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This 248 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laurel Quitzon on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1111 at Temple University taught by JacquelineTanaka in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/215474/biol1111-temple-university in Biology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
vicariance The physical splitting of a population into smaller isolated populations by a geographic barrier homology Similarity among organisms of different species due to their inheritance from a common ancestor Features that exhibit such similarity eg DNA sequences proteins body parts are said to be homologous Compare with homoplasy gene flow The movement of alleles between populations occurs when individuals leave one population join another and breed genetic bottleneck A reduction in allelic diversity resulting from a sudden reduction in the size of a large population population bottleneck due to a random event genetic drift 0 Any change in allele frequencies due to random events Causes allele frequencies to drift up and down randomly over time and eventually can lead to the fixation or loss of alleles genetic homology Similarities in DNA sequences or amino acid sequences that are due to inheritance from a common ancestor developmental homology A similarity in embryonic form or in the fate of embryonic tissues that is due to inheritance from a common ancestor morphology The shape and appearance of an organism s body and its component part structural homology Similarities in organismal structures eg limbs shells flowers that are due to inheritance from a common ancestor adaptation 0 Any heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual with that trait compared with individuals without that trait in a particular environment natural experiment 0 A situation in which groups to be compared are created by an unplanned natural change in conditions rather than by manipulation of conditions by researchers Acclimation or acclimatization Gradual physiological adjustment of an organism to new environmental conditions that occur naturally or as part of a laboratory experiment genetic correlation A type of evolutionary constraint in which selection on one trait causes a change in another trait as well may occur when the same genes affect both traits genetic drift 0 Any change in allele frequencies due to random events Causes allele frequencies to drift up and down randomly over time and eventually can lead to the fixation or loss of alleles gene pool 0 All ofthe alleles of all of the genes in a certain population HardyWeinberg principle 0 A principle of population genetics stating that genotype frequencies in a large population do not change from generation to generation in the absence of evolutionary processes eg mutation migration genetic drift random mating and selection heterozygote advantage or balancing selection A pattern of natural selection that favors heterozygous individuals compared with homozygotes Tends to maintain genetic variation in a population Also called heterozygote superiority directional selection A pattern of natural selection that favors one extreme phenotype with the result that the average phenotype of a population changes in one direction Generally reduces overall genetic variation in a population Purifying selection Directional selection where disadvantageous alleles decline in frequency stabilizing selection A pattern of natural selection that favors phenotypes near the middle of the range of phenotypic variation Reduces overall genetic variation in a population Compare with disruptive selection disruptive selection A pattern of natural selection that favors extreme phenotypes at both ends of the range of phenotypic variation Maintains overall genetic variation in a population Compare with stabilizing selection sampling error The accidental selection of a nonrepresentative sample from some larger population due to chance genetic marker A genetic locus that can be identified and traced in populations by laboratory techniques or by a distinctive visible phenotype founder effect 0 A change in allele frequencies that often occurs when a new population is established from a small group of individuals founder event due to sampling error ie the small group is not a representative sample of the source population genetic bottleneck A reduction in allelic diversity resulting from a sudden reduction in the size of a large population population bottleneck due to a random event gene flow The movement of alleles between populations occurs when individuals leave one population join another and breed mutation 0 Any change in the hereditary material of an organism DNA in most organisms RNA in some viruses deleterious 0 In genetics referring to any mutation or allele that reduces an individual s fitness inbreeding Mating between closely related individuals Increases homozygosity of a population and often leads to a decline in the average fitness inbreeding depression sexual dimorphism 0 Any trait