Chapter 6 Protein Notes
Chapter 6 Protein Notes HRTM 340-J10
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sharneece Gary on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HRTM 340-J10 at University of South Carolina taught by Elizabeth K. Morton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 6 The Proteins amp Amino Acids Vocabulary Peptide bonds are made between the amino end of one and the acid end of the next Denaturation the breaking down of amino acids 0 Useful to the body in digestion I The stomach initiates protein digestion 0 Breaking down of the shape by heat alcohol acids bases or the salts of heavy metals 0 Denaturation also occurs in the food preparation process Enzymes Catalysts substance which speeds up a reaction that help chemical reactions take place 0 Involved in the digestion of food the release of energy and the growthrepair of tissues Fluid Balance distribution of uid among body compartments 0 To stay alive a cell must contain a consistent amount of uid Protein Sparing a description of the effect of carbohydrate and fat which by being available to yield energy allow amino acids to be used to build body proteins Complete Proteins proteins containing all the essential amino acids in the right proportion relative to need 0 Have all 9 essential amino acids I Example Soy and Animal Incomplete Proteins a protein lacking or low in one or more of the essential amino acids Limiting amino acids essential amino acid in shortest supply in a food protein Kwashiorkor Protein de ciency Marasmus Energy de ciency Proteinenergy Malnutrition Kwashiorkor and Marasmus Proteins Contain nitrogen atoms 0 Whereas carbohydrates and fats contain hydrogen and oxygen atoms Made of amino acids 0 Each amino acid in a strand of protein is different from one another I The different shapes are unique to the different tasks they possess 0 They differ in composition size shape and electrical charge 0 The body can make about half of the amino acids need but not the essential amino acids 0 Charged amino acids attract to water and neutral amino acids are repelled by water 0 Absorption of amino acids takes place all along the small intestine Protein Synthesis 0 Begins when the amino acids hook together and peptide bonds are made About 20 of our total body weight is proteins The stomach initiates the digestion of proteins Protein quality is determined by the protein s digestibility and its amino acid composition When you do not have enough protein in the body the body starts to eat away at itself on the protein tissue present The Gold Standard Protein is EGG WHITES Important Facts Not all hormone are made from proteins 0 Act as messengers sending appropriate responses to maintain a normal environment of the body 0 Regulate blood glucose metabolic rate Antibodies form in response to the presence of antigens that invade the body Amino acids from animals amp soy proteins are the most easily absorbed 90100 0 Other legumes are the next best 90100 0 Grains amp other plants food vary 7090 Water is the most important nutrient Whenever cells are lost proteins are lost Animal food and soy contains all essential amino acids 0 Complete Proteins RDA is 8gkg of protein It takes 25g of soy to reduce LDL If an essential amino acid required for the formation of a certain enzyme is missing in a diet synthesis of the enzyme will be halted In human beings diets high in protein require higher intakes of clicum
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