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by: Christa Medhurst II

ReligionintheWorld REL0863

Marketplace > Temple University > Religion > REL0863 > ReligionintheWorld
Christa Medhurst II
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christa Medhurst II on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL0863 at Temple University taught by KinCheung in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/215469/rel0863-temple-university in Religion at Temple University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Study List Test 2 Blackmore and memes 0 meme 0 An element of a culture or behavior that may be passed from one individual to another by nongenetic means esp imitation spread horizontally no limit on how fast they Spread 0 0 Islam 0 quotsubmissionquot to Allah to God Muslim 0 quotone who submits to Godquot Quran holy text quotrecitationquot written by Muhammad39s followers Jihad o quotstrifequot or quotstrugglequot early theory of just war 0 can t hurt noncombatants I civilians religious clergy etc o tells them how to wage a just war I strictly defensive I shouldn39t be aggressive Sunni quotwell trodden pat quot quottraditionquot N940 mil 90 majority in most countries imams are human leaders Shi i quotparty of Aliquot 120 mil 10 Iran Yemen Southern Iraq imams are perfect interpreters of the Quran Su mystical branch care less about religious leaders 0 more interested in relating with God Mecca where the Kaba House of God was built by Abraham and Ishmael o orginally built by adam and then rebuilt Muhammad39s birthplace as well Im am Arabic leader 0 in Shiism the only legitimate heirs of Muhammad on heart Im an o it refers to the inner aspect of the religion and denotes a believer39s faith in the metaphysical realities of Islam Sh ari ah 0 law of Islam 0 derived from 4 sources I Quran o Muhammad39s words I H adith 0 provides explanations of the Quran I ijma or quotconsensusquot o agreed upon interpretations of a given issue either on the part of a majority of scholars of a particular region or as understood from the work of earlier generations of scholars I qiyas or quotreasoning on the basis of analogy o Shii scholars place greater value in the exercise of human reason and intellect therefore instead of qiyas the Shiis have aql or quotindividual reasoningquot Shahada 0 there is no god but God and Muhammad is his messenger Hajj o pilgrimage to Mecca 5 ritual duties 0 shaddah 0 there is no god but God and Muhammad is his messenger 0 daily prayers o alms giving 0 fasting o Hajj o pilgrimage to Mecca Mosques 0 what does a mosque need 0 two types of mosque the musjid or place of worship39 and the jumi39 a town s congregational mosque which is where Muslims gather together for prayers and other religious functions 0 require worshippers and prayerleaders o the building itself requires an area where ritual ablutions can be undertaken before prayer including the necessary purewater fountain o a mihmb niche that indicates the location of Mecca o minibur pulpit from which sermons are delivered and a minaret from which Muslims are called to prayer ve times daily Islamophobia I rrrational fear of IslamMuslims I arose from 911 in the US Islamic fundamentalism 0 Christian fundamentalism is applied to Islam 0 see Christians moving away from quotfundamentalquot Christianity 0 want to steer them back to the basics I quotscience shouldn39t refute the Biblequot 0 quotextremistsquot 0 better term would be Wahhabism o started 18th century before Christian fundamentalism 0 those not a part of Wahhabism look at it as bigoted or backward o Wahhabism was started by Sunni I thought Su s and Shii are wrong and should be eliminated Islamic state 0 country that doesn39t have separation of church and state Pan Islamism 0 one Islamic country for all Muslims of the world Peek and ascribe chosen declared identities 0 religion as ascribed identity 0 Religion was not a salient identity for the participants 0 It was either taken for granted as an aspect of their individual or social selves or viewed as something to be denied 0 religion as chosen identity 0 participants consciously decided to embrace their Muslim identity often after much self re ection with the support of their peers and sometimes at the exclusion of other core identities such as ethnicity and nationality 0 religion as declared identity 0 occurred following a crisis event September 11 2001 0 Most of the interviewees decided it was vitally important to both strengthen and assert their identities at this time in order to retain a positive selfperception and correct public misconception Hindu o from Shundu river Indus India S am 5 ar a o the process of passing from one body to another throughout all species of life 0 the perpetual cycle of repeated birth and death Cyclical nature oftime vs linear I cyclical nature of time o the cycle of samsara I life gt death gt reincarnation gt life gt death gt reincarnation 0 beginning less I linear nature oftime 0 life gt death gt afterlife 3 paths to salvation suggested by the Gita how to break samsara 0 revealed by Krishna selfless action karma devotion 3 schools knowledge 0 of self Atman and relationship between Atman and Brahman Atm an o quotthe real self 0 remains unchanged throughout life it likewise continues after death 0 goal 0 unite the self Atman with the source Brahman Brahman o the one supreme