Week Five - Lipids Notes .pdf
Week Five - Lipids Notes .pdf 2210
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Wednesday October 1, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/14
Human Nutrition 2210 10114 927 PM Week Five Chapter Five Lipids Fats 197039s push for low fat recommendations increase in obesity rates taking fat out of food lose taste Replace with sugar and sodium low fat high sugar Role of Lipids get bad rap Energy storage adipose tissue endless supply Muscle fuel longer endurance activities Emergency reserve during times when we39re not eating sleepingfasting 0 Average person 100000kca stored as fat Padding organ protection Insulation keep warm produce heat from fat penguins 0 Cell membranes lipid bilayer Raw materials precursor to vitaminshormones sex hormones RecaH Glycogen is primary storage form of carbs in animals Properties of Lipids Don39t readily dissolve in water Fats solid at room temp Butter Oils liquid at room temp Vegetable oil Triglycerides main form of lipids in food and body 0 Storage 95 of lipids in foodsbody Energy dense 9kca The Lipids Triglycerides main form 0 Fatty acid fatty acid fatty acid glycerol 0 Need fatty acids to produce ATPenergy 0 Fatty acid structure carbon hydrogen oxygen dictate how the fatty acid is handled in the body Of carbons chain length Of double bonds degree of saturation Omega bondalpha end 0 Saturated Fat No double bonds Solid at room temp Animal fats lard Some plant oils coconut palm o Unsaturated Fat Onemore double bonds Most plant oils Liquid at room temp Likely to spoil more susceptible to oxidation 2 Prevent spoilagerancidity protect from lightoxygen Store tightly covered Refrigerate Add antioxidants Hydrogenate make saturated how oils become solid fats o Hydrogenate Oils Easy to handle Stores well prevent rancidity High smoking point good for frying Produces trans fatty acid health concerns 0 Monounsaturated fatty acid structure carbon hydrogen oxygen one double bond Olive oil increase in reducing risk for heart disease 77 Canola oil 62 o Polyunsaturated fatty acid structure carbon hydrogen oxygen greater then two double bonds Phospholipids lecithin Sterols cholesterol only comes from animal products not plants Health Dangers of Excessive Trans Fatty Acid Increase risk for heart disease Raises blood cholesterol Current intake is 3 of total kcal Now on food labels Minimize intake of trans fat Limit use of hydrogenated fats Deep fried foods High fat baked goods Non dairy creamers Essential necessary for survival Fatty Acids Body can only make double bonds in certain location Immune function vision cell membrane production of hormone like compounds Omega 3 omega 3 alpha linoleic acid DHAEPA 0 Double bond is located on the 3 carbon from omega bond 0 Primary fish oilcanolasoybean oil 0 Recommended intake 2 servings of fish per week Omega 6 omega 6 linoleic acid arachidonic acid 0 Double bond is located on the 6 carbon from omega bond 0 Vegetable oils only need about one tbsp per day Different Effects Omega 6 arachidonic acid health risks 0 Increase blood clots 0 Increase inflammatory responses Omega 3 DHAEPA health benefits 0 Reduce heart attacks 0 Lower blood clotting 0 Excess hemorrhagic stroke 0 Large amounts lower inflammation pain with rheumatoid arthritis 0 Fish omega 3 supplement pills sold at stores for benefits Sources of Omega 3 fatty acid Salmon mackerel horning trout tuna oyster Non fish sources 0 Flaxseed canola soy oils walnuts beans peas Cholesterol Multi ringed structure No glycerol backbone Waxy substance Functions of Cholesterol Essential component of cell membrane Produced by liver Found only in animal products ex pretzels no choestero obviously Forms important sex hormones estrogen testosterone vitamin D Precursor to bile acids helps with fat digestion Does fat free mean all you can eat Fat removed sugar added Fat free is NOT calorie free Calorie content is similar to full fat version Eat reduced fat foods in moderation Fat digestion 95 of fat consumed is absorbed digestion of fat Triglyceride from food to triglyceride in adipose fat 0 Problems triglyceride are large 0 Water and fat don39t mix In the stomach o Gastric Lipase enzyme works in acidic environment Acts on triglycerides containing short and medium length chain fatty acids Longer chain not affected by stomach In the small intestine 0 Primary site of fat digestion o CCK hormone stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic lipase enzyme 0 Bile acid and emulsifies digested fat 0 Fat broken down to monoglycerides and fatty acids Absorption of fat Diffuse into the absorption cells Shortmedium chain lt 12C fatty acids are water soluble enters the portal system Long chain fatty acids reforms into TG enters lymphatic system Carrying fat in the bloodstream Water blood and oil fat are incompatible Unique system of fat transportation is needed Lipoproteins triglycerides protein phospholipids free cholesterol 0 How can we get these triglycerides out of protein core and into adipose tissue Enzyme Transportation of Dietary Fat chylomicrons Iipoprotein Transportation of Synthesized Fat Very low density lipoproteins LDL High density lipoproteins HDL HDLLDL associated with cholesterol transport and heart disease HDL good cholesterol returns excess fat from heartmusclesother hepatic tissues back to the liver 0 Raise HDL cholesterol Physical activity 45minday 4 daysweek Avoid smoking Eat regularly Eat less total fat Moderate alcohol intake LDL bad cholesterol delivers cholesterol from liver to heartmusclesother hepatic tissues 0 Lowering LDL Cholesterol Reduce dietary saturated fat and cholesterol animal products Increase MUFA and PUFA fatty acids Increase dietary fiber soluble Result minor changes in cholesterol not terribly effective lower cholesterol in the body synthesizes more Cholesterol and Diet Average person consumes 400 800mg and synthesizes 1000 2000mg Increase intake decrease synthesize vice versa Must inhibit synthesis statin drugs Blocked arteries cholesterolplaque formation and accumulation restricts blood flow Risk factors for heart disease Genetics Smoking Lack of regular exercise High cholesterol High blood pressure Diabetes Obesity Recommendation No RDA for fat 4 of total kcal should come from essential fatty acids Less than 15 from PUFA Total kcal from fat very animal based American Heart Association For high risk individuals Less than 2030 total calories coming from fat per day Dietary changes aren39t that effective 10114 927 PM 10114 927 PM
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