Notes for Test 2 so far
Notes for Test 2 so far NTRI 2000-001
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Richards on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-001 at Auburn University taught by Ramesh Jeganathan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see nutrition and health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Test 2 Chapter 4 Carbohydrates Food and Nutrition Board 4565 Brain needs 120g glucose daily carbs Liver Glycogen storage depleted in 18 hrs Breakdown of proteins in the body loss of muscle tissue Muscle amp Liver Glucose stored as glycogen Concept Map Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose combine to form Disaccharides sucrose glucose fructose found in table sugar maltose glucose glucose from breakdown of starch lactose glucose galactose found in milk Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Starches made in plants amylose straight chain amylopectin branched Fibers indigestible by humans pectins etc soluble cellulose insoluble Glycogen made in animals stored in muscle and liver Simple vs Complex Simple Carbs simple forms of carbohydrate monosaccharides and disaccharides Complex Carbs Starch complex carbohydrate made of multiple glucose units digestible Fiber complex carbohydrate in plant foods not digestible Monosaccharides Simple sugar units monoone Glucose Fructose Galactose Glucose Also known as dextrose blood sugar Obtained from the breakdown of starches and sucrose table sugar Liver cells produce glucose in people with diabetes this is uncontrolled Fructose Fruit sugar Present in fruit honey and highfructose corn syrup Converted into glucose in the liver rest stored as fat if fructose consumed high amount High fructose corn syrup Galactose Nearly same structure as glucose Converted to glucose in the liver or further metabolized into glycogen In milk and milk products as lactose galactose glucose Disaccharides Simple sugars ditwo Sucrose glucose fructose Table sugar sugarcane honey maple syrup Lactose galactose glucose milk products Maltose glucose glucose starch from grains converted to maltose beer and liquor industry mixed with yeast which converts sugars to alcohol and C02 Fermentation Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharides PolyMany complex carbohydrates starch fiber amp glycogen Starch in plants is a mixture of two forms amylose digestible amylopectin digestible Dietary Fiber not digestible soluble pectin insoluble cellulose Polysaccharides Starch plants amylose straight chain polymer 20 of the starch found in the breads pasta and rice amylopectin highly branched polymer 80 of the starch in the diet digested more rapidly and raises blood glucose much more rapidly than amylose Glycogen muscle amp liver Glycogen storage form of carbohydrates in animals and humans Structure similiar to amylopectin Glycogen stored in the liver and muscle Stored glycogen in liver breaks down contributing to blood glucose Dietary Fiber Polysaccharide not digested lnsoluble fiber not dissolved in water examples cellulose hemicellulose lignin wheat bran wholegrain cereals flaxseed celery carrots Soluble fiber swell and dissolve in water examples gum pectin mucilage fruits salad dressings jams jellies Prebiotic soluble fibers can contribute to good intestinal health Dietary Fiber naturally found Functionalfortified fiber fiber added to foods Immune system Skin intestinal cells and white blood cells all make up the immune system Skin 0 Continuous barrier o Kin health requires fatty acids vit A niacin and zinc o Vit A deficiency decreases lysozyme bacterial eye infections 0 Pellegra Niacin deficiency Vit B3 Intestinal cells 0 Packed close together 0 Barrier to invading microbes 0 Presence of immune factors 0 Protein vitamins A B6 B12 C Folate and zinc White blood cells 0 Attack microorganism Phagocytosis cell eating Cellmediated immunity a Antibodies u Antibodyantigen response a Template memory made 0 Appropriate nutrient intake required iron copper vit B6 B12 C Endocrine system Secretes regulatory substances 0 hormone Greek word to stir or excite o Body s messenger turn signals on or off 0 Hormones bind receptor proteins on cells 0 Examples lnsulin after a meal insulin is secreted leads to lowering of blood glucose secreted in pancreas Leptinrelays energy status of body provides the satiety signal CHAPTER 4 CARBOHYDRATES The brain