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by: Margarita Rippin


Marketplace > Temple University > Psychlogy > PSYCH1071 > PSYCHASANATURALSCI
Margarita Rippin
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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margarita Rippin on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH1071 at Temple University taught by KimCurby in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/215479/psych1071-temple-university in Psychlogy at Temple University.




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Date Created: 09/28/15
10272009 93300 AM Crowded football stadium you see the heads of people in the first row to you closest to you as larger and spaced further apart People in the rows further away from you may appear smaller and closer together What monocular vision cure best describes how you infer depth in this situation 0 Texture gradient Cones have greater visual acuity than rods because 0 More rods than cones share connections to bipolar cells 0 Even a small amount of light can stimulate the bipolar cells connected to rods great in low light 0 But convergence leadsto imprecise information about location poor resolution Wile E Coyote had an accident and now has a problem He can still recognize objects but tends not to recognize faces Mr Coyote probably suffers from prosapagnosia Depth monocular cues 0 Linear perspective 0 Interpositionocclusion o Perspective 0 Relative size 0 Position relative to horizon 0 Texture gradient Partial Reinforcement o Intervals and ratios 0 Fixed interval Fl Five minutes must pass before behavior is rewarded again 0 Variable Interval VI Behavior rewarded every 30100 seconds 0 Fixed Ratio FR Rewarded every 5th time a behavior is performed 0 Variable Ratio VR Intermittent reward averaging every 5th time This one most closely mimics what happens in the real world and isthe most powerful o Reinforcement schedules Variableratio reinforcement schedules produce high rates of responding that are dif cult to extinguish Slot machines Fixed ratio reinforcement schedules produce high rates of responding with brief pauses afterthe reinforcer Example after every 20 products a salesperson sells she gets a bonus 0 Fixedinterval schedules produce choppy stop start responding o Variableinterval schedules produce slow steady responding Related Phenomena o Shaping 0 Establish new responses by reinforcing successive approximations to it 0 Working together a class of students might be able to condition the instructor to do what they wants Example get more attentive when instructor moves to the right 0 O and approaches a chair By the end of semester instructor might be lecturing from the corner of the room standing on a chair 0 Discriminative Stimulus o A cue indicating when a particular behavior will yield reward o What might you wait for before asking a friend for a really big favor What is the difference between primary an secondary reinforcers 0 Primary innately reinforcing satisfies biologicalsurvival needs eg food 0 Secondary value needs to be learned also known as conditioned reinforcer Money grades ipods job promotion gift certi cates Skinner saves the world 0 Behaviorists believed that learningconditioning could explain all of human behavior Just unlock and alter the pattern of reinforcers in society 0 Skinner as visionary With the right tools we can control and predict behavior Operant conditioning repetition leads to reinforcement O A beautiful vision o lfall human behavior can be understood through principles of conditioning 0 Then all human suffering could be engineered away No dissatisfaction No jealousy No laziness o Is learning just a stimulus and an associated response 0 Behaviorism without reference to the mind can t account for all of human activity 0 Eg behavior with no obvious reward eg a rat randomly exploring a maze can result in learning 0 Latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is incentive to demonstrate it o Observational learning 0 Learning does not only occur through direct experience 0 Learning can take place through observing and imitating others Especially obvious during development Modeling process of observing and imitating a speci c behavior 0 Imitation and development Shortly after birth infants will imitate facial actions By 9 months they will imitate novel play actions By 14 months they will imitate actions modeled on TV 0 What determines whether we will imitate a behavior Reinforcements and punishments those received by the model and those received by the imitator vicarious reinforcement n Learn to anticipate a behavior s consequences in situations like those observed Especially likely to imitate people we perceive as similar to ourselves as successful and as admirable 0 Television and observational learning 0 Modeling and television More hours of violent TV higher chance of getting in a fight Homicide rate doubled in the US and Canada between 1957 and 1974 coinciding with the introduction and spread of TV Prolonged exposure to violence desensitizes the viewer o Neural basis of observational learning Mirror neurons appearto connect observed and performed behaviors n Located in frontal lobe 10272009 93300 AM Memory 0 Would you delete some memories if you could 0 Eternal sunshine of a spotless mind 0 Stuck with most of your memories Amnesia 0 Not like 10 second tom 0 Clive 0 Not past to anchor it and no future to look fonNard to 0 He feels like he sjust woken up every two minutes 0 Writes in his diary regularly about having just woken up 0 The main thing he remembers is his love for Deborah 0 He can still perform and conduct like riding a bicycle never forgets 0 Living with amnesia 0 Has no short term memory 0 Remembers old friends 0 Writes everything down 0 Types ofAmnesia o Anterograde amnesia Dif culty after injury Typically involves damage to the hippocampus slide 8 o Retrograde Forgetting things from before the damage Jason Bourne