Lecture 13: Prokaryotes-Bacteria and Archaea
Lecture 13: Prokaryotes-Bacteria and Archaea BIO 209L-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 209L-001 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Renee Kopulos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab - SL in Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Lecture 13Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea 1 Physical Characteristics A Uncellular though some from colonies 9 Individual cells living together in one B Tiny 055um diameter 9 Fraction size of eukaryotic C Cell wall 9 Not composed of the same substance as cell well of eukaryotes plants and fungi 9 Also cell walls of bacteria are different from archaea 9 Suggest analogy rather then homology Bacteria Cell Walls 2 General Kinds 1 Composed primarily of Peptidoglycan Thick layer around the cell and living over it 2 Outer membrane in additions to peptidoglycan Thin layer of Pepti and plasma membrane over it Gram Staining of cell walls components helps categorize and identify bacteria GramPositive Groups of Bacteria that have a cell wall that is structurally Less complex and contains More peptidoglycan then the cell wall usually less toxic GramNegative Groups of Bacteria that have a cell wall that is structurally More complex and contains Less peptidoglycan then the cell wall often more toxic Gram Staining helps in identifying bacterial infections Important because many gramnegative bacteria are more likely resistant to antibiotics External Structure helps adhere to surface or to other bacteria in colonies sticks on Fimbriae a short hairlike appendage of a prokaryotic cell that helps it adhere to the substrate or to other cells Movements Taxis directed movement towards or away from a stimulus Ex Chemotaxis movement towards or away from a chemical stimulus Phototaxis towards or away from the Light 2 Genetic Diversity and Reproduction Prokaryotic Genome vs Eukaryotes Not surrounded by Nuclear Membrane DNA Lessgt singular Chomo gt Smaller Chromosomes circular and replicates separately from smaller separately rings of DNA called Plasmids Reason 1 gt Prokaryotic have very high genetic variation even though they reproduce sexually gt But bacteria or prokaryotic that reproduce very rapidly short generation time and have very large population Reason 2 gt Mutation are rare random events but with huge population and frequent reproduction they build up at a faster rate Reason 3 gt High genetic diversity on prokaryotes also result from genetic recombination combining DNA from 2 sources gt Acquire exogenous DNA via 3 mechanisms 1 Transformation exogenous DNA taken in through the cell membrane combined with own DNA 2 Transduction Phages viruses that attacks bacteria move sections of DNA from one bacteria to another 3 Conjugation one way transfer of DNA between two temporarily connected bacterial cells 3 Metabolisms To preform cellular chemical reaction need EnergyCarbon EC easy to remember 1 Energy from PhotolightgtSun and Chemo Chemical Bond 2 Carbon from CO2Auto and Other OrganismHetero Different PhotoChem and AutoHetero Photoautotroph Harnesses light energy to drive the Synthesis of organic compounds from C02 Photoheterotroph uses light to generate ATP but must obtain carbon in organic form Chemoautotroph Obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substance and needs only C02 as a carbon source Chemoheterotroph requires organic molecules for both energy and carbon Extremophiles Live permanently in extreme conditions 1 Thermophiles Love heats 2 Halophiles Salt Loving 3 Cryophilic Cold Loving 4 Important Bacteria and Archaea Borrelia Burgdorfori Causes Lyme Disease and is transmitted by quotDeer Tick MRSA Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus 2 Causes staph infection and is resistant to a common antibiotic Rhizobium Species 9 Grow in roots in Legumes 9 Fix atmospheric N2 9 Nitrogen is essential to make amino acid and nucleic acids 9 Forms root nodules in legumes and some other plant families 9 Get Carbohydrates and Minerals from root Plants get N Bacteria gets C mutualism interaction between 2 species where both bene t