that differs between males and females morphological species concept The definition of a species as a population or group of populations that have measurably different anatomical features from other groups Also called morphospecies concept Compare with biological and phylogenetic species concept phylogenetic species concept The definition of a species as the smallest monophyletic group in a phylogenetic tree Compare with biological and morphological species concept monophyletic group 0 An evolutionary unit that includes an ancestral population and all of its descendants but no others Also called a clade or lineage Compare with paraphyletic group biological species concept The definition of a species as a population or group of populations that are reproductiver isolated from other groups Members of a species have the potential to interbreed in nature to produce viable fertile offspring but cannot produce viable fertile hybrid offspring with members of other species Compare with morphological and phylogenetic species concept subspecies A population that has distinctive traits and some genetic differences relative to other populations ofthe same species but that is not distinct enough to be classified as a separate species biogeography The study of how species and populations are distributed geographically allopatry 0 Condition in which two or more populations live in different geographic areas Compare with sympatry allopatric speciation The divergence of populations into different species by physical isolation of populations in different geographic areas Compare with sympatric speciation vicariance The physical splitting of a population into smaller isolated populations by a geographic barrier dispersal The movement of individuals from their place of origin birth hatching to a new location sympatry 0 Condition in which two or more populations live in the same geographic area or close enough to permit interbreeding Compare with allopatry sympatric speciation The divergence of populations living within the same geographic area into different species as the result of their genetic not physical isolation Compare with allopatric speciation polyploidy The state of having more than two full sets of chromosomes allopolyploid The state of having more than two full sets of chromosomes polyploidy due to hybridization between different species autopolyploid The state of having more than two full sets of chromosomes polyploidy due to a mutation that doubled the chromosome number reinforcement 0 In evolutionary biology the natural selection for traits that prevent interbreeding between recently diverged species hybrid zone 0 A geographic area where interbreeding occurs between two species sometimes producing fertile hybrid offspring Bacteria One ofthe three taxonomic domains of life consisting of unicellular prokaryotes distinguished by cell walls composed largely of peptidoglycan plasma membranes similar to those of eukaryotic cells and ribosomes and RNA polymerase that differ from those in archaeans or eukaryotes Compare with Archaea and Eukarya Archaea One ofthe three taxonomic domains of life consisting of unicellular prokaryotes distinguished by cell walls made of certain polysaccharides not found in bacterial or eukaryotic cell walls plasma membranes composed of unique isoprene containing phospholipids and ribosomes and RNA polymerase similar to those of eukaryotes Compare with Bacteria and Eukarya King Phlip Cornered Othelia For Good Sex KPCOFGS Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species bioremediation The use of living organisms usually bacteria or archaea to degrade environmental pollutants cyanobacteria A lineage of photosynthetic bacteria formerly known as blue green algae Likely the first life forms to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis nitrogen fixation The incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen N2 into forms such as ammonia NH3 or nitrate NO3 which can be used to make many organic compounds Occurs in only a few lineages of bacteria and archaea enrichment culture A method of detecting and obtaining cells with specific characteristics by placing a sample containing many types of cells under a specific set of conditions eg temperature salt concentration available nutrients and isolating those cells that grow rapidly in response direct sequencing A technique for identifying and studying microorganisms that cannot be grown in culture Involves detecting and amplifying copies of certain specific genes in their DNA sequencing these genes and then comparing the sequences with the known sequences from other organisms halophile A bacterium or archaean that thrives in high salt environments monophyletic group 0 An evolutionary unit that includes an ancestral population and all of its descendants but no others Also called a clade or lineage Compare with paraphyletic group gramnegative Describing bacteria that look pink when treated with a Gram stain These bacteria have a cell wall composed of a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer phospholipid layen grampositive Describing bacteria that look purple when treated with a Gram stain These bacteria have cell walls composed of a thick layer of peptidoglycan Euka rya One ofthe three taxonomic domains of life consisting of unicellular organisms most protists yeast and multicellular organisms fungi plants animals distinguished by a membrane bound cell nucleus numerous organelles and an extensive cytoskeleton protist Any eukaryote that is not a green plant animal or fungus Protists are a diverse paraphyletic group Most are unicellular but some are multicellular or form aggregations called colonies paraphyletic group 0 An evolutionary unit that includes an ancestral population and some but not all of its descendants Paraphyletic groups are not meaningful units in evolution Compare with monophyletic group malaria A human disease caused by four species of the protist Plasmodium and passed to humans by mosquitoes phytoplankton Small drifting aquatic organisms plankton that are photosynthetic synapomorphy A shared derived trait found in two or more taxa that is present in their most recent common ancestor but is missing in more distant ancestors Useful for inferring evolutionary relationships det tus 0 A layer of dead organic matter that accumulates at ground level or on seafloors and lake bottoms ga metophyte 0 In organisms undergoing alternation of generations the multicellular haploid form that arises from a single haploid spore and produces gametes A female gametophyte is commonly called an embryo sac a male gametophyte a pollen grain Compare with sporophyte sporophyte 0 In organisms undergoing alternation of generations the multicellular diploid form that arises from two fused gametes and produces haploid spores Compare with gametophyte artificial selection Deliberate manipulation by humans as in animal and plant breeding of the genetic composition of a population by allowing only individuals with desirable traits to reproduce gymnosperm 0 A vascular plant that makes seeds but does not produce flowers The gymnosperms include four lineages of green plants cycads ginkgoes conifers and gnetophytes Compare with angiosperm angiosperm 0 A flowering vascular plant that produces seeds within mature ovaries fruits The angiosperms form a single lineage Compare with gymnosperm seedless vascular plants 0 Members of several phyla of green plants that have vascular tissue but do not make seeds Include horsetails ferns lycophytes and whisk ferns bryophyte nonvascular plants 0 Members of several phyla of green plants that lack vascular tissue including liverworts hornworts and mosses Also called nonvascular plants sporopollenin 0 A watertight material that encases spores and pollen of modern land plants sporangium A spore producing structure found in seed plants some protists and some fungi eg chytrids sister groups Closely related taxa which occupy adjacent branches in a phylogenetic tree Also called sister taxa lignin A substance found in the secondary cell walls of some plants that is exceptionally stiff and strong Most abundant in woody plant parts tracheid 0 In vascular plants a long thin water conducting cell that has gaps in its secondary cell wall allowing water movement between adjacent cells Compare with vessel element secondary cell wall The inner layer of a plant cell wall formed by certain cells as they mature Provides support or protection See primary cell wall primary cell wall The outermost layer of a plant cell wall made of cellulose fibers and gelatinous polysaccharides that defines the shape of the cell and withstands the turgor pressure of the plasma membrane See secondary cell wall vessel element In vascular plants a short wide water conducting cell that has gaps through both the primary and secondary cell walls allowing unimpeded passage of water between adjacent cells Compare with tracheid gametangium plural gametangia 1 The gamete forming structure found in all land plants except angiosperms Contains a spermproducing antheridium and an egg producing archegonium 2 The gamete forming structure of some chytrid fungi antheridium The sperm producing structure in most land plants except angiosperms archegonium archegonium The egg producing structure in most land plants except angiosperms embryophyte 0 A plant that nourishes its embryos inside its own body All land plants are embryophytes heterospory In seed plants the production of two distinct types of spore producing structures and thus two distinct types of spores microspores which become the male gametophyte and megaspores which become the female gametophyte Compare with homospory homospory In seedless vascular plants the production of just one type of spore Compare with heterospory microspore In seed plants a haploid n spore that is produced in a microsporangium by meiosis of a diploid 2n microsporocyte develops into a male gametophyte Compare with megaspore megaspore In seed plants a haploid n spore that is produced in a megasporangium by meiosis of a diploid 2n megasporocyte develops into a female gametophyte