n Can t remember anything he did before at a certain point 0 Classic three stage model of memory 0 Sensory input sensory memory unattended information is quickly lost9attention9 working shortterm memory unrehearsed information is quickly lost9encoding9longterm memory can retrieve information but some information may be lost over time o Sensory memory has a large capacity but you can only keep it in memory for a very short amount of time Can see a block of 15 characters but can t remember what they are lconic memory a Doesn t last very long about a second a Red box needs to be flashed immediately after 0 Working memory Limited capacity Flow chart of memory slide 17 The active conscious mind Visuospatial sketchpad n Mental imagery Articulatory loop a Rehearsing the sound Central executive n Keeps everything in order Traditionally 7 2 n Now thought to be even smaller capacity than that Depends on how fast you can say the items a Serial position effects 0 Primacy effect 0 Items at beginning of list are easier to remember than those in the middle 0 Recency effect 0 Items at end of list are easier to remember than those in middle Also depends on chunking n Chess grandmaster Greater visual shortterm memory for objects in expertise Photographic memory a Also known as eidetic memory a The ability to faithfully accurately recall slide 35 n 10272009 93300 AM Tip of the Tongue Marsupial phenomenon 0 Knowing the word but not being able to say it Long Term Memory 0 Very large capacity 0 Long lasting 0 Organized according to meaningful relations 0 Reconstructive 0 Change memories with the information we already have Context dependent memory 0 When encoding and retrieval venues match 0 Best performance when tested in same setting as encoding 0 Someone learn something undenNater tested better undenNater than onland Spacing Effects 0 Information is retained better when rehearsal is distributed overtime 0 Optimal space depends on how long you want to be retain the information o The longerthe intervals between rehearsal the longer you ll be able to retain the information 10272009 93300 AM Thinking and Reasoning won t be on the exam November 12 Types of implicit memory 0 Procedural memory 0 Motor skills 0 Habits o Priming o Perceptual information activates information in long term memory 0 Conditioning 0 Also intact without explicit memory Types of explicit memory 0 Episodic memory 0 Linked to a specific time specific place 0 Places you at the scene 0 Structured in terms of beginning middle end 0 Semantic memory 0 Facts ideas knowledge 0 Not remembering circumstances of learning 0 What s the capital of New York Memory organization 0 Knitting shot hurt point 0 Bed awake rest drowsy o The mind structures information meaningfully o The DeeseRoedigerMcDermott effect How reliable is everyday memory 0 Our source monitoring is bad 0 Events that are conceptually linked but that come from different sources can become confused in memory 0 Can be hard to untangle what really happened form what we remember 0 Implanted memories Eyewitness Misattribution 0 About 75000 criminal trialsyear are decided on basis of eyewitness testimony 0 About 90 of reversed convictions originally involved mistaken eyewitness testimony o Lineup identification procedures encourage relative judgment Memory is suggestible o Loftus amp Palmer 1974 0 Subjects watched lm of car accident 0 Were asked how fast car was going when it hit the other car 0 Or when it smashed into the other car 0 Latter group reported high speeds and remembered broken glass although there had been none Biased Memory 0 Problematic for eyewitness testimony 0 Especially with kids The Controversy of Recovered Memories 0 Adults sometimes recover sexual abuse memories 0 Therapists could cause false memories 0 Study on memories women who had never been abused those who had been abused and never forgot women who feel they ve been abused but forgotten and women who have recovered memories of abuse slide 28 Interference 0 Different memories can interfere with each other 0 Proactive interference Current information is lost because it is mixed up with previously learned similar information o Retroactive interference New information works backwards to interfere with earlier memories Intelligence 0 Ability to adapt to new situations 0 Cognition is not unitary 0 People with severe impairments in one domain can be exceptional in others What is intelligence 0 Galton o Believed that intelligence was an inherited property of the nervous system c Enabled some people more than others to learn things better slide 43 o Binet o Hired by French Ministry o Developed test to determine which children should be placed in what grade levels Did not believe that intelligence was hereditary Questions tested Memory Vocab Common knowledge Number use StandfordBinet Test 0 In addition to overall IQ separate scores for verbal reasoning short term memory quantitative reasoning abstractvisual reasoning Terman s adaptation of Binet s test 0 Mental agechronological age X100 0 IQ of 100 would suggest an average IQ for someone s age 0 Not appropriate for adults would a 50 year old scoring like a 30 year old be below average 0 Now performance is compared to the average of others the same age Modern IQ is calculated based on distributions 0 The bulk have an IQ of 100 15 Wechsler Tests WAIS III and WISC III 0 Scoring sections based on groups of tests Verbal comprehension Working memory Etc slide 52 General intelligence Scores on different intelligence subtests seem to correlate with each other 0 O 0 Charles spearman suggested g or general intelligence to explain this Also suggested concept of s specific intelligence to eXplain why correlations weren t perfect o Believed best measure of g was average across wide range oftests Crystallized vs Fluid Intelligence 0 Crystallized Intelligence ability derived from previous experience A form of general intelligence though sometimes quite specific it