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by: Margarita Rippin


Marketplace > Temple University > Psychlogy > PSYCH1061 > PSYCHASASOCIALSCI
Margarita Rippin
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Class Notes
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margarita Rippin on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH1061 at Temple University taught by IsabelleChang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/215478/psych1061-temple-university in Psychlogy at Temple University.




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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 1 The Evolution of Psychology 1061Ch1Evoution What is Psychology Definitions by some of psychology s pioneers Psychology is the Science of Mental Life both of its phenomena and their conditions James 1890 p 1 Psychology is the science of mind the science of that Which thinks feels and Wills in contrast With physics as the science of that Which moves in space and occupies space Hoffding 1893 p 1 Psychology the science of mental facts or mind deals With the thoughts and feelings of human beings and seeks to explain the facts of intellect character and personal life Thorndike 1907 p 1 httQwvvwwileycomcollegecargenterO471767964ngs videoswhat is psych ch O1indexhtml What Is Psychology 391 061Ch1Evolthion 2 More Psychology is more exactly defined as science of the self in relation to or conscious of its environment Calkins 1919 p 1 Psychology is that division of natural science Which takes human activity and conduct as its subject matter It attempts to formulate through systematic observation and experimentation the laws and principles Which underlie man s reactions Watson 1919p1 Psychology is the science Which deals With the activities commonly known as mental the processes of perceiving of remembering of thinking and particularly With the acts of the individual Pillsbury 1922 1 391061Ch1Evo utlon 3 From Speculation to Science How Psychology Developed Prior to 1879 Physiology and philosophy scholars study questions about the mind Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 University of Leipzig Germany Campaigned to make psychology an independent discipline Established the first laboratory for the study of psychology in 1879 Psychology was born 1061Ch lEolution 4 Wilhelm Wundt s International Influence Leipzig the place to study psychology Graduates of Wundt s program set up new labs across Europe and North America G Stanley Hall 18461924 Johns Hopkins University Established the first psychology laboratory in the US in 1883 Between 1883 and 1893 24 new laboratories in North America 106tChtEolution 5 omen Univevslny 1891 Clark University 1539 alha t Universt 1891 Randnlph Macon Wumen39s CuHEge x89 0 Faunded by sxudams chWIIam James Founded by smdmis ofG Sanlevy Hall 0 Founded hystudenvs anHhelm Wundl 0 meded by others 2009 CEngaga Laarning Figure 11 Early Wr thbmmm North America 6 The Battle of the Schools in the US Structuralism vs Functionalism I Structuralism Edward Titchener Analyze consciousness into basic elements ntrospection careful systematic observations of one s own conscious experience httpweb mst eduDs vwordstructuraism htm Functionalism William James Investigate function of consciousness Led to investigation of mental testing developmental patterns and sex differences 1061Ch lEvoution Criticisms Introspection is retrospection The act of introspecting changes the conscious expenence Introspection is entirely subjective Lack of replication Possible bias Inability of structuralism to deal with anomalous findings Example lmageless thought i 061Ch lEvolution Sigmund Freud and the Concept of the Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud 18561939 Austria httpwwwwievcomcolleqecarpenterO471767964nqs videosfreudindexhtml Founded Psychoanalytic school of thought Emphasis on unconscious processes influencing behavior Unconscious outside awareness The unconscious is the true psychical reality in its innermost nature it is as much unknown to us as the reality of the external world Freud p 7 in text 1061ChtEoiution 0 Freud s Ideas Controversy and Influence Behavior is influenced by the unconscious Unconscious conflict related to sexuality plays a central role in behavior Controversial notions caused debateresistance Significant influence on the field of psychology 1061Ch lEolution Behaviorism Redefining Psychology John B Watson 18781958 United States Founder of Behaviorism Psychology scientific study of behavior Behavior overt or observable responses or activities Radical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behavior Study of consciousness abandoned 1061ChlEvolution 11 Watson and the NatureNurture Debate Nurture not nature give me a dozen healthy infants wellformed and my own special world to bring them up in and I ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor lawyer artist merchantchief and yes even beggarman and thief Behaviorist school of thought emphasized the environment nurture Focus on stimulusresponse relationships SR psychology 106 lCh lEolution l2 Are People Free BF Skinner BF Skinner 19041990 United States Environmental factors determine behavior Responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeated Responses that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated Beyond Freedom and Dignity published in the 70 s More controversy regarding free will All behavior is governed by external stimuli People are controlled by their environment Free Will is an illusion Skinner httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvmm5FGrQEvBY B F Skinner Modelagem 106 iCh1Eolution t3 The 1950 s Opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory and Behaviorism Charges that both were dehumanizing Diverse opposition groups got together to form a loose amance A new school of thought emerged Humanism Led by Abraham Maslow 19081970 and Carl Rogers 19021987 Emphasis on the unique qualities of humans free will and personal growth 106 iChtEolution t4 Putting the Psyche Back in Psychology The Return of Cognition Cognition mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge thinking and conscious experience 1950 s and 60 s Piaget Chomsky and Simon Application of