universal Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe 3 deities I shiva o creatordestroyer o paradoxical roles show different sides I vishnu o preserver 0 many different avatarsreincarnations I Rama prince from Ramayana I Krishna Gita I sh 0 all forms help people I goddess devi 0 different manifestations 0 wife warrior promote wealthfuture Mahabharata I great battle for Indian between two families 0 good vs evil I within the epic lies the Bhagavad Gita o convo between Arjuna and Krishna Vishnu I Arjuna has a dilemma should I fight for my beliefs and possibly kill my family I Krishna tells him it s okay to kill if not for selfgain 0 his is a warrior should not shy from what 0 s right I goal 0 moshka liberation Kr ish n a I Vishnu incarnation I appeared to Arjuna in the Gita Ramayana I prince is exiled I his wife is captured by demon king I he saves his wife and is crowned king I teaches people how to behave act Sankhya I philisophical school I connected to yoga I duality between consciousness and material form I trying to leave material world behind and obtain pure consciousness and unity with Brahman Yoga I yui to unite I yoke connecting teacher with students Asana I body positions posture Dhy an a I meditationmentalconsentration Gurus I teachers devotion ethical discipline yoga Mantras I sound formulation of truth I way to help meditateconsentrate quotommmmquot I repeated over and over C akr as I energy centers of the body I relate to physicalspiritual dimensions Moksha I liberation 0 true union with brahman and atman I freedom from the cycle of samsara 0 obtained by one of 3 paths Vedas o quotvedaquot is Sanskrit for quotwisdomquot o sacred text 0 authorless 0 beginning less 0 sound bites of reality Rishis I hear the vedas sounds of truth I collectwrite out vedas I not the authors though vedas are authorless Sanskrit o ancient IndoEuropean39 language 0 language of all the sacred texts of Hinduism Karm a I positive 0 principle of ethics and system of rewardpunishment I negative 0 unending cycle I Kr is root for Sanskrit and karma gt means to perform Caste system I Brahmans highest 0 teachersscholarspriests 0 religious leaders are higher than kings I Ksh amyas o warriors king I Vaishyas o agricultural merchants I shundras 0 service providers laborers I untouchables I can only move up through marriage Lipner and Banyan model I Hinduism has not central branch like the banyan tree I metaphor I internal divisions or different ways to af rm ID and mark exclusion O O O O 0 location deities caste system language community no central branch no agreed upon meaning Stevenson and Reincarnation I collected 600 cases half in India dealing with reincamation 0 children Rao and Bhagavadgita I gita story within an epic I tells people how to break the cycle of S amara Study terms 3 Buddha 0 Buddha quotthe enlightened onequot 0 historical person 0 example Siddhartha Gautama o buddha enlightenment awakening Nirvana o The word literally means quotblowing outquot o referring in the Buddhist context to the blowing out of the res of greed hatred and delusion 0 also means the cessation of rebirth Parable of arrow 0 asking metaphysical questions are not helpful 0 why am Ihere What is karma 0 reaction to Hinduism 0 knowledge isn39t the path 0 action is the path pull the arrow vs asking questions Parable of raft o Buddhist teachings are tools to be used but not held onto or attached to after use 0 different from the VedasBibleQuran 0 other traditions value sacred texts Parable of burning house 0 how Buddhism spreadschanges o teachings are adjusted to individual audience to help them 0 use of Upaya o skillful to know what means to use to appeal to your audience 0 different sutras different texts Upaya o skillful means Two levels of truth 0 one level of truth then there39s a deeper level of truth 0 language 0 words can point us to reality but words ultimately distort reality creates duality 0 subject is different than object o I am different than the marker I pick up 0 we should use words for meaning but shouldn t latch onto them Theravada main branch quotcloser teachings to eldersquot SE Asia orange robes vipassana meditation introspectionsamatha ideal person 0 arhat Mahayana o quotgreater vehiclequot 0 East Asia blacldgrey dark blue robes dhyana moving meditation koans bodhisattva is the ideal person Arhat o quotworthy onesquot one who has reached awakeningenlightenment broken the cycle of samsara to save self 0 Theravada ideal person Bodhisattva 0 quotfuture Buddhaquot o someone who is still subject to birth illness death sorrow de lement and delusion o hasn t broken samsara o postpone enlightenment 0 get as close as possible without reaching Nirvana I wise compassionate but are reborn to save others 0 ideal person for Mahayana Pureland 0 new type of Buddhism found in China 0 Amitabha o principle buddha who looks over the quotPure Landquot 0 means in nite lightlife o more than just meditation chanting is important ChanZen dhyana sanskrit jhana Pali gt Chan Chinese gt Zen Japanese in uenced by Daoism direct transmission of teachings lineage of Bodhidharma mistrust of words and language but still uses them pass on Buddhism from teacher to student CaodongSoto o branch of Zen Buddhism 0 gradual enlightenment 0 don t neglect small steps toward enlightenment o silent illumination meditation LinjiRinzai o branch of Zen Buddhism 0 sudden enlightenment is most important 0 you