could be applied to a range of problems Not equated with memoryknowledge rather the use ofthem O O o Fluid intelligence Ability to perceive relationships independent of prior experience 10272009 93300 AM Crystallizaed vs Fluid intelligence 0 Raymond Cattell s extension of Spearman s g o Crystallized intelligence 0 Ability derived from previous experience 0 A form of general intelligence although sometimes quite specific 0 Not equated with memoryknowledge rather the use ofthese o Fluid 0 Ability to perceive relationships independent of prior experience 0 Kids with autism do disproportionately better on the shape type tests High IQ or Low IQ what does that mean 0 As a predictor achievement 0 Predicts school performance moderately well 0 Not surprising since they were originally developed to assess school performance 0 Job performance 0 Parents socio economic status is a better predictor of achieving prestigious positions Explanations of IQ performance 0 Mental speed 0 Maybe allows for greater working memory capacity 0 Mental selfgovernment 0 Related to strategies that people use 0 Effective allocation of resources 0 People who spend more time encoding a problem generally do better 0 Motivation Nature vs Nurture 0 Study of identical and fraternal twins 0 As fraternal twins leave shared environment le diverge not so with identical twins Intelligence and the brain 0 Beethoven s brain had exceptionally numerous and deep convulsions o Einstein s parietal lobe was 15 larger than the average but other parts were smaller 0 Brain size only moderately correlated 4 with intelligence scores 0 Rats raised in more stimulating environments develop thicker heavier cortexes o What about us 0 Highly educated people die with up to 17 more synapses slide 11 IQ differences between groups 0 Very controversial 0 Many attempts have been made to claim intelligence superiority of one race over another 0 But these attempts often ignore environmental contributions 0 John Ogbu o Autonomous minorities Eg Amish deliberately removed themselves from mainstream 0 Voluntary immigrant minorities Feel better off than the people at their home country 0 Involuntary minorities Score 1015 points lower across societies Buraku of Japan a Not racially distinct but descendents of outcast group from feudal era n In Japan they score lower in America no one knows the difference and they score higher 0 Stereotype threat 0 Claude Steele Groups are associated with positive and negative stereotypes If you prime one group s identity before a test the person will often perform in accordance with the stereotype o Margeret Shih Tested Asian women on math and primed either gender or race Performed better than control group when race was primed and worse when gender was primed IQ alternatives 0 Howard Gardner s theory of multiple intelligencesquot 0 Language abilities 0 Musical abilities 0 Logical and mathematical abilities 0 Spatial reasoning 0 Body movement skills O Selfcontrol and selfunderstanding 0 Sensitivity to others social signals 0 0 Identify asses and manage the emotions of one s self of others and of groups Ability to motivate oneself Persist in face of frustration Control impulse amp delay gratification Regulate one s moods Empathy Intelligence 0 Man made construct that has become loaded in society 0 May re ect operation of different cognitive components 0 But achievement often is better predicted by host of other factors Insights into Human reasoning 0 Solving problems and making decisions 0 Algorithms stepbystep procedure that guarantees a solution 0 Insight sudden flash on insight o Heuristics simple rulesstrategies o How do we reason 0 Inductive reasoning Start with observations construct hypothesis based on observations 0 Deductive reasoning assume certain premises derive consequences that must be true logically 0 Problem solving 0 Human reasoning 0 We often have difficulties seeing problems in new ways Representativeness heuristic Availability Heuristic Framing effect 0 O O O Overconfidence Confirmation bias 0 o Intuition o Representativeness bias amp ignoring base rates 0 Description is she more likely a postal worker of cognitive psychologist lgnoring base rates that say there are way more postal workers than cognitive psychologists 0 Description is she a bank teller or a bank teller and active in the feminist movement Conjunction Fallacy 0 Availability Heuristic o Operates when we base our judgments on how mentally available 0 O O 0 information is More easily available information is believe to be more common Schwartz 1991 asked people for 6 examples of when they had been assertive most could think of 6 He asked another group for 12 examples Few people could think of 12 He then asked both groups how assertive they really were The 6 example group scored themselves higher because in recent memory they had a greater proportion of information suggesting they were assertive Estimates of frequency or probability are made based on the ease with which instances come to mind 0 It s your decision 0 The US is preparing for a possible disease outbreak expected to kill 600 people They need to choose between plan A or B Plan A 200 people will be saved Plan B 13 chance that you will save all 600 Second group got Plan C or D a Plan C 400 will die a Plan D 13 chance no one will die Plans A and C were the same but worded differently n Same with B and D More people choose A and D than B and C because of how it was framed 0 Confirmation Bias 0 Tendency to focus on evidence that supports your beliefs or perspective A smokerjustifying her lifestyle by pointing to an aunt who lived to 95 despite smoking 0 Overconfidence 0 Not only are we not as rational as we think we are 65 0 Table on 409 1012009 93100 AM Genetics Lecture continued from unit 1 o Behavioral Genetics Research Methods 0 Adoption studies Are adopted children more like their biological or adoptive parents Adoptee s traist tend to bear more similarity to their