needs constant blood glucose carbohydrates needs 5 grams every hour Food and Nutrition Board 45 65 Brain needs 120 g of glucose daily Muscle and liver glucose and glycogen is stored here 0 Store 100 g in liver 0 400 g in skeletal muscle Liver glycogen stores depleted in 18 hours Breakdown of proteins in the body loss of muscle tissue Carb concept map look up in book 0 Simple carbs Monosaccharide glucose fructose galactose Combine to form a Disaccharides 0 Complex carbs Sucrose glucose fructose table sugar Maltose glucose glucose from breakdown of starch Lactose glucose glucose found in milk Poly saccharides u Starches made in plants Amy lose straight chain Amylopectin branched Simple carbs simple forms of carb monosaccharide and disaccharides Complex carbs o starch complex carb made of multiple glucose units digestible 0 Fiber complex carb in plant foods not digestible Simple o Monosaccharide Simple sugar units should know these for the test a Glucose Also known as dextrose blood sugar Obtained from breakdown of starches and sucrose table sugar Liver cells produce glucose 0 In people with diabetes this is uncontrolled Source of fuel for cells mainly for the brain a Fructose Fruit sugar Present in fruit honey and highfructose corn syrup Converted into glucose in the liver rest is stored as fat if fructose consumed high amount high fructose corn syrup In table sugar as sucrose glucose fructose u Galactose o Disaccharides Nearly same structure as glucose Converted to glucose in the liver or further metabolized into glycogen ln milk and milk products as lactose galactose glucose Simple sugars u Sucrose glucose fructose Table sugar sugarcane honey maple sugar u Lactose galactose glucose Milk products a Maltose glucose glucose Starch from grains converted to maltose Beer and liquor industry Mixed with yeast which converts sugars to alcohol and 002 Fermentation Complex carbs o Polysaccharides Starch fiber and glycogen Starch in plants is a mixture of 2 forms a Amylose digestible u Amylopectin digestible Dietary fiber not digestible u Soluble pectin u Insoluble cellulose Starch u Amylose straight chain polymer 20 of the starch found in the breads pasta and rice u Amylopectin highly branched polymer 80 of the starch in the diet digested more rapidly and raises blood glucose much more rapidly than amylose Glycogen Glycogen storage form of carb in animals and humans Structure similar to amylopectin Glycogen stored in the liver and muscle Stored glycogen in liver breaks down contributing to blood glucose Dietary fiber u Polysaccharide not digested u Insoluble fiber not dissolved in water Cellulose hemicellulose lignin Wheat bran wholegrain cereals flaxseed celery carrots u Soluble fiber swell and dissolve in water Examples gum pectin mucilage Fruits salad dressings jams jellies Prebiotic soluble fibers can contribute to good intestinal health Functionalfortified fiver fiber added to foods Dietary fiber and health Beneficial effects of fiber El El El El El El El El Insoluble fiber prevents constipation attracts water 0 Too little fiber constipation Hemorrhoids o Swelling of a large vein around the anal region 0 Result from excessive straining Weight control and fiber 0 Filling bulk makes you feel full faster 0 Low in kcal o Satisfied after eating Beneficial effects of fiber 0 Glucose absorption and fiber Soluble fiber slows glucose absorption therefore helpful in treatment of diabetes Better blood glucose regulation Soluble fiber lowers cholesterol 0 Absorption of cholesterol inhibited 0 Reduced risk for cardiovascular disease 0 Insulin release decreased Decrease cholesterol synthesis in the liver Blood cholesterol lowered a How much fiber do we need Al is 25 gday for women Al is 38 gday for men Average US intake 0 14 gday for women 0 17 gday for men Too much fiber u gt60 gday a extra fluid needed a may decrease availability of some minerals u unmet energy needs in children Can high fiber diets prevent colon cancer Carbohydrate digestion 0 Effects of cooking Softens fibrous tissues Starch granules swell soaking up water Easier to chew and swallow o Mouth Salivary amylase u Breaks starch to shorter saccharides u Prolonged chewing o Stomach Acidic environment inactivates amylase No further starch digestion 0 Small intestine Pancreas releases enzymes u Pancreatic amylase breaks starch into glucose Absorptive cells release enzymes