On Nationalism and Periphery Nationalism
On Nationalism and Periphery Nationalism 2330
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2330 at George Washington University taught by Serrato in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics of Western Europe in Public Relations at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
State and Peripheral Nationalism Catalan Industrialized area Subjected speci cally under Franco Denied the right to use their language Were coerced into Spain after the Bourbons took control and created the modern state Were previously allied to the Habsburgs September 11 is the day of the Fall of Barcelona to the Bourbons and is now politicized as the Catalonian independence movement day 80 approval rate for independence in 2014 The spike in want for independence comes from the economic crisis 2010 autonomy protest In 2003 the socialist government promised to pass through a constitution thing that would recognize Catalonia as its own territory Wanted more autonomy Was passed in a referendum in Catalonia But was sent to the supreme court in Spain and was seen as a symbolic gesture wasn t shot down but it wouldn39t hold any legal value with the state Spain said it was a way for them to recognize the psychological effects of it 7 million people live in Catalonia The miles long human chain protest was seen as the greatest failure of Spanish politics French Revolution First use of the idea of a citizen The people are sovereign First revolution of its kind Because it was a revolution of the people The basic ideas of nation and nationalities o Founding of the state Napoleon Concurred almost the whole of Europe So he brought the ideas of nation to other places Especially to despotic states And then you have a nationalist reaction to Napoleon Spain didn39t want to be quotFrenchquot Patterns of State Formation Absolutist kingship France Prussia Kingship facing judges and representative bodies England and Sweden D to limit the monarch39s power Confederation or federation Switzerland and US Through conquest Germany Through independence Belgium Norway Finland Ireland Nationalism Voluntary selfcategorization And voluntary selfidenti cation Sentiment of solidarity in the face of other groups It has a territorial character and political nature Nations started in the 19th century With the process of industrialization Literacy Emergence of the mass media Gave them means for intellectuals and common people to actually come out with the idea of a nation It used to be that people lived their lives at the local level Neighborliness But now they could identify with people they had never met Primordia list Nations are timeless phenomena Constructivist We create nations Because they quotmake sensequot for certain people to align Not organic State Bridling The origins of the state are dated on the 15th century Just about the way power is organized and controlled Nation Building Late 18th century The process of nationalbuilding entailed the formation of a wefeeling Identi cation shaped by agents of atonal socialization Family school peers media The army is super important Mechanism exposure indoctrination adjustment Napoleonic Homogenized policies Beginning of the process Napoleonic Code Called everyone citizens quotThe sovereign units of the statesquot quotThis is your homelandquot Peasants became Frenchmen 18701914 The nationalizing policies included the construction of roads the generalization of schooling and military conscription Nation State Without competition for the de nition of the demos Linz Spain has been considered a case of early statebuilding Failed to integrate the different parts of the state Maintained the different components of different kingdoms Also the statebuilding came before the nationalism era The nationalist era coincided with a period of erce ideological con icts in Spain and the distress caused by the loss of overseas colonies Process of NationalBuilding Belgium independence from Netherlands 1830 Greece independence from Ottoman Empire 1832 Very important Were likely to use One of the strongest nationalist movements Germany German Reich more the product of statebuilding by Bismarck but strong nationalist movement Italy Risorgimento and uni cation State building under Cavour Nation building by Mazzini and Garibaldi World War I Process of selfidenti cation n We wanted to create nationstates Wilson Nations should have their own states But this wasn t fully possible To intermixed So you had a majority population And the minorities would feel discriminated against Would employ nationalizing policies To assimilate people THESE ARE DISCRIMINATORY AND NOT DEMOCRATIC Increase chances of democratic consolidation if State policies grant equal citizenship No majoritarian formulas Multipledual identities not xed Cannot force polarization Nation State One state one nation Minorities have to be cultural assimilated Very simple from a constructivist approach Statenation Multicultural or multination political entities but with a strong identi cation and loyalty from their citizens Trying to assimilate all would have a backlash e ect Ethnic group Not a nation Similar characteristics But no desire to selfgovern Ethnic Nationalism Nations are constituted by ethnic groups and precede the state Membership in the national community is given or secretive by descent Permeability is limited Although ethnic boundaries can be socially and political expanded Narrowed or reordered Ethnic identities were imposed Civic nationalism Identi ed with stat nationalism Tolerant and integrative Most citizens conceive their national in inclusivecivic terms While few others conceive it simultaneously in both inclusivecivic and exclusiveethnic ones Division of Power The Federal Unitary and CentralizedDecentralized Contrasts Lijphart The prime characteristics of a democracy is the concentration of power in the hands of the majority Thin de nition Consensus model noncentration of power Sharing of power Or division of power Crucial distinction is whether in the consensus democracy power is dispersed to political actors operating together when the same political institutions or disperse to separate political ignitions Federalism is the most topic and drastic method of dividing power Because it divides power between entire