become awakened to Buddhist teachings in a ash of a moment 0 it just happens 0 gongankoan meditation GtmganK an 0 type of meditation that removes you from rationality o A puzzling often paradoxical statement or story used in Zen Buddhism as an aid to meditation and a means of gaining spiritual awakening 0 quotwhat came first the chicken or the agequot Stupa o funerary mound o a moundlike structure containing Buddhist relics typically the remains of Buddha used by Buddhists as a place of worship Dalai Lama 0n compassion forgiveness o The Dalai Lama forgave the Chinese for the simple reason that revenge creates more unhappiness The Dalai Lama encourages us to think using a broader perspective revenge is no good so we should forgive Forgiveness does not mean you just forget about the past No you remember the past according to the Dalai Lama Indra s net 0 everything is interconnectedrelated o pattica 0 cast over the universe Paticcasammuppada o conditioned genesis o co dependent arising o interdependent co arising AnattaAnnatman o quotno self 0 no seperate unchanging essential self 0 soul doesn39t stay the same Dukkha o quotsufferingquot Four noble truths o existence is dukkha suffering out of place discomfort disease displaced etc o 4 sights sick dead old people 0 no matter how happy I am I am going to suffer o dukkha caused by desire craving attachment 0 cessation of dukkha o it is possible to stop dukkha o eightfold path 0 how to stop dukkha and achieve nirvana 0 follow this end suffering Five moral precepts no killing no stealing no abusive sex no lying o no intoxicating beverages D gen s sh oakumakusa 0 Do no evil 0 what is evil I 5 precepts I something that affects someone else I something that results in bad karma 0 Do good 0 things that bring about good karma 0 Purify the mind 0 This is the teaching of the Buddha at first we think it s a prescription that tells us what to dohow to act 0 rather it is descriptive it describes the moral conduct of someone realizingactualizing the Buddha39s nature David Loy on our concept of self and Karma intention negative interpretations The Buddha s spiritual revolution transformed this ritualistic approach to getting what you want out of life into a moral principle by focusing on certana or quotmotivations intentionsquot according to Loy Certana is the key to understanding how he ethicized karma Karma is better understood as the key to spiritual development how our lifesituation can be transformed by transforming the motivations of our actions right now Loy points out Karma is not something the self has it is what the sense of self is and what the sense of selfis changes according to one s conscious choices People are quotpunishedquot or quotrewardedquot not for what they have done but for what they have become and what we intentionally do is what makes us who we are What I do is motivated by what I think Intentional actions repeated over and over become habits Habitual ways of thinking feeling acting and reacting construct and compose my sense of self the kind of person I am The kind of person I am does not fully determine what occurs to me but strongly affects what happens and how I respond to it Buddhist accounts of the law of karma insists that all rewards are related in kind to the action that produced them 0 thus sin causes a person to suffer in the next life good actions bring happiness and an action that is a mixture of good and bad will bring results that are a mixture of suffering and happiness Thomas Kasulis 0n ChineseJapanese word for person on Nagarjuna causality time language on Dao as creative source allegory of hell Kasulis 0 Japanese and Chinese language focus on relationship between speaker and context 0 not on a word with an unchanging meaning 0 words are specific to your audience Nagarjana second buddha title enlightened 0 we believe that language re ects how we think and gives structure to our thoughts I helps us conceptualize things labelconceptualize world I we believe these categories are static and they are not we believe that words can point us to reality but words ultimately distort reality 0 time past present future I dependent on each other for meaning 0 causality relationship between cause effect I identical I not identical 0 I identical and not identical I neither identical or not identical 0 Nagarjuna endeavored to undermine Indian arguments about causality by proving the relationship between cause and effect to be neither absolute nor unparadoxical Speci cally in asserting that there really are causes and effects one should be able to say whether or not the cause is philosophically identical with the effect I The bifurcation between cause and effect is itself suspect Any theory assuming this distinction cannot avoid contradiction and paradox o allegory of the hell 0 bell is not just metal casing it is also the empty space within it o in order for the bell to ring it needs both components I nonbeingbeing are dependent on each other in this same way Dao o the Way 0 gives values Philosophical Daoism o Philosophical Daoism represented by Laozi and Zhuangzi is concerned with perceiving and following the Dao the force and pattern behind the natural order The mystical naturalism of philosophical Daoism is not concerned with virtue and morality but rather the movement and creation of all things in accordance with the Dao the quotWayquot of nature and cosmos It is the