a Maltase maltose glucose glucose u Sucrose sucrose Glucose fructose u Lactase lactose glucose galactose Monosaccharides are absorbed Carbohydrate absorption 0 Glucose and galactose Active absorption Energy is expended Pumped along with sodium 0 Fructose Facilitated absorption using a carrier No energy expended After absorption 0 Carbs carried through portal vein to the liver 0 Liver can Transform monosaccharides into glucose Release glucose back into the bloodstream Store as glycogen sometimes as fat Undigested carbs 0 Only a minor amount escapes digestion o Travels to large intestine o Fermentation by the bacteria 0 May promote health of colon Functions of carbs o Supplies energy RBC brain CNS Need 5 g of carbs every hour 0 Protein sparing spares prevents protein from breaking down to provide energy needs Usually carbs provide blood glucose Lowcarb diet not enough blood glucose and this is made from body proteins 0 Prevents ketosis Lowcarb diet ketone bodies formed in incomplete breakdown of fats health problems 0 Sweetener Nutritive sweeteners u Provides calories Alternative sweeteners a No calories a Much sweeterg basis benchmark of sweetness sucrose High fructose corn syrup 0 55 fructose 0 Made by mixing cornstarch with acid and enzymes Starch glucosew fructose Cheaper than sucrose Does not form from crystals Soft drinks candies jam jelly desserts cookies Other types of sweeteners 0 Brown sugar 0 Turbinado sugar raw sugar 0 Maple syrup 0 Honey spores of the bacterium costridium botulinum Sugar alcohols sorbirol xylitol 0 Contribute fewer calories than sugar about 26 calg o Absorbed and metabolized slower 0 Excess consumption may have a laxative effect 0 Used in sugaress gum candy and breath mints Sugar subs or artificial sweeteners o Saccharin First produced in 1879 180200x sweeter than sucrose No potential risk in humans 0 Aspartame equal Composed of phenylalanine aspartic acid and methanol 180200x sweeter than sucrose 4 kcalg Heat unstable Headaches dizziness seizures and nausea Contraindicated for phenylketonuria PKU Acceptable daily intake 50 mg per kg body weight PKU disease caused by a defect in the liver s ability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine into amino acid tyrosine Phenylalanine is toxic and buildup in the body leads to mental retardation o Sucralose splenda 600x sweeter than sucrose substitutes chlorines for hydroxyl group on sucrose advertising slogan made from sugar so it tastes like sugar not a natural product Heat stable Tiny amount digested most excreted in the feces o Neotame FDA approved 2002 700013000x sweeter than sucrose similar structure to aspartame but safe for PKU Heat Stable o Acesulfame K FDA approved 1988 200x sweeter than sucrose heat stable not digested by the body 0 Other sweeteners Stevia a Natural product from South American shrub a 100300 times sweeter than sucrose a FDA approved on Dec 2008 u Sold as dietary supplement sweet leaf u Heat stable Tagatose sold a s naturlose Altered from of fructose 15 kcalg 38 less calories does not cause tooth decay heat stable FDA approved Prebiotic fermented in large intestine Carbohydrate needs 0 RDA is 130 gramsday fro adults 0 Average US intake is 180330 grams 0 Recommendation Food and nutrition board 4565 of total calories 0 Focus on fruits vegetables whole grain 0 Cut down refined grains potatoes and sugar Glycemic index Dr Miller how fast blood sugars rise after eating certain carbs 0 Ratio of blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard such as glucose 0 This is based on 50 g weight of food 0 Glycemic index is influenced by starch structure fiber content food processing and other macronutrient in the food such as fat High glycemic index food baked potatoes Reference food glucose 100 Glycemic Load 0 Grams of carbohydrate in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of that food Divide result by 100 glycemic index x grams of carb100GL Why low glycemic index or low glycemic load foods 0 Leads to a smaller rise in blood glucose levels after a meal 0 Benefits of low GlGL foods Contribute to weight loss a Keep you feeling full longer Management of diabetes a Improve body s sensitivity to insulin 0 High glycemic load Large release of insulin u Increase blood triglycerides level a Increase low density lipoprotein LDL u Increase fat deposits u Increase fat synthesis a Rapid return of hunger Insulin