levels of government Aka quotdivision of powerquot Federalism described as a spatial or territorial division of power in which the component units are geographically de ned States provinces lander cantons or regions Lijphart wants to focus on quotno centralizationquot of power To see federalism as quotthe fundamental distribution of power among multiple centers not the devolution of power form a single center or down a pyramidquot Second level of federalism a bicameral legislature with a strong federal chamber to represent the constituent regions A written constitutions that is dif cult to amend Supreme Court or special constructional court that can protect the construction by means of its power Five characteristics of no centralizeddecentralized federal systems 1 States have formally federal constructions a Difference between federal and unitary systems 2 The federalunitary and centralizeddecentralized differences are closely related a Most federal systems are decentralized b Most unitary systems are centralized India is only considered quasifederal Only the four Nordic countries and japan can be classi ed as decentralized Smaller countries don39t need as much decentralization Belgium the Netherlands and Israel are classi ed by quotsociologically federalquot The central governments of these outcries have long recognized heavily subsides and delegated power to private association with important semipublic functions especially in the elds of education culture and health care But not geographically concentrated sociological federalism deviates Spain site most dif cult to classify Autonomy in several regions Catalonia Bas use Country and Galicia So some experts think it is a federal system Others call it an incomplete federalism and an imperfect federalism Federation in all but name It does not A measurement of centralization in the central government39s share of a country39s total tax receipts Federalism is used in two kinds of countries relatively large countries and plural societies The least populated federation is Switzerland If the political boundaries are drawn so as to approximate the social boundaries the heterogeneity in the federation as a whole is transformed into a high degree of homogeneity at the level of the comment unites lncongruent federalism 0 Makes a plural society less plural In theory the states can amend and experiment with their local constituents and government as they please So long as it coordinates with the federal constitution In practice however we nd most complete isomorphism both between the central and comment units39 government forms and mount ghost of the components units in each country Exception Illinois uses a semi proportional system Whereas the rest of the US is a solidly presidential system Gourevitch Main question why do some ethnic groups become politically organized rather than not He would answer with economic health and disparity between ethnic groups Ex France CORE AND PERIPHERY also how political power is divided But not coincide Political leadership at the a core of the state But economic control in other regions So they have a more credible claim to have a state of their own The scope only applies to consolidated democracies Look at the Quebecois in Canada Leadership and Economic Growth Gourevitch Challenges in the nation state in advanced industrial societies In some places nationalism is con ned to the folklore level Songs literature language etc In others there are separatist movements Aka Quebec Regions are not actors their inhabitants are So why do some people nd nationalism attractive Relationship between two functions of the modern state political leadership and economic development Political leadership constructs and maintains strong central institutions common to the whole country Law police taxation army bureaucracy and formulates common policies in key areas trade defense foreign policy etc Economic growth constructs and maintains an industrial economy involving the building of factories And towns Ethnic Potential the existence of some distinctive character is among the people living in a region such As language instructions and or historical traditions in that order of importance Ex Wales and Scotland In places where both political leadership and economic dynamism take place in the same region peripheral nationalism is weak UK England was the wealthiest and most dynamic for 2 centuries Though wales and Scotland never equaled the core region in wealth they did develop industrially by means of their association with that core Wales and Scotland both dealt with the e same political cleavages as England Class and religion Seeds of discord sewn in 19201945 England began to lose its dominance And importance was placed on Scotland and Wales For ship building during the wars Scotland and Wales would feel that the British core was deteriorating the pound was losing Value and the labor party was no longer the party they could align it France State builder and industrializes in the center The north and east are the peripheries Bene ted both from natural resources and location because of transportation and Proximity to large markets The west and south declined in the 19th century These areas developed the standard relationship of periphery to core Supplier of food manpower and politicians Consumer of manufactured products But the challenges to the state at present are just that not national movements For that to occur would require deterioration not the encomia health of the core region and the develop of some economic trump in the peripheral region If the center ats andor the periphery takes economy leadership likely to develop strong nationalism Center is not delivering and alternative is plausible Tradeoff loss markets and subsidies The greater the ethnic community and common sentiment away from the center the less you need these other things to happen aka center may not have to be weaker politically if a strong periphery sentiment of ethnic nationalism exists and an alternative economic setup is found You can appease nationalism or appease it Mitigating the perceive threats Eliminates sources of perceived grievance Providing answers to their aspirations Promote separatist movement Fostering the perception of con ict
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