source and pattern for all things which are formed form and dissolve into the primal vital material or qz39 Daoists express reverence for the infinite subtlety and scope of the Dao which permeates all things 0 The Dao is silent and imperceptible impartial and allencompassing But it is not divine and therefore cannot be worshiped as Heaven and the deities can Religious Daoism 0 These groups combined ancient practices and beliefs such as the pursuit of long life with their own scriptures divinities rituals and quite often millenarian expectations which were perceived as a threat by the government Over time religious Daoism developed a canon of revealed scripture a pantheon of divinities a literate priesthood and established rituals longevity immortality ritual Laozi Mozi 0 old master 0 wrote the Dao dejz39ng as a response to Confucian values 0 his response of how to practice longevity in response of Confucian teaching rulers how to rule 0 questioned Confucius teachingsways Daodejing 0 religious text written by Laozi 0 different ways to read this text 0 philosophy 0 religion 0 political how to be a good ruler 0 military strategy Zhuangzi Chuang Tzu 0 master that mocked Confucius o monkeys story I what you guys are arguing about is the same 0 butter y dream I question our perspective I maybe we are one stage larva and change to become a butter y in another lifedreamreality o 6 organs I other organs are importanttake over I brainheart isn39t always in control Categories of health 0 Health To make whole 0 Westemltunhealthygt lthealthygt o Yuasa s Eastemltunhealthygt lthealthygt ltsuper healthygt o Daoistltunhealthygt lthealthygt ltlongevitygt ltimmortalitygt KuriyamaKaptchuk on Chinese View of body cf Greek 0 Kuriyama 0 When Europeans in the 17th and 18th centuries began to study Chinese medical teachings the descriptions of the body they encountered struck them as phantastical and absurd like tales of an imaginary land Chinese doctors lacked a speci c word for muscle imuscularity was a peculiarly Western preoccupation On the other hand the tracts and points of acupuncture entirely escaped the West s anatomical vision of reality The history of medicine in China and in the West encompasses a rich variety of beliefs and practices evolving in complex patterns over several millennia Neither tradition can be reduced to a single view point Still there is no denying the extraordinary in uence 7 and cultural distinctiveness 7 of the perspectives that fixed on muscles in the one instance and acupuncture tracts in the other It would be impossible to narrate a history of Western ideas about the structure and workings of the body without reference to muscles and muscular action and any summary of Chinese medicine which failed to mention acupuncture tracts would be radically incomplete Ancient medicine was much different ithere were no such clear distinctions Kuriyama points out that if we delve deeper into the past and examine earlier sources such as the Hippocratic corpus and the Mawangdui manuscripts the contrasts do not appear nearly as marked We enter a world in which Greek doctors speak mostly of esh and sinews rather than of muscles and in which the Chinese art of needling has yet to be invented This is perhaps the most compelling reason to scrutinize antiquity such scrutiny allows us to reconsider Chinese and Western medicine not as re ections of timeless attitudes but as the results of historical change 0 Kaptchuk o Kaptchuk points out that Chinese medicine is a coherent and independent system of thought and practice that has been developed over two millennia Based on ancient texts it is the result of a continuous process of critical thinking as well as extensive clinical observation and testing It represents a thorough formulation and reformulation of material by respected clinicians and theoreticians It is also Qi however rooted in the philosophy logic sensibility and habits of a civilization entirely foreign to our own It has therefore developed its own perception of health and illness Chinese medicine considers important certain aspects of human body and personality that are not significant to Western medicine At the same time Western medicine observes and can describe aspects of the human body that are insigni cant or not perceptible to Chinese medicine For instance Chinese medical theory does not have the concept of a nervous system Nevertheless evidence exists demonstrating Chinese medicine s capacity to treat some neurological disorders Similarly Chinese medicine does not perceive an endocrine system yet it treats what Western medicine called endocrine disorders Nor does traditional Chinese medicine recognize strep as a pathological cause of pneumonia yet before the discovery of antibiotics this treatment seemed to offer a reasonable and relatively effective response Chinese medicine also uses terminology that is strange to the Western ear For example the Chinese refer to certain diseases as being generated by Dampness Heat or Wind Modern Western medicine does not recognize Dampness yet can treat what Chinese medicine describes as Dampness of the Spleen Modern Western medicine does not speak of fire but can from a Chinese perspective stoke the fire of the Kidney or extinguish excess fire raging out of control in the Lungs In Western medicine Wind is not considered a disease factor yet Western medicine is able to prevent Liver Wind