biological parents than their adopted caregivers n n But care giving parents influence attitudes values religious beliefs 0 Problems with twin studies 0 Assumption of equal environments MZ twins treated more similarly also prenatal environment more similar 0 Assumption of random mating If people choose mates similarto themselves then DZ twins may share more than 50 oftheir genes People are more likely to choose people similarto them in intelligence 0 Molecular Genetics 0 Classical twin study designs are only one aspect of genetics research Twin studies estimate the heritability ofa trait but molecular genetics attempts to pinpoint the effects of a particular gene 0 Genes and personality 0 Williams syndrome Have trouble with visualspatial tasks a Kid with blocks got the basic parts but not the overall picture 0 Genetics of love 0 Male students slept in the same t shirt fortwo nights 0 Female students smelled the shirts and rated them for attractiveness 0 Those rated most attractive were those whose immune system genetics were most compatible ie immune system genetics are most dissimilar to their own 0 Ethics of genetic research The potential of gene research has yet to be realized but if moving at an alarming rate Ethics committees are struggling to keep up with the new dilemmas that arise regularly O O o Are the potential bene ts sufficient to justify the risk Basic Anatomy of the eye Physiology of seeing 0 Color vision 0 Feature detectors How does the eye work 0 Not really like a camera 0 Eyes don t faithfully represent the environment around us What s the different between sensation and perception o Sensation is the conversion of energy form the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system 0 Process through which environmental energy converted to neural impulses is referred to as transduction o Perception is the interpretation of this information 0 Our brains determine what we see The eye 0 Light enters through cornea which bends light to focus it on pupil 0 Light passes through pupil size regulated by iris 0 Lens focuses light onto retina through accommodation 0 Perfect vision 0 Light is perfectly focused on your retina 0 Near sighted 0 Light focuses before it reaches retina 0 Far sighted 0 Light focuses after the retina o The retina 0 Contains photoreceptors Cells that respond to light 0 Rods Sensitive to low light Low acuity not precise Dominate the periphery o Cones Not sensitive to low light High acuity Specialized for color Dominate central vision 0 Rods and cones are photoreceptors Convert light into electrochemical signals that feed into bipolar and then ganglion cells which carry information into the brain via the optic nerve o Ganglion cell axons converge to form the optic nerve o More rods converge on fewer bipolar cells than do cones Even a small amount of light can stimulate the bipolar cells connected to rods great in low light But convergence leadsto imprecise information about location poor resolution Rods are like quantity over quality lots of cells so you can see but it s not as good as cones o Receptive field The region of space in which the presence ofa stimulus will alter the activity of a cell a Larger for rods than cones n Smaller in fovea than in periphery Fovea densely filled with cones 0 Color vision 0 What strikes our eyes is not color but pulses of electromagnetic energy 0 The color ofobjects is determined by the wavelengths that they reflect Red objects reflect red all wavelengths and absorb all others White objects reflect all visible wavelengths Black objects absorb all visible wavelengths o The younghelmholts trichromatic theory Our receptors respond to three primary colors Color vision depends on the relative rate of response by the three types of cones Each type of cone is most sensitive to a speci c range of electromagnetic wavelengths a Short wavelengths are seen as blue a Medium wavelengths are seen as green a Long wavelengths are seen as red o Trichromats have all three cones Red cones Blue cones Green cones o Dichromats have only two types of cones Color blind can t tell between red and green 0 The opponent process theory Trichromatic theory does not account for some of the more complicated aspects of color perception n Some colors we never see together 0 We do see yellowish greens and bluish reds c We don t see reddish greens or yellows blues n Experience of color after image Opponent process theory says we perceive color not in terms of separate categories but rather in a system of paired opposites a Red vs green yellow vs blue white vs black Color after images results from alternating stimulation and inhibition of neurons in the visual system A bipolar neuron that responds strongly to yellow will be inhibited by blue After you ve stared at a yellow object your fatigued bipolar cell will behave as if it s been inhibited and yield a sensation of blue 0 Sensation meets perception The retinex theory a The trichromatic and opponent process theories don t account for our experience of color constancy the tendency of an object to appear nearly the same color under very different lighting conditions 0 lfl use a red light bulb in this room how do you know the walls are not red By comparing different patterns of light from different areas of the retina neurons in the cortex construct a color perception for each area i 0 Visual cortex has feature detectors 0 Some neurons in visual cortex act slide 44 Receptive Fields 0 Cones have smaller receptive fields than rods CenterSurround Cells 0 Excitatory trigger action potential 0 Inhibitory prevent action potential 0 On CenterOff Center 0 Oncenter stimulate the part that s inhibitory the peripheral it s harder to reach the action potential and it needs more energy 0 Offcenter same properties but reversed 0 At intersectionsthere is more light received by inhibitory surround than in the alleys Orientationspecific in visual cortex 0 Important for detecting edges 0 Cat saw only