a statement of how and why specific facts are related A Theoretical Approach or Perspective is a basic image of society that guides thinking and research a Three main theoretical perspectives in Socmlogy 1 Functionalist Approach Major Theorists Emile Durkheim Max Weber Robert Merton Talcott Parsons 2 Conflict Approach 0 Major theoristsKarl Marx WEB Dubois Simone du Beauvoir 3 Interactionist Approach 0 Major theoristsGeorge Herbert Mead Erving Goffman Societies tend to be functional they work and therefore stable They get society where it wants to go People in society a ree on where to go because we have s ared beliefs and values Emphasizes ways parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability Each part family school workplace government religion functions to serve the whole society Major Theoretical Perspectives quotquotConflict Approach 39 sees conflict between dominant and subordinate groups I society doesn t work very well for 39 subordinate groups eventually subordinate groups tend to resist and struggle with dominant groups society is therefore unstable Feminists marxists antiracists etc l Major Theoretical Perspectives 9 Interactionist Approach studies face to face social interaction people interact using non verbal communications and symbols words pictures etc for example Irving Goffman in The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life found that people will immediately engage in face saving if they say something that threatens the ego of the other person A note on human interaction 177 some people have trouble interacting with others Autism Aspergers Syndrone Nerdiness we leave the study of those who have trouble interacting to psychologists Major Theoretical Perspectives 1 Each perspective offers unique insights into the same issue We can gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives noting where they overlap or where they diverge Most sociologists make use of all three approaches but focus on one of these approaches more then the others But most sociologists today focus more on nnnFlinI study Sociology Who should Who39should study Sociology anyone who does not plan to live their lives alone and in the woods which means just about everyone Sociology is relevant to any career and if you decide to major in it you will learn research skills that you can use to make lots of money in business or to help lots of people as a social services specialist or social activist


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