scientific methods to studying internal mental events Cognitive psychology the new dominant perspective 1061Ch lEvoution 15 Biological Psychology The Biological Basis of Behavior Biological Perspective Behavior explained in terms of physiological processes James Olds 1956 Electrical stimulation of the brain evokes emotional responses eg rage pleasure in animals Roger Sperry 1981 Left and right brain specialization 1061Ch lEolution 16 Cultural Psychology Recognizing Human Variation Ethnocentrism viewing one s own group as superior and as the standard forjudging Historically middle and upper class white males studying middle and upper class white males 1980 s increased interest in how cultural factors influence behavior Growing global interdependence Increased cultural diversity studying previously underrepresented groups 1061ChiEolution i7 Evolutionary Psychology Human Adaptations Evolutionary Psychology natural selection occurs for behavioral as well as physical characteristics Led by Buss Daly amp Wilson Cosmides amp Tooby 80 s and 90 s Studied natural selection of mating preferences jealousy aggression sexual behavior language decision making personality and development Thought provoking perspective gaining in influence but not without criticism untestable post hoc accounts 1061ChtEolution 18 Posmve Psychology Martin Seligman s Epiphany studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive and seek quotto find and nurture genius and talent and to make normal life more fulfilling httpwwwyoutubecomwatchv9FBxfd7DL3E Martin Seligman Why is psychology good Humanist concerns revisited Uses theory and research to better understand the positive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence making life worth living Positive subjective experiences Positive individual traits Positive institutions and communities strong families healthy work environments 1061Ch lEolution i9 Table 11 Overview of Six Contemporary Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology Payspgd veinId ts lnflmm Behavioral 1913vpresent Psychoanalytic 19007present Humanistic 19505 present Cognitive 195057present Biological 19505 p resent Evolutionary 198057present John B Watson Ivan Pavlov B F Skinner Sigmund Freud Carl Jun Alfred Adler Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Jean Piaget Noam Chomsky Herbert Simon James Olds Torsten Wiesel David Buss John Tooby SubjectMntter 39 ul humans and animals In 139 Premise r of behavior Unique aspects of human experience Thoughts mental processes behavior in humans and animals behavior animals early childhood govern personality and mental disorders Humans are free rational beings with the potential for personal growth and they are fundamentally different from animals Human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire store and process information Anorgani ms 39 39 39 39 J in terms of the bodily structures and bio chemical processes that underlie behavior adaptive problems natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success Table 11 Overview of Six Contemporary Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology 106 39ICh1Evolution 20 21 Figure 15 Increased cultural diversity in the United States D a a N 3 5 00 E at E LU CI 1 3 339 g 5 3 m m H E c I a E an cu H m t m E A x 4 g u 3 Ch ac E u 51 139 m N g H a H r N spuesnnqn dmsmqluaw Viv J Psychology Today A Thriving Science and Profession Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems 39 Research Seven major areas developmental social experimental physiological cognitive personality psychometrics Applied Psychology Four major areas clinical counseling school psych lO 106 iChtEolution 22 Business admm xstranun and management psymmogy Eng sh and mm ammgy Nmsmg Elemenmwudumlinn Armummg Puli cal meme Communicanun and speech Mmng Histow Sonmogy Wm 60000 50000 100000 11mm Numbevuantheov39sDegvuesAwmdml 2009 Cengage Learning Evmuum Ether CDilEgES and Elernemzargr 85 universities and secundaw 2811 5th DUIS a meg i Businessand gavemment 673 Hospitals and Private EIIHIES practice 19 49 336 EIZUDQ Cengage Learning Figure 17 Employment of psychologists by setting 1061Ch1Evolution 24 Psychometrire 33 Persenaiiry 30 Cognitive 67 Deveiupmerital 183 Experimental 32 Social 161 Physielogirai 95 Educatiemhgj ie Other 103 Heaith 106 EUUQ Cengage Learning Figure 18 Major research areas in contemporary psychology 1061Ch Evoution 25 Fnrensic 05 Other 06 Clinical leurnpsyclmlngy 09 Schnnl 52 Clinical 121 lnr luslr39ialir urganizatinnal 61 CDUWS39EHF IE iii7 2309 Cengage Learning Figure 19 Principal professional specialties in contemporary psychology 1061Ch1Evoution 26 Studying Psychology Seven Organizing Themes Psychology as a field of study 1 Empirical through observation test ideas 2 Theoretically diverse eg Freud Skinner 3 Evolves in sociohistorical context trends issues values eg surge in clinical services Behavior 1 Determined by multiple causes eg why will you make an A in psychology Intelligence study skills memory motivation 2 Shaped by cultural heritage cultural factors shape behavior influence our interpretations of behavior 3 Influenced jointly by heredity and environment the impact of nurture on nature and nature on nurture People s experience of the world is highly subjective 106 iChtEoiution 27 How Heredity and Environment Interact Miller 1988Theme 6 Cooking as a metaphor for development flour genes and other ingredients and different cooking methods environmental factors Different food items or developmental outcomes result Flour salt water when fried on a griddle yield a flour tortilla Flour salt water when baked without shortening yield matzo Flour salt water yeast when baked yield bread Flour salt butter cocoa sugar when baked yield brownies 1061Ch lEvoution 28 Obsessive compulsive disorder httpwwwvoutu becomwatchvG3chrButSq Dissociative amnesia httpwwwvoutu becomwatchv23Pum 7vaampfeaturerelated Dissociative identity disorder DID httpwwwvoutubecomwatchv7iHJfH20TYampfeaturereated Schizophrenia Part 1 ABC 2020 coverage httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvmoP eqx5hkampfeaturerelated httpwwwvoutubecomwatchv826Kk ueVWQampfeaturereated NASA ADHD 1061 Ch1 Evolution 29


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