horizontal stripes only responded to horizontal stripes didn t react to vertical ones 0 Also worked vice versa Parallel feature detectors 0 Brightness color and motion are detected in parallel 0 They re all combined in your head 0 Vision is often thought to dominate the other senses 0 But sometimes you see interactions Heanng o Transduction detect and transmit sound waves to the brain 0 Sound waves are just patterns of compressed and expanded air 1012009 93100 AM Perception Making sense of sensation o Perception is cortical 0 Putting pieces of info together and interpreting it The rules that help solve the immensely difficult problem of perception o Gestalt grouping principles 0 Depth cues Visual lllusions o Tripping up the rulesthat guide perception How to solve the problem of perception o The goal of perception allow us to gain knowledge ofour environment what is out there and help guide our actions 0 The problem of perception for any given pattern of stimulation Why is perception a hard problem 0 Figureground segregation 0 Figure the object of interest 0 Ground the background 0 Sometimes simple sometimes ambiguous o The inverse problem 0 Need to extract 3D information from a 2D image 0 A 2D image can translate into in nite 3D realities Gestalt Grouping Principles 0 Help us organizeinterpret visual information 0 Proximity 0 The principle of proximity or nearness enables us to group what we see according to closeness Visual stimuli that are close together are grouped together 0 Similarity o lfthe distances between elements are the same the ones that physically similar will be grouped together 0 Uniform Connectedness 0 We perceive elements as a single unit if they are connected to one another according to the principle of uniform connectedness This principle can overrule the proximity and similarity principles 0 Good continuation o Elementsthat appearto follow the same direction are grouped together Directions can be a straight line or a curve 0 Closure o The enclosure of a complete figures occurs even though the stimuli are incomplete 0 Symmetry o Grouping on the basis of symmetry refers to the perception ofthe more natural balance and symmetrical gure as the same unit 0 Common Fate 0 Elements moving in the same direction and at the same speed tend to be grouped together This principle is similar to the similarity principle except it s true of moving objects 0 Experience is Important Depth pictorial monocular cues textbook 0 Linear perspective 0 lnterpositionocclusion 0 Relative size 0 Position relative to horizon 0 Relative clarity 0 Texture gradient 0 0 Shadow Binocular cues for the perception of distance 0 Convergence 0 To look at an object closer by the eyes rotate towards each other 0 Divergence o For an object farther away they rotate away from each other Accommodation provides a monocular depth cue Eyes separated by 23 inches Each receives somewhat different image of object 0 Two dimensional images on retina fused into a three dimensional image in brain Visual lllusions o lllusion a perceptual experience conflicting with another experience about the same object lllusions can occur for many reason because perception the interpretation of the world from sensory inputs takes place at many levels in the brain and can be fooled or break down in many ways Illusions are windows into the valuable work that perception does for us all the time They re entertaining but also real scientific tools Perception does not equal reality We adjust our perception based on our perceived viewing angle Ponzo illusions o Converging lines provide a depth cue Experience tells us that more distant objects can only create the same sized image as a nearer one if it is actually larger Size constancy The moon illusion o The moon looks larger when it is nearthe horizon 0 Because of position relative to horizon Lightness constancy relative luminance provides important information Rules can override explicit knowledge 1012009 93100 AM Vision 0 Vision takes up a lot of brain space 0 Visual areas are numerous and well connected with the rest of the brain Visual perception on the brain 0 Up to half the cerebral cortex appears to participate in visual perception in some way 0 Visual cortex has a retinotopic organization 0 Spatial relationships are preserved from retina to the occipital lobe o Adjacent retinal areas correspond to adjacent areas in primary visual conex More to seeing than the eyes 0 Because ofthis retinotopic mapping lesions to primary visual cortex will result in predictable areas of blindness in the visual eld 0 Small spot of damage in the cortex would mean a smaller area of damage in your visual eld 0 Damage on the right would cause blindness in the left visual field Blindsight 0 Patients with visual cortex lesions can exhibit blindsight o No conscious awareness of stimuli in their blind eld but are much better at reporting attributes of the stimulus than ifthey were just guessing 0 Better than chance statistically significant 0 Conscious perception depends on more than just visual cortex Visual processing is hierarchical 0 Information in visual images is processed in a hierarchical fashion hierarchical processing 0 Early stages extract elementary features lines angles edges color curves motion eq orientation selective simple cells Ventral what and dorsal where pathways process more complex aspects of visual information eg object form Dorsal pathway goes up Ventral pathway goes down 0 Hierarchical processing 0 Damage to brain areas further along the visual information processing pathway don t cause blindness but an inability to process speci c features of a stimulus eg color motion etc 0 V4 Visual areas specialized for color perception c There is a specialized brain area that allows you to perceive color 0 Damage to this area results in cerebral achromatopsia o Achromatopsia MT visual brain area specialized for motion 0 MT stands for Middle temporal 0 Color vs motion Akinetopsia Motion