from going to the head or to extinguish rampaging Wind in the skin The perceptions of the two traditions re ect two different worlds but both can affect and often heal human beings regardless of their cultural affiliation The difference between the two medicines however is greater than that being their descriptive language The actual logical structure underlying the methodology the habitual mental operations that guide the physician s clinical insight and critical judgment differs radically in the two traditions The two different logical structures have pointed the two medicines in different directions Biomedicine a more accurate name for Western medicine is primarily concerned with isolable disease categories or agents of disease which it zeroes in on isolates and tries to change control or destroy The Chinese physician in contrast directs his or her attention to the complete I 39 39 39 39 and 39 39 39 39 39 39 All relevant information including symptoms as well as the patient s other general characteristics is gathered and woven together until it forms what Chinese medicine calls a pattern of disharmony This pattern of disharmony describes a situation of imbalance in a patient s body The logic of Chinese medicine is organism or synthetic attempting to organize symptoms and signs into understandable configurations The total configuration the patterns of disharmony provides the framework for treatment The therapy then attempts to bring the configuration into balance to restore harmony to the individual The Chinese method is based on the idea that no single part can be understood except in its relation to the whole life energy life force energy ow a part of every living thing o Qi is manifested most basically as two complementary forces yin and yang Yin and yang o polaritiesopposites 0 represents the ancient Chinese understanding of how things work 0 rst used to describe a hill 0 yang sunny side 0 yin shady side 0 what is once yin will eventually become yang and vice versa nothing stays the same 0 agrees with Buddhist teaching of anicca Wu xing 0 ve phasesagents goings 0 water gt wood gt re gt earth gt metal 0 re controls metal melt 0 metal controls wood chop o earth controls water saturation 0 water controls re 0 wood controls earth trees F engsh Mi 0 quotwind and waterquot 0 where to build a house where to place furniture in your house 0 how to organize your space Yijing 0 book of changes 0 tells you that things are going to change but not how it39s going to change Analects o Confucian teachings written down by his students over time Kongzi Confucius o teaches tradition 0 how people relate to each other 0 pivotal value ren humanity Mozi and the Mohists 0 he founded the school of Mohism and argued strongly against Confucianism and Daoism Mengzi Mencius 0 we have moral sprouts 0 we have good but we still need to nurture it 0 not everyone is a good person I don t give the sprouts the nourishment they need 0 we have innate tendencies to respect authority gt that s why we should follow tradition Xunzi Hsun Tzu o Mengzi is wrong if we have innate moral tendencies we shouldn39t learn 0 instead we are a block of wood 0 learning and training carve this block Ancestor tablets the home alter is in many ways the locus of family unity encompassing all generations alive and dead it is here that the tablets are kept in which the ancestral sprits are believed to reside generally speaking the tablets record the names birth and death dates and number of sons of each ancestor the ancestors are addressed and treated as close camily members tablets go back three to five generations as each generation passes the oldest tablets are removed from the altar and placed in an ancestral hall used by several households of the same extended family Z mgjiao 0 Until recently the Chinese language had no word for quotreligionquot in the Western sense of a particular set of beliefs doctrines and rituals The Chinese have never seen Confucianism Daoism and Buddhism as exclusivist and traditionally refer to them simply as quotteachingsquot o The neologism zongjiao was adopted at the turn of the 20th century it literally translates as quotancestral or clan teachingsquot But many Chinese practices and beliefs cannot be categorized as zongjiao For the Chinese the way of the quotThree Teachingsquot are re ected in many aspects of everyday life not simply in formal quotreligiousquot rites and acts of worship These include dealing with officials relationships the arts and even cooking Ideal life for 3 traditions how you should live here on this earth 0 Buddhism 0 following 8 fold path 0 relieve dukka 0 gain enlightenment o Daoism 0 read these religious texts 0 also practice selfcultivation techniques I don t just stop at healthy keep going I yoga vitamins eat right and maybe you ll become immortal o Confucianism o leam study from books and teachings 0 become a scholar Use of texts for 3 traditions not religions o Buddhism 0 copying texts give karmic merit 0 Lotus sutra o Daoism used for ritual religious text with religious power 0 Zhuangzi I you are all arguing about the same thing I 3 monkeys parable o Dao de jing I philosophical yet religious text I doesn39t just tell people how to life their life 0 gives secrets on how to live a longer life how to be immortal in this world 0 Confucianism how a good government governs o Yi jing I book of changes I fengshuz39 o Analects