resistance develops which can lead to type 2 diabetes GET DIABETES NOTES FROM CANVAS Hypoglycemia Metabolic syndrome 0 Affects 1 in 4 Americans 0 MetS is a cluster of conditions that occur together and increase risk for heart disease stroke and diabetes Obesity BMI gt 30 High blood triglycerides Poor blood glucose regulation Hypertension high blood pressure LIPIDS Ch 5 Lipids fats and oils Do not readily dissolve in water Lipidsfats provide 9 kcalgram Func ons 0 Provide energy Storage of energy as triglycerides Insulation Protection Transport fatsoluble vitamins KADE 0 Provides flavor and texture to foods Types of lipids Fatty acids simplest form Triglycerides storage form of fat Phospholipids part of cell membranes Sterols ex Cholesterol 0 Cholesterol only in animal products 0 Fat plant product 0000 Fatty Acids Classification based on 0 Chain length 0 Level of saturation 0 Shape o Differ in chain length Number of carbon atoms in the chain Fatty acids form foods have chain lengths of 424 carbons 0 Short chain less than 6 carbons 0 Medium chain 612 carbons o Longchain 14 or more carbons Level of saturation 0 Means how many double bonds are present in the fatty acid chain No cc double bonds saturated bad One cc double bond monounsaturated 2 or more double bonds polyunsaturated o saturated fatty acids solid form butter lard o unsaturated fatty acids monoand poy liquid form oils olive and sunflower Fatty acid shapes 0 Saturated straight chains 0 Unsaturated introduces kinks to the chain Triglycerides Storage form of fat Most common form of fats and oils Triglycerides 3 fatty acids glycerol Diglyceride 2 fatty acids gycerol Monoglyceride 1 fatty acid glycerol 0 form absorbed by small intestine Phospholipids 2 fatty acids glycerol phosphorous group found in cell membrane synthesized by the body as needed Example Lecithin Func ons 0 Component of cell membrane 0 Emulsifier detergent Bile acids Lecithin o Improves food products salad dressing 0 Found in wheat germ peanuts egg yolks soybeans organ meat Sterols Multiringed Do not have glycerol backbone Ex cholesterol Waxy substance Found ONLY in animal products Func ons 0 Essential component of cell membrane o Produced by the liver and secreted into bloodstream 0 Forms important hormones and vitamin D Estrogentestosterone o Precursor to bile acids Hidden fat Look on nutrition facts labels Look on the lists of ingredients Control portion size Reduced fat foods Low fat lt or equal to 3g fat serving Fat free lt5 g fat serving Reduced fat 25 less than usual Calorie content is about the same Sugar is commonly added in place of fat Fat substitutesreplacement Water 0 Diet margarine Starch derivatives that binds water 0 Ztrim cellulose maltrin stellar oatrim 0 Used in salad dressings luncheon meats Gum fiber reduced fat icecream Protein globules o Dairylo Engineered fat olestra or clean 0 Made by bonding fatty acid to sucrose 0 Not digested o Fda aprproved used in potato chips 0 Problem reduced absorption of fatsoluble vitamins Essential fatty acids Omega3 fatty acid alpha linolenic acid fish Omega6 linoleic acid Reasons why it is essential 0 Body can only make double bonds after the 9 carbon from the omega end Fish Omega3 Fatty acid Primarily from fish oil Also found in canola walnuts flax seeds mussels crab shrimp and soybean oil Recommended intake of about 2 servings of fish per week Fish oil capsules omega 3 eggs feed it to the chickens Omega 3 fatty acids present in tofu soybeans walnuts flaxseed 0 Alpha linolenic acid Docosahexanoic acid DHA and Eicosapentanoic acid EPA Healthrelated effects 0 DHA EPA omega 3 Decrease blood clotting Decrease inflammation Reduce heart attack Excess may cause hemorrhagic stroke Other possible uses lower triglycerides rheumatoid arthritis behavioral disorders Omega6 fatty acid Found in vegetable oils Only need about 2 4 table spoons a day Excess can lead to disease conditions 0 Proinflammatory prothrombotic Omega 6 to omega 3 ratio 0 Preferably 21 as opposed to current intake of 101 Signs and symptoms of essential fatty acids deficiency o Flaky itchy skin 0 Diarrhea o Infections o Retarded growth and wound healing Rancidity Decomposition of oils resulting in bad odor sour and stale taste Breakdown of the 00 bonds by UV light andor 02 PUFA more susceptible Limited shelf life Prevention 0 Addition of partially hydrogenated oil trans fats to increase