blindness 0 World is seen as a series of snapshots rather than as a moving image 0 Kind oflike a strobe light 0 Results after damage to visual brain areas specialized for processing motion MT Normally we stitch together static pictures 0 Apparent motion Mishkin o Discovered main pathways dorsal and ventral What vs Where pathways 0 What Ventral o Specialized for object perception and recognition eg recognizing faces or objects 0 Where dorsal o Specialized for spatial perception such as determining where an object is and relating it to other objects in a scene eg reaching and grasping for an object Object recognition constancy across viewpoints 0 Recognition by components Biederman 1987 0 Pretty old theory 0 Visual vocabulary of geons o Says we only see the basic shapes 0 Multiple view recognition Tarr 1995 0 To recognize an object form different viewpoints store how it looks from many different views 0 Different predictions 0 Recognition by components predicts viewpointindependent recognition 0 Recognition by multiple views predicts viewpointdependent recognition 0 Problem familiar objects have been seen from many views so no effect of viewpoint is predicted by both theories 0 They used abstract objects that were not common and just made up Faces are processed holistically o Obligatory processing of whole face 0 Famous people halves of faces combined 0 Easier to tell who they were when she split them 0 Release from holistic effects 0 Misalignment o lnversion orientation specificity Face recognition is disproportionately affected relative to objects by inversion Face recognition is tuned to the viewconfiguration that dominate our experience a Experience plays a role 0 Faces a dedicated neural substrate 0 Fusiform face area FFA More active for face than other object categories FFA activation is correlated with expertise In the temporal lobe 0 Faces as objects of expertise Slide 49 o Fusiform o Autistic kid loved digimon Digimon characters caused reaction in fusiform face area Autistic children had littleno reaction in the fusiform area when shown a face 0 Abnormalities in the what pathway 0 Visual agnosia dif culty identify objects despite no problems seeing o Prosopagnosia difficult identifying faces despite no problems with seeing Often rely on cues like hair 0 Capgras delusion Person believes their friendsfamily have been replaced by imposters Mirror version of prosopagnosia can identify faces but have damage to the part ofthe brain with an emotional reaction to them 1012009 93100 AM Abnormalities in the what pathway 0 Visual agnosia dif culty identify objects despite no problems seeing o Prosopagnosia difficult identifying faces despite no problems with seeing o Often rely on cues like hair 0 Capgras delusion 0 Seeing the meaning in things further depends on interactions with yet other parts of the brain 0 The connection between the what ventral pathway and the amygdala Problems with the where dorsal pathway 0 Spatial neglect 0 Woman can t consciously see the left side Seeing o is not simply viewing an image on the back of the brain 0 it involves a computational division of labor and analysis Why is attention necessary o It awareness were a nightclub attention would be the bouncer General Model of Attention 0 Attention is proposed to be the gate between sensory processing and awareness o All sensory input enters the sensory memory store where it is processed preattentively 0 Some of it is selected to pass through the gate into consciousness o Sensory input sensory memory automatic preattentive processing9selector9 working memory conscious attentive processing 0 Preattentive Feature integration theory a Certain basic features are processed quickly in parallel n Attention serves to bind simple features together 0 Automatic Many things require attention especially at rst driving With practice they become automatic Stroop Effect reading words in different colors 0 Early vs Late Selection At what point does information get filtered out Early selection a Attention can filter information on the basis of physical features 0 Color Late Selection n Cocktail party phenomenon o Guiding attention Spatial vs featurebased attention a Spatial 0 Attention as a spotlight 0 Processing specific chunks in your spotlight a Feature based 0 Only look for a feature red when nding where s waldo lnattentional blindness a Red cross moved across the screen Headup display a Putting the controls for pilots on the window instead of down on the dashboard n Didn t work well they didn t pay attention 0 Driving simulation study Free navigation through virtual city using steering wheel and computer screen Had to follow the ashing blue or yellow arrows Subjects were told before which to follow selective attention is either blue or yellow depending on which you re told to look for Motorcycle pops out at you n Either blue or yellow B lfthe colors matched 7 collision rate if mismatched than 34 collision o What about cell phones People on cell phone were about the same as baseline at tracking Only 10 of people on cell phone noticed the unexpected new symbol 70 baseline did 0 Conscious 0 Attention doesn t lead to awareness slide 51 Have to attend to something to be conscious of it 1012009 93100 AM Top down control selector 0 Examples of top down and bottom up attentional selection 0 Bottom up selection stimulus properties that capture your attention ex A flash of light 0 Top down goal driven selection of information ex Finding your keys on a cluttered desk 0 Can practice influence the capacity of attention 0 Attention is very limited 0 Green and Bavelier 2003 found that experienced action video game players had a larger visual attention capacity 0 Video game players identi ed 48 items in a briefly ashed array compared to non gamers who only identified 33 0 Take home messages 0 Attention helps us deal with what could be a very ovenNhelming world 0 Attention can act to select information at different stages