I collection of his teachings written down by his students 0 Mengzi I sprout analogy o Xunzi I wood analogy F ingarette on 1139 on magic 0 li rite o Confucius found the path we go by way of the notion of 1139 one has to labor long and hard to learn 1139 the words in its root meaning is close to quotholy ritualquot quotsacred ceremonyquot Confucius taught that the ability to act according to 1139 and the will to submit to 1139 are essential to that perfect and peculiarly human virtue or power which can be man s men become truly human as their raw impulse is shaped by 1139 and 1139 is the fulfillment of human impulse the civilized expression of it 1139 is the specifically humanizing form of the dynamic relation of mantoman Li encompasses not a definitive object but rather a somewhat abstract idea I it has also been translated as 39customs etiquette39 39morals39 and rules of proper behavior among other terms 0 By magic Fingarette means the power of a specific person to accomplish his will directly and effortlessly through ritual gesture and incantation The user of magic does not work by strategies and devices as a means toward an end he does not use coercion or physical forces There are no pragmatically developed and tested strategies or tactics He simply wills the end in the proper ritual setting and with the proper ritual gesture and word without further effort on his part the deed is accomplished Confucius39s words at times strongly suggest some fundamental magical power according to Fingarette as central to 0 this way T ian and Diyu o tian 0 one of the oldest Chinese terms for the cosmos and a key concept in Chinese mythology philosophy and religion 0 diyu o the realm ofthe dead or quothellquot in Chinese mythology It is loosely based on a combination of the Buddhist concept of Naraka traditional Chinese beliefs about the afterlife and a variety of popular expansions and reinterpretations of these two traditions typically depicted as an underground maze with various levels and chambers to which souls are taken after death to atone for the sins they committed when they were alive a purgatory that serves to punish and renew spirits in preparation for reincarnation into their next life Master disciple relationship 0 most important ideal relationship to Confucius Self cultivation O O Self cultivation involved not only educating oneself but also picking up on the good traits in others and imitating them Study Terms for Test 1 Introduction to study of religion Judaism and Christianity Morton Klass how he sees religious studies 0 Klass believes that anthropologists once and for all should abandon the issue of whether the things a given people believe in or do in the way of religion are true or false wise or stupid Klass suggests that anthropologists should instead look upon the content of a given religious system it s respective beliefs practices myths etc as their own entity 0 One must never ask if they are true or whether they actually work Instead of trying to explain the unexplainable one should just accept it as it is Operational de nition of religion 0 Klass anthropologist of religions Operational can be tested changed de nitions of religions 0 order control 0 reality what exists 0 causality the cause of something 0 meaning explain why the situation happens Supernatural o Norbeck s term 39supernaturalism39 includes all that is not unnatural that which is regarded as extraordinary not of this world mysterious and unexplained or unexplainable o Norbeck acknowledges that his de nition of religion as supematural is unacceptable for anthropologists through it may be perfectly acceptable for students in other fields 0 The reason such aterm cannot be used in anthropology Klass points out is that it is ethnocentric and will inevitably lead to misunderstanding and confusion o Klass warns that serious problems arise when an ethnographer attempts to distinguish the natural from the supernatural in a society in which no such distinction is made or in which instead significantly different distinctions are made 0 The term supernatural biases the data for this term is a subjective term left to the digression of the ethnographer the data is categorized in terms of one consideration only what the ethnographer considers to be part of reality and what the ethnographer personally excludes from reality Ethonocentric terms 0 ethnocentrism is making value judgments about another culture from perspectives of one s own cultural system 0 especially in terms of language behavior customs and religion 0 the term quotsupernaturalquot is an ethnocentric term Bracket the question of truth 0 how to study religion 0 bracket truth don t question if something is true or not 0 instead What do these beliefs express 0 look at things from other people s points of view to avoid being ethnocentric Jonathan Z Smith how he sees religious studies 0 historian of religion 0 1877 start academic study of religion 0 mainly focused on the idea of preach vs teach Tolerance vs relativism o Tolerance asking how to understand differences this is helpful 0 trying to find similarities o Relativism difference is unbridgeable cannot understand not helpful 0 other groups are alien not understandable 0 example he gave in class 0 if your neighbor murdered their son for religious reasons you won t understand but if your neighbor sacrificed their son then you would understand better Peter