Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes ANTH 3540
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Pemberton on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 3540 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Susan Tanner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Multicultural Healthcare in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Anthropology of Eating Week 6 92215 Taste and Smell 0 We gravitate towards the highest weight we ve been Eating on the Wild Side 0 Comparing phytonutrients in different strains of food Foods to get as fresh and soon as possible 0 Artichokes arugula asparagus broccoli Brussel sprouts Kale lettuce parsley mushrooms spinach Today Taste Smell and Memory 0 Examine physiology of taste and smell 0 To test for safety of food 0 We used to think certain parts of tongue picked up on different avors 0 Now outdated all parts of tongue are used for taste I Bitter salty sweet Umami sour 0 Umami recognition of amino acids rich savory taste I Salty 1400 I Sour 1130000 I Bitter 12000000 0 Things can alter your taste I Sugar to cleanse palate I Age I Gender I Temperature I Appearance color I Texture I Spiciness 39 Smell I Miracle Fruit makes sour things taste sweet 0 Has protein called miraculin with sugars attached to it that your tongue can t reach Why Some Like It Hot 0 Nontasters don t taste bitter things 0 Tasters don t like bitter things 0 Supertasters really susceptible to bitterspicy things 0 Supertasters have more taste buds for surface area We smell much easier than we taste 0 Evolutionary early warning 0 Detect in as few as 1trillion 0 Because our brains are larger our olfactory sensors are smaller characteristic of primates 0 Smell has stronger impact than taste 0 Smell evokes memories 0 Proust memory unexpected smell unleashing storm of memories Fast Food Nation 0 Importance of avor and smell 0 Flavor Industry 0 Chemicals to create certain avors o Revenues based on 14 billion Today 92415 Exam Because of how precise our sense of smell is we can usually pick up on even minimal amount of artificial avors Most used spices are also most antibacterial O 0 Having spicy foods is adaptation against bacteria More prevalent in hotter temperatures Obese people can conjure up vivid scentbased imaginations of food leads to food cravings Examined o How there are 5 main tastes o How tasting allows us to avoid poisoned foods 0 How taste and smell relate 0 Increased ability to see means decreased ability to smell 0 English speakers have more difficulty describing food smells 6 short essay questions 6 multiple choice or fillintheblank questions No statisticsdata specific questions Know main topics for each lecture 0 Everything needed from readings should be covered in class Visit TA if you have questions Taste Terroir and Memory 0 Define terroir 0 Explore different examples of terroir 0 Discuss food and memory Terroir o The taste of place 0 The notion that the natural environment can shape the taste especially With Wine 0 Particular areas of the worldparticular valleys known for Wine 0 Can be the case for any type of food 0 Somm Wine test ridiculously hard 0 A Geography of Oysters guide to oyster eating 0 Distinct avors per place have somwhereness o The terroir of cheese 0 While there is legitimacy to it it s also a big marketing campaign Food and Memory 0 Food and sensuous memory 0 Many people dislike of okra because it s slimy 0 Historically constructed identity ethnic or nationalist 0 Food in various forms of nostalgia 0 Association of curry With colonization 0 Dietary change as a socially charged marker of epochal shifts 0 Fast Food 0 Olive oil 0 Sushi spread of it to the US 0 Shift to solo eating 0 Gender and the agents of memory 0 Like water for chocolate 0 Contexts of remembering and forgetting through food 0 Holidays 0 Funerals o Proustian Memory sudden in ux of memories from a specific sme11 Multicultural Healthcare Week 7 92815 This Week Biosciences Biotechnology and Multicultural Healthcare 0 Today Video Ghost in Your Genes PBS Nova 0 Wednesday Local biology and the lure of genetics 0 Friday Case study of HeLa cells and Henrietta Lacks Ghost in Your Genes 0 What was the traditional understanding of human variation health and genes Why does epigenetics change this pattern 0 What is epigenetics What examples of Epigenetics are given For each how does this film present effects of the environment 0 Notes on the film 0 Parents and grandparents experiences can affect your genetics 0 Traditional belief is that your genetic code is locked upon conception I Biology of inheritance is therefore reassuringly pure 0 Found that common belief of genetics doesn t cover the reality of genetic conditions I Angelman Syndrome Called Happy Puppet Children Can t speak