Compare with microspore pollen grains 0 In flowering plants a male gametophyte enclosed within a protective coat poHentube 0 In flowering plants a structure that grows out of a pollen grain after it reaches the stigma extends down the style and through which two sperm cells are delivered to the ovule pollination The process by which pollen reaches the carpel of a flower in flowering plants or reaches the ovule directly in conifers and their relatives seed A plant reproductive structure consisting of an embryo associated nutritive tissue endosperm and an outer protective layer seed coat n angiosperms develops from the fertilized ovule of a flower shoot apical meristem 0 A group of undifferentiated plant cells at the tip of a plant stem that can differentiate into mature shoot tissues shoot system The aboveground part of a plant comprising stems leaves and flowers in angiosperms shortday plant A plant that blooms in response to long nights usually in late summer or fall in the northern hemisphere Compare with dayneutral and longday plant sieve plate 0 In plants a pore containing structure at one end of a sieve tube member in phloem sievetube member In plants an elongated sugar conducting cell in phloem that has sieve plates at both ends allowing sap to flow to adjacent cells simple fruit 0 A fruit eg apricot that develops from a single flower that has a single carpel or several fused ca rpels Compare with aggregate and multiple fruit stamen The male reproductive structure of a flower Consists of an anther in which pollen grains are produced and a filament which supports the anther Compare with carpel stoma Generally a pore or opening In plants a microscopic pore on the surface of a leaf or stem through which gas exchange occurs style The slender stalk of a flower carpel connecting the stigma and the ovary carpel The female reproductive organ in a flower Consists ofthe stigma to which pollen grains adhere the style through which pollen grains move and the ovary which houses the ovule Compare with stamen flower 0 In angiosperms the part of a plant that contains reproductive structures Typically includes a calyx a corolla and one or more stamens andor carpels See perfect and inperfect flower ova ry The egg producing organ of a female animal or the seed producing structure in the female part of a flower endosperm A triploid 3n tissue in the seed of a flowering plant angiosperm that serves as food for the plant embryo Functionally analogous to the yolk in some animal eggs double fertilization 0 An unusual form of reproduction seen in flowering plants in which one sperm nucleus fuses with an egg to form a zygote and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form the triploid endosperm petal One ofthe leaflike organs arranged around the reproductive organs of a flower Often colored and scented to attract pollinators petiole The stalk of a leaf nectar The sugary fluid produced by flowers to attract and reward pollinating animals fruit 0 In flowering plants angiosperms a mature ripened plant ovary or group of ovaries along with the seeds it contains and any adjacent fused parts See aggregate multiple and simple fruit adaptive radiation Rapid evolutionary diversification within one lineage producing numerous descendant species with a wide range of adaptive forms aggregate fruit 0 A fruit eg raspberry that develops from a single flower that has many separate carpels Compare with multiple and simple fruit dicots 0 Any plant that has two cotyledons embryonic leaves upon germination The dicots do not form a monophyletic group Also called dicotyledonous plant Compare with eudicot and monocot cotyledon The first leaf or seed leaf of a plant embryo Used for storing and digesting nutrients andor for early photosynthesis monocots 0 Any plant that has a single cotyledon embryonic leaf upon germination Monocots form a monophyletic group Also called a monocotyledonous plant Compare with dicot eudicots 0 A member of a monophyletic group lineage of angiosperms that includes complex flowering plants and trees eg roses daisies maples All eudicots have two cotyledons but not all dicots are members ofthis lineage Compare with dicot and monocot green algae 0 A paraphyletic group of photosynthetic organisms that contain chloroplasts similar to those in green plants Often classified as protists green algae are the closest living relatives of land plants and form a monophyletic group with them Hchen A symbiotic association of a fungus and a photosynthetic alga bryophyte 0 Members of several phyla of green plants that lack vascular tissue including liverworts hornworts and mosses Also called nonvascular plants rhizoid The hairlike structure that anchors a bryophye nonvascular plant to the substrate Fungi 0 A lineage of eukaryotes that typically have a filamentous body mycelium and obtain nutrients by absorption mycorrhizae A mutualistic association between certain fungi and most vascular plants sometimes visible as nodules or nets in or around plant roots mycelium
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