Berger 0 Peter Berger Sacred Canopy religious sociologist o 1 fear is public speaking 0 because people care what others think about them 0 social experiment in class sittingstanding Cosmization 0 Religion is sacred cosmization o cosmization I what s going on how I live my life 0 religion tells us what to do social order I how to react toward one another how to behave 0 most important recent attempt at cosmization is science Nomos 0 law order 0 Peter Burger Legitimization function of religion Secularization o modernizations leads to a decline in religious activity 0 either for the individual or the society 0 religion will be less important as time passes De secularization 0 this theory negates the secularization theory 0 modernity gt religious important increases or stays the same 0 reasons 0 elite pushes against religion majority pushing back 0 modernity leads to uncertainty and religion provides certainty I science leads to change knowledge and power 0 this can be a good thing but change also scares people I modernization forces us to interact with others I religion is a type of safety net that stays constant in an ever changing society 0 exceptions 0 western Europe 0 cultural elite Susannah Heschel 0 Jewish feminist scholar 0 applies theories that relate to women to the experience of the Jews 0 believes that Jesus acts as a theological transvestite Theological Transvestite o Heschel points out that to fully understand exactly who the real Jesus is we must abandon our binary view of Christianity and Judaism In order to do this we must use the queer theory which addresses the problem of binary thinking in reference to male and females 0 We look at 39male and 39female39 as static categories when instead we should realize that these categories overlap and the once static division of the two categories is actually a blurred 0 Just as transvestites create a sense of confusion that undermines the category of gender Jesus stands as an ambiguous figure blurring the division between Judaism and Christianity 0 Heschel draws a direct analogy between a transvestite and Jesus Christ 0 While transvestites have the power to disrupt question and finally chip away at the binary categories of male and female so does Jesus 0 Jesus39 ambiguousness makes it difficult to see where one religion ends and the other begins I This confusion over Jesus true religion identity has driven Jews and Christians alike to attempt to reestablish the boundaries between Christianity and Judaism 0 they need to dress up39 Jesus to delineate and separate their own religions 0 Jesus isn39t doing this to himself 0 it39s the people who came after him 0 religious groups fight the most over Jesus I more conservative branches care less I liberal branches care more 0 religion like gender are constructed categories 0 but that doesn39t make it any less real or any less important Separation of Church and State 0 they cannot in uence each other 0 to ensure that the state doesn39t control the church 0 but the church can in uence the state Judaism geographic location and Spread 0 Brazil South Africa Australia Argentina Mexico Turkey Venezuela Iran and Chile all have sizeable Jewish populations 0 most concentrated in the USA 0 spread throughout all the continents due to the Diaspora Different branches of Judaism Reform Reconstructionists Conservative Orthodox Hasidic UltraOrthodox union w God mystical less exible more exible less exz39 ble Sabbath 0 Shabbat o a day of rest and spiritual enrichment o sundown Friday to sundown Saturday Kashrut Kosher 0 The Jewish dietary laws are collectively known as kashrut or kosher Kashrut is little understood by outsiders the author of the text points out but it sheds light on three important areas of Jewish thought 0 First the dietary laws illustrate the nonrationality of Jewish observance These commandments represent God s demand on the Jewish people in return for God39s care Second the development of the laws of kashrut illuminates the rabbinic desire to quotbuild a hedge around the Torahquot In order to safeguard the central teachings of the Torah the rabbis added further regulations around the injunctions of the O Pentateuch 0 Third the kashrut laws are an expression of the sanctity of all life I In the Jewish View primeval humans were vegetarians and the consumption of meat is a concession made by God after the Great Flood but not all animals can be consumed and those that are must be treated in a certain way I Kosher birds and mammals must be drained of all blood since blood is considered the force of life and inappropriate from human consumption I Animals must be killed as quickly and painlessly as possible 0 shows irrationality of laws you just follow them don t ask why Israel 0 denotes a historic political entity a people a nation a belief system a social group a culture 0 lack a single clear de nition YHWH 0 God Torah o The Torah is the primary religious text of Judaism that contains religious law and learning including both sacred literature and oral tradition o It is also essentially the rst ve books of the Bible Pentateuch Mishnah o the rst written compendium of Judaism39s Oral Law which covers all aspects of religious and secular life Talmud o The Talmud is a central text in mainstream Judaism It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law ethics philosophy customs and history 0 people discussing how to understand the sacred