move in jerky movements but are always very happy I Prodivilly Syndrome Causes rapid weight gain in children 0 Both caused by same genetic fault 0 Which syndrome it is is determined by which parent the faulty gene comes from 0 Human Genome Project Overly optimistic thinks of genes in a very mechanical and therefore incomplete way I Found there are less than 30000 genes in humans 0 Different sex of genes affects genetics I Genomic imprinting Genes have a memory of where they came from 0 Similar to a light switch I Whether a gene is turned on or off is determined bycalled epigenetics 0 Understanding genome doesn t explain everything 0 Changes appeared in whether genes were on or off from putting embryos in cultures 0 Epigenetics inherited just like regular genetics I Transfer of stress factors to children from holocaust survivors I Traumatic event can switch genes on or off 0 Main effect happens if a pregnant woman was in her third trimester when it happens 0 Famine can affect people up to 100 years later even if they never experienced a famine themselves I Food supply of father s father can affect diabetes in grandchildren 0 There are only certain periods sensitive periods of adjustment in life when an effect of the environment can change epigenetics I Women most susceptible while in womb I Men most susceptible right before puberty 93015 Biosciences Biotechnology and Multicultural Healthcare 0 Embodiment 0 Genes and Risk 0 Ownership of the body Midterm will be over material in class and readings Embodying Inequality 0 The consequence of stress the thymus gland and medical history of SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Treatment 0 Thymus produces T cells that help protect your body from infection declines with age 0 Thymus shrinks in response to stress shrunk thymus thought to be normal 0 Abnormally large thymus by that time s standards in SIDS babies 0 Newborn babies given prescription to irradiate thymus so it shrunk I Also irradiated thyroid gland causing thyroid cancer Bodies Count Krieger and Smith 0 Social conditions embedded into bodies literally o People s behavioral emotional and cognitive responses to adverse and beneficial circumstances may in uence somatic health 0 Psychosocial adversity impairs the quality of people s lives even if it doesn t harm soma 0 Psychosocial stressors are socially patterned Friedrich Engels on bodily impact of factory working conditions in 1830s40s England 0 Stress and less money poorer health condition Height and Mirror of Society 0 Impact of child labor 0 Mean height of boys working in Manchester and Leeds factories 1833 and 1837 Very short in comparison to average population The move away from social approaches to Health 0 Germ theory 18608 0 Could focus on single pathogen rather than the broader social condition 0 Social Darwinism 1880sl930s o Innate inferiority was underlying ill health enfeeblement and poverty everywhere 0 Took blame away from social conditions I Move towards genetics Bodies Count 0 Kreiger and Davey Smith argue that genetic markers can help understand the confounding effects of social conditions In a group discuss their use of the homocysteinecoronary heart disease illustration 0 Can treat it as a genetic model or as a genetic base for social conditions 0 Genetically even across population 0 Higher homocysteine leads to in ammation known to increase risk of coronary heart disease 0 Not entirely independent of each other 10215 Are genes viewed as risky 0 Do you think there is a difference 0 Risk of breastcancer with BRCA mutation 0 Risk of heart disease with high cholesterol I Inside vs outside source I Differing forms of control over response 0 Risk Probability of getting an undesirable outcome Lure of the Epigenome 0 Mechanism demonstrating link between genes phenotype and outside world 0 Why does the Lock article encourage caution 0 Danger of controlling bodies behavior modification 0 Focuses on behavior instead of social environment Genes as Embodied Risk 0 Risk and Philosophy of Risk 0 Mary Douglas 0 Term risk in medicine is significant moves away from danger or hazard and creates air of neutrality and scientific legitimacy 0 Danger reworded as risk removed from sphere of the unpredictablesupernaturaldivine and placed squarely at the feet of the responsible individual Group 0 Discuss 0 What did you find most interesting about the HeLa reading andor Radiolab Episode 0 How does the example of HeLa relate to the following concepts I The physical social and political body I Culture in biomedicine I Technology and biomedicine I Any other topics that we have discussed In Sum 0 Interaction between science technology health and society 0 Technology genetics and behavior often focus on individual challenge is to also consider social aspect