shelf life 0 Addition of vitamin E 0 Addition of synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT Trans fatty acids Hydrogenation of fatty acids 0 Process used to solidify an oil 0 Addition of hydrogen to 00 double bonds 0 Increases shelf life 0 Formation of trans fatty acid similar to shape of saturated fatty acid Excessive trans fatty acid intake 0 Associated with cardiovascular disease 0 Increases LDL bad cholesterol and lowers HDL good cholesterol 0 Trans fat content listed on food labels since 2006 Recommended fat intake America heart association recommends 0 2030 of calories from fat less than 10 of calories from saturated fatty acids 200300 mg cholesterol day keeps trans fat to a minimum 2 to 3 servings of fish for omega3 fatty acids OOOO Digestion of fat in the stomach Gastric lipase o This enzyme breaks down triglycerides containing short and medium chain fatty acids to monoglycerides and fatty acids Digestion of fat in the Small intestine Small intestine primary site of fat digestion When fat enters the small intestine o Cholecystokinin CCK hormone is released from the small intestine 0 Causes gallbladder to contract releasing bile o Cholecystokinin also causes release of pancreatic lipase Digests emulsified fat 0 Fat is broken down To monoglycerides and fatty acids Absorption of fat 95 of dietary fat is absorbed passive diffusion into the intestinal cells shortand medium chain fatty acids 0 ender bloodstream thru portal vein Longchain fatty acids reform into triglycerides in the intestinal cells Enter lymphatic system and finally into circulation Transportation of absorbed fatty acids Packaged into chylomicrons type of lipoprotein particle Released into lymphatic system Lipoprotein Particles Transport lipids throughout the body Chylomicrons VLDL very low density lipoproteins LDL low density lipoproteins HDL high density lipoproteins Chylomicrons Synthesized by the small intestine Transports triglyceride TG to tissues mainly muscle and adipose ln blood TG broken down by lipoprotein lipase glycerol fatty acids VLDL Very low density lipoprotein Synthesized by the liver Transports newly made TG and cholesterol Ch and any left over dietary lipids Liver w TG Ch Ch Ch body tissues LDL low density lipoprotein Bad cholesterol synthesized by the liver transports mostly cholesterol to tissues highfat diets decrease removal of LDLs from blood HDL high density lipoprotein Good cholesterol synthesized by liver and intestine transports cholesterol from the body s dying cells and plaques to the liver for excretion higher levels of HDL associated with lower risk for cardiovascular diseases at Body tissues HDL liver Heart Disease on CANVAS Hardening of arteries Also known as o Coronary heart disease CHD 0 Cardiovascular disease CVD o Arteriosclerosis Takes many years to develop Begins with accumulation of lipid in the arteries Gradually enlarge and develop into plaques Signs of a heart attack 0 Intense prolong chest pain Shortness of breath Sweating Nausea and vomiting Dizziness Weakness Jaw neck shoulder pain 0 Irregular heartbeat Thrombosis o Stationary blood clot that closes off a blood vessel Embolus o A blood clot that breaks loose occurs in veins 0 Go to hear lungs brain Risk factors 0 Total blood cholesterol gt 200 mgdl 0 Smoking increase clotting 0 Hypertension gt14090 0 Diabetes OOOOOO Guarantees development of cardiovascular disease 0 Low HDL cholesterol lt 40 mgdl 0 High LDL gt130 mgdl 0 Age Menopause 0 Family history 0 Blood triglycerides gt200 mgdl o Obesity Fat around waist Insulin resistance 0 Inactivity Treatments 0 Lifestyle modification Dietary changes Regular exercise 0 Medical intervention Drugs Surgery Lifestyle modifications Lowering LDL 0 Reduce dietary saturated fat and cholesterol 0 Increase MUFA and PUFA 0 Increase dietary fiber 0 Use of plant sterols Benecol spread Lowing blood TG o Is the most dietresponsive blood lipid Avoid overeating Limit alcohol Limit simple sugas Small frequent meals 0 Include fish in the diet or fish oil capsules as supplement Raising HDL 0 Physical activity 0 3060 min brisk activity most days of the week 0 don t smoke 0 eat less total fat Med interventions 0 Drugs 0000 Statins Zocor Lipitor crestor vytorin reduce cholesterol by liver Niacin lowers blood triglycerides increases HDL cholesterol 0 Surgery Angioplasty cath lab Look on canvas Coronary bypass surgery