of processes based on outputs of featuredetectors or more complex processing of meaning 0 There are different mechanisms of attention which allow us to attend to spatial locations or stimulus featuresproperties What is consciousness o Selfawareness the subjective experience of ourselves as thinking and feelings beings 0 Awareness ofour environment 0 Unconsciousness 0 We are aware of some mental processes but not others 0 Unconscious or subliminal perception can influence cognition Subliminal perception stimuli that our sensory systems respond to but never reach the threshold ofentering into consciousness How does the brain give rise to conscious awareness o Neural workspace model consciousness arises as a function of which brain regions are active 0 No single area ofthe brain is responsible for awareness 0 Attention increases level of activity in brain regions Sleep an altered state of consciousness 0 Sleep stages O O O O O O Awake Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 REM sleep Alert wakefulness beta waves Sleepy alpha waves slower more synchronized activity Stage 1 theta waves may have the sensation of falling of that your limbs are jerking easily awaken Stage 2 more regular breathing less sensitive to external stimulation 20 minutes 0 Stage 3 delta waves progressing into deep sleep few minutes 0 Stage 4 slowwave sleep deep sleep hard to wake people up in this stage stage 3stage 4about 30 minutes 0 REM sleep 0 O O O O 0 After about 6090 minutes of sleep the sleep cycle reverses returning to stage 3 and then 2 An EEG will show a flurry of beta activity The stage is marked by visible rapid eye movements REM About 80 of the time people are awakened during REM they report dreaming less than 50 during other stages Motor cortex is active but don t move because brainstem blocks its messages leaving you essentially paralyzed Paradoxical sleep the body is internally aroused but externally calm Sleep cycle repeats c When do we sleep 0 O Circadian rhythms cycles of activity and inactivity generally lasting 1 day from Latin circa aboutquot and diesquotday Sleepiness and alertness depend on where you are in your circadian rhythm Synchronized by light 0 Why do we sleep 0 Circadian rhythm theory Evolutionary adaptation to keep animals quiet and inactive during the times of day when there is greatest danger usually dark 0 Restorative theory Brain and body need to sleep to allow their body to restore slide 25 o Facilitation of learning theory Circuits wired together while awake are consolidated or strengthened during sleep Evidence neural activity during slow wave sleep reenacts and promotes recall of prior novel experiences Evidence infants need more sleep than adults Evidence improvements in learning after sleep 0 We need sleep 0 After spring time change more accidents after fall time change fewer accidents Are there other possible explanations for this finding a People are rushing and frazzled because they re disorientated by the time change might be running late rushing causes accidents 0 Study 0 They had 2259 students aged 1114 0 Students who got less sleep had lower selfesteem and grades and higher levels of depression Dreams 0 Why do we dream 0 According to Freud dreams reveal the dreamer s unconscious thoughts and motivations Manifest content the surface content Latent content the hidden content represented only in symbols Dream images symbolic expressions of powerful unconscious repressed wishes censored by defense mechanisms a Slide 31 Freud s ideas for symbols 0 Problem subjective notfalsifiable o Activationsynthesis hypothesis REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories which our sleeping brain weaves into stories That is our sleeping minds try to make sense of the random nng No clear testable predictions 0 Evolved threat rehearsal strategies Dreams stimulate threatening events to allow people to rehearse coping strategies Dreams can provide people with solutionsthat help them survive a Dreaming is a result of natural selection Majority of dreams include negative things 0 Physiological functions neural exercise Dreams activate pathways to preserve and develop circuitry to prevent neuronal degeneration 0 Information processing Memory consolidation Some research shows more REM sleep after learning something new a Does stressfatigue play a role More evidence linking sleep more generally with learning and memory Drugs alter consciousness o Psychoactive drugs alter consciousness by changing people s perceptions and moods o Psychoactive drugs 0 Interfere with neurotranmission in the brain at synapses Stimulate inhibit or mimic the activity of neurotransmitters 0 Nearly all abused drugs either directly or indirectly stimulate the release of dopamine 0 Three main categories Depressants n Calm neural activity a Slows bodily functions a Alcohol 0 Why do people appear more lively after a few drinks if it is a depressant 0 Alcohol slows brain activity that controls judgment and inhibitions Low doses relax the drinker by slowing sympathetic nervous system activity 0 High doses drastically slow the whole system slurred speech poor motor coordination slow reactions 0 Why do people often report that they cannot remember their activities while heavily intoxicated 0 Alcohol disrupts the processing of recent 0 experiences into long term memory 0 Poor memory results partly from the way alcohol suppresses REM sleep Prolonged and excessive drinking can 0 shrink the brain especially in women n Barbituarates 0 Also referred to as tranquilizers o Mimic the effects of alcohol 0 Depress nervous system activity a Opiates 0 Include opium morphine heroin 0 Highly addictive 0 Also depress neural functioning o Pupils constrict breathing slows lethargic 0 Brain naturally produces its own opiates endorphins but in addicts this stops 0 This results in intense discomfort if body is deprived ofthe external source withdrawal Stimulants n Temporarily excite neural activity