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by: Margarita Rippin

TopicsClinical PSY3200

Margarita Rippin
GPA 3.54


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margarita Rippin on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY3200 at Temple University taught by IsabelleChang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see /class/215477/psy3200-temple-university in Psychlogy at Temple University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 7 What is Validity Specifically Content Validity Different Sources Of Validity 0 When we speak of validity we are asking 0 Does a test measure What it claims to measure 0 Does the achievement test measure hoe well an individual has mastered the content of a course of training program Does the aptitude test measure a person s ability to perform a task or activity Does a test predict What it claims to predict 0 Does an employment test predict future performance on the job Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing 1999 Describes the ve sources of evidence ofvalidity The standards focus on evaluating the interpretation of test scores and accumulating evidence to provide a sound scienti c basis for the proposed score interpretations 1 Evidence based on test content Previously referred to as content validity This source of validity evidence involves logically examining and evaluating the content of the test To determine the extent to which the content is representative of the concepts the test is designed to measure 2 Evidence based on the response process This source of validity involves observing test takers as they respond to the test and or interviewing them when they complete the test We use these observations and interviews to understand the mental process that test takers use to respond 3 Evidence based on internal structure this type of evidence was previously part of construct validity It focuses on whether the conceptual framework used in test development could be demonstrated using appropriate analytical techniques Studies of internal structure of the test are also used to determine whether certain items on the test are more difficult for some groups of people than for others 4 Evidence based on relations with other variables Traditionally referred to as criterion related validity and also a facet of construct validity This soruce of validity typically involves correlating test scores with other measures to determine whether those scores are related to other measures that we would expect to relate Likewise we would want to know that test scores are not related to other measures which we would not expect them to relate 5 Evidence based on the consequence of testing Anytime we make a psychological measurement intended or unintended consequences may occur Different Sources of Validity 0 Content Validity o Criterion Related Validity 0 Construct Validity Content Validity The extent to which items on a test are representative of the construct the test measures Criterion related validity The extent to which test scores are systematically related to a relevant criterion A validation method that is used to determine Whether a test indeed predicts What it was designed to predict A test has criterion related evidence of validity when it demonstrates that its score are systematically related to a relevant criterion Two Types Predictive validity extent to which scores predict future behavior When its score are significantly correlated with the scores on the criteria Example If people who obtain high scores on a test given to them before they are hired also receive high scores on their performance appraisals while people who scored lower on the test also received lower performance appraisal scores Concurrent extent to which scores correlate with current performance The focus is on determining whether scores on a specific test are related to a criterion collected at the same time as the test is given Both the predictor data the test scores and the criterion data measures of job performance are collected close in time to one another Construct Validity Involves accumulating evidence that a test is based on sound psychological theory The process of establishing construct validity for a test is a gradual accumulation of evidence that the socres on the test relate to observable behaviors in ways predicted by the theory underlying the construct When they talk about whether there is evidence to demonstrate that a test is measuring the underlying hypothetical not directly observable concept that the test was designed to measure Some Examples are shyness self image frustration ect Two strategies for determining construct validity Convergent validity evidence that test scores correlate with scores on other tests that measure the same construct Discrimination validity evidence that test scores are not correlated with unrelated constructs Shows that constructs that should not be related to the construct measured by the test in question are in fact not related The Appropriate Use of Various Validation Strategies 0 Content validity for tests that measure concrete attributes observable and measureable behaviors Concrete attributes that can be clearly described in terms of observable and measureable behaviors Criterion related validity for tests that predict outcomes Most appropriate for tests that claim to predict outcomes such as success on the job If an employment test needs to forecast who is likely to be successful on the job its purpose is to predict future job performance rather than to determine how well certain concepts have been mastered Construct validity for test that measure abstract constructs More difficult to describe in terms of behavior because many people disagree on what these behaviors represent Content Validity Two methods for obtaining evidence of content validity During Test Development The first method involves performing a series of systematic steps as a test is being developed steps to ensure that the construct being measured is clearly defined and that the items used to measure the construct are representative of the construct s domain This method does not result in any final number quantative value that represents the evidence of validity of the test rather it provides confidence to the test developer and user that the questions on the test are representative of a clearly defined domain After Test Development evaluating the test after the test has been developed This evaluation ma be done by the test developer as part of the validation process or by others using the test This method may result in a final number that can be used to quantify the content validity of the test p t N Demonstrating Content Validity During Test Development Involve performing series of systematic steps Defining the testing universe e g attribute trait characteristic Developing the testing specifications Establishing a test format Constructing test questions LWNH Demonstrating Content Validity After Test Development 1 Experts rate how essential test items are to the attribute being measured Content validity ratio caculated 100 100 000 50 of the experts believe that an item is essential AWN Face Validity only concerned with how test takers perceive the attractiveness and appropriateness of a test 0 Tells us nothing about What a test really measures 0 Might in uence approach to test


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