text 0 The Talmud has two components 0 M ishnah and Germa Diaspora 0 Jewish exile from Judea after the Babylonian captiVity 6 CE Sephardim o The descendants of Jews who left Spain or Portugal after the 1492 expulsion are referred to as Sephardim o The word Sephardim comes from the Hebrew word for Spain Sepharad that is stated in the Bible 0 Sephardic has come to mean almost any Jew who is not Ashkenazi Ashkenazim o The name Ashkenaz was applied in the Middle Ages to Jews liVing along the Rhine River in northern France and western Germany o The center of Ashkenazi Jews later spread to PolandLithuania and now there are Ashkenazi settlements all over the world 0 The term quotAshkenazquot became identi ed primarily with German customs and descendants of German Jews 0 orthodox Jews Messiah o anticipated savior of the Jews Kabbalah o a discipline and school of thought concerned with the esoteric aspect of Rabbinic Judaism o Kabbalah is the name applied to the whole range of Jewish mystical activity 0 While codes of Jewish law focus on what it is God wants from man kabbalah tries to penetrate deeper to God s essence itself Moses 0 Moses was the greatest prophet leader and teacher that Judaism has ever known 0 not divine o prophet heard god spoke to him 0 Acting at God39s behest it is he who leads the Jews out of slavery unleashes the Ten Plagues against Egypt guides the freed slaves for forty years in the wilderness carries down the law from Mount Sinai and prepares the Jews to enter the land of Canaan N oahide Laws 0 Judaism is less likely to go out an convert compared to Christianity for example 0 don t believe that if you39re not Jewish you won t be saved 0 implies tolerance toward others Yom Kippur o Yom Kippur is probably the most important holiday of the Jewish year 0 Many Jews who do not observe any other Jewish custom will refrain from work fast and or attend synagogue services on this day 0 The name Yom Kippur means quotDay of Atonementquot and that pretty much explains what the holiday is o it is a day set aside to af ict the soul to atone for the sins of the past year Halakhah o the word halakhah is usually translated as quotJewish Lawquot although a more literal translation might be quotthe path that one walksquot 0 Judaism is not just a set of beliefs about God man and the universe 0 Judaism is a comprehensive way of life filled with rules and practices that affect every aspect of life I what you do when you wake up in the morning I what you can and cannot eat I what you can and cannot wear I how to groom yourself I how to conduct business I who you can marry I how to observe the holidays and Shabbat I how to treat God and other people and animals Christianity geographic location and Spread 0 growing in Asia South Korea megachurches Africa 0 not growing in North America but not declining that much 0 now the world s largest religion with nearly 2 billion adherents 0 Europe South America Mexico Africa Canada Christos Major splits in Christianity 0 1054 Eastern Orthodox Western Roman Catholic 0 1517 Roman Catholic Protestants o disagreements 0 political authority of the pope o doctrinal beliefs language and culture 0 practices icons and their use Christian places of afterlife o heaven 0 hell 0 purgatory o limbo Theology 0 systematic and rational study of religion Mysticism o bodily unionexperience with diVine 0 through Christian prayer I pray to be thankful to ask for something 0 how does prayer affect a person I changes the way we think about ourselves and others Salvation Army Alcoholics Anonymous 0 salvation army 0 dual meaning of salvation 0 Christian organization 0 AA 0 religion helps community society 0 whether or not you are Christian Trinity 0 God the Father God the Son God the Holy Spirit 0 one god three entities 0 what was the problem 0 theologians debating over the meaning of the Trinity 0 if there s only one God then how is it possible that Jesus is also God I seems like there is more than one God I how can all three be the same thing 0 implication oftrinity 0 make de nitive revelation of God possible 0 make atonement possible 0 makes God personal yet independent Council of Nicaea 325 CE 0 first ecumenical council 0 Nicaean creed one correct interpretation of the Trinity 0 without explaining the Trinity clearly Christianity wouldn39t be a true monotheistic religion 0 all Christians met up to gure this out Council of Trent 1545 o condemn Protestants 0 update the Church regarding corruption 0 na1row down the sacraments o what sacraments are important Martin Luther o protestant reformation o publically posted ninetyfive quotthesesquot statements criticizing Rome for selling quotindulgencesquot promises to reduce one39s time in purgatory to raise funds 0 believed in salvation through faith not deeds Sacraments 0 acts considered to confer divine grace o sacred rituals extensions of God 0 Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox observe 7 after council of Trent o Protestants observe 2 Baptism and Eucharist Baptism Eucharist 0 only sacraments observed by Protestants Canonization o the process ofbecoming a saint 0 lead an exemplary life be nominated beati ed canonized 0 takes time Christmas 0 Jesus39 unof cial birth date Easter 0 J esus39 resurrection Jesus 0 fully human and fully divine o knew god39s revelation and plan perfectly o no margin of error


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