and arouse body functions 0 Stay awake lose weight boost mood or athletic performance 0 Most common caffeine and nicotine 0 Also ecstasy meth coke n Increase heartbreathing rates pupils dilate appetites diminish energy and con dence rise Hallucinogens n Distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input a Marijuana LSD MDMA n Many chemically resemble serotonin stimulate these receptors inappropriately or more often than usual 0 Summary 0 Consciousness is our general state of awareness of ourselves and our environement 0 Sleep and drugs alter our state ofconsciousness Sleep serves many functions Repairgrowth Learningmemory Safety The main locus upon which drugs act is the dopamine reward system in O the brain 1012009 93100 AM The book of life 0 The human genome was mapped in 2001 0 Mapping the genome consisted of identifying all 30000 genes in our chromosomes 0 Basic Genetics 0 Cell each cell has a nucleus Contain the entire set ofan individual s DNA DNA contains instructions for making proteins building blocks of new cells 0 Nucleus in the nucleus there are chromosomes 0 Chromosomes made up of DNA 0 DNA segments of DNA are genes Human Genome 0 Human genome consists of 46 chromosomes 0 An entire copy of our genome is stored in all the cells in our body 0 Chromosomes are made of DNA 0 Genes are segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein 0 Human have approximately 30000 genes Genes o A gene is a segment of DNA that is involved in producing proteins that carry out specific tasks 0 Basic chemicals that make up the structure of cells 0 Gene expression the process through which the gene produces protein 0 Not all genes are outwardly expressed o Genotype genetic constitution of the organism o Phenotype observable characteristics of an organism that results from both genetic and environmental influences Diets kept low in phenylalanine until after critical neuronal development reduces chance of severe brain damage in PKU ie phenotype is modified by environment 0 Most human attributes are polygenic o Polygenic characteristics are in uenced by many genes as well as the environment eg height IQ personality etc 0 Gene environment interactions 0 People appearto be born essentially like undeveloped photographs The image is already captured the way it eventually appears can vary based on the development process Howeverthe basic picture is there from the beginning Genes provide the options the environment determines which option is taken 0 Environment every non genetic influence what we eat parenting 0 environment while in the womb 0 Environmental effects start early 0 Nurture begins in the womb Embryos receive different nutrition and exposure to toxins n Eg fetal alcohol syndrome a Phenotype facial features are very distinguishable 0 Looking genetics in the face Over 700 of the 5000 documented genetic conditions involve unusual and often subtle changes to the face Doctors who specialize in genetic disorders can sometimes guess what genetic abnormality a person has based on the person s facial features Twins behavioral geneticists favorite tool 0 Regular siblings share about 50 of genetic material 0 Dizygotic twins two eggs two sperm 50 ofthe same genetic material similar prenatal environment 0 Monozygotic twin one sperm one egg splits 100 ofthe same genetic material Both Nature and Nurture Matter 0 Only 23 of identical twins share the same placenta 0 Different placenta twins are less similar in psychological traits eg social competence self control 0 Who we are is a product of both our genes and our environment 0 Behavior geneticists study the effects of heredity and the environment on different traits eg violent behavior GeneEnvironment Interactions o MAO activity and violent crimes 0 Low levels of MAO monoamine oxidase implicated in aggression 0 Longitudinal study of criminality in New Zealand followed 1000 individuals form birth to 20s o Hypothesized that differences in gene that controls MAO may be important in determining effects of maltreatment 0 Boys with low MAO gene who were maltreated were much more likely to be convicted ofa violent crime than maltreated high MAO boys 0 Effect of environment 0 Differences between identical twins separated at birth demonstrate geneenvironmental interactions Twins Behavioral Geneticists Favorite Tool 0 Effect of genes 0 Identical twins share the same genes 0 Fraternal share only half 0 Effect of environment 0 Identical genes reared together share genes and environment 0 Identical twins reared apart share genes but NOT environment Behavioral Genetics some research methods 0 Twin studies 0 Identical vs fraternal twins 100 vs 50 gene overlap Rationale traits shared more by identical twins than fraternal can be attributed to genes 0 Reared apart vs reared together same vs different environments Rationale traits shared more by identical twins reared together compared to those reared apart can be attributed to environmental in uences Rationale traits shared more by identical twins than fraternal twins regardless of rearing can be attributed to their genes 0 Conduct a study to determine to the extent genes and not environment determine a person s social skills What two groups would you use Identical twins compared to fraternal twins both reared together Environmental effect is controlled So if the identical twins are more similar to each other than the fraternal twins are then it s more genetic if they re the same it s more about the environment 0 Adoption Studies 0 Are adopted children more like their biological or adoptive parents Adoptee s traits tend to bear more similar to their biological parents than their adopted caregivers But caregiving parents in uence children s attitudes values manners faith and politics Adopted children also tend to score higherthan their biological parents on IQ tests Genes and environment 0 Both contribute to IQ Chart on slide 37


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