Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes BIOL 1030-003
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Rosenfeld on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030-003 at Clemson University taught by Kristi J. Whitehead in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
9212015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy SECTIONS 61616 Sections 6165 Cellular Respiration Aerobic Harvesting of Energy I Cellular Respiration 0 When an organism takes food and gets energy from the food 0 You have to have oxygen present for cellular respiration 0 Bacterial cells are capable of aerobic respiration in a different way I Respiration and Photosynthesis O Photosynthesis I Occurs in plants C02 H 20 light C6 H12 0602 glucose and oxygen I Energy from the sun is consumed endergonic process 0 Energy is put in O Respiration I Occurs in animals I Glucose and 02 I ATP used for cellular work amp C02 H 20 release energy and capture it in the form of ATP I Cell captures energy exergonic process 0 Energy is released heat 0 Figure 61 Page 90 I Respiration 0 Cellular respiration is different from breathing but they are connected 0 Breathing I Gas exchange I Obtain 02 inhale release C02 exhale 0 Cellular Respiration aerobic respiration I Requires 02 oxygen I Energy is harvested from food I Figure 62 Page 90 I Basic Functions of Cellular Respiration 0 Purpose to get usable energy from food 0 Generates ATP I One glucose molecule yields about 32 molecules of ATP 0 Reactants C 6 H12 06 6 O2 C6H12 06 I Respiration breaks into tiny pieces 0 There are multiple steps to cellular respiration 9212015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 0 Products 6C026 H20energyATP heat 0 Glucose has a lot of potential energy I Only about 34 of energy ATP is captured from glucose because the other 66 is lost through heat and the waste products chemical bonds of carbon dioxide amp water I Figure 63 Page 91 I The multiple arrows in the figure refer to multiple steps I We do not have to know all of the steps of cellular respiration just know the big picture 0 Where energy may go 0 1 kg 1 C 0 Figure 64 Page 91 I How do cells obtain energy from glucose 0 Cells obtain energy from glucose through the transfer of electrons from glucose to oxygen I Energy is released C6H 12 06 02 I Bonds in glucose are broken and energy is released in the form of electrons I Oxygen is the last thing to get electrons 0 The transfermovement of electrons is an oxidationreduction reaction redox reaction I Terminal electron acceptor I Goes back to electronegatiVity I Oxygen has strong electronegatiVity and pulls electrons from other molecules I Figure 63 Page 91 I Redox Reactions 0 Oxidation I Loss of electrons going fromto something I If something is losing something is also gaining when something loses electrons it is oxidized I OIL Ooxidation Iis Llost 0 Reduction I Gain of electrons I When something gains electrons it is reduced I RIG Rreduction Iis Ggained I Figure 65A Page 92 0 Follow hydrogens to follow electrons in the figure 0 NAD O Coenzyme that is very important in cellular respiration 0 Role electron carrier 9212015 O O O O 0 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 Important to the oxidation of glucose Accepts electrons and becomes reduced to NADH FAD FADH 2 is also important Figure 65B Page 91 Adds electrons 0 Electron Transport Chain 0 0 00000 0 takes the electrons free from glucose and transports them to oxygen starts at high energy level and falls down to lower energy levels in the form of oxygen this releases energy that can be captured to make ATP Figure 65C Page 92 Release energy to move which is captured by ATP Electron Transport Chains have to be found in the membrane no matter what Eukaryotic Cellular Respiration I ETC found in inner mitochondrial membrane I Due to the cristae the surface area the amount of ETCs increase the amount of energy Bacterium Cellular Respiration I Found in the plasma membrane Sections 66612 Stages of Cellular Respiration Overview of Cellular Respiration I Aerobic Respiration 3 Parts 0 O O Glycolysis Pyruvate oxidation and citric and acid cycle Krebs Cycle I Main purpose is to release electrons so that the 3rd step is possible Oxidative phosphorylation I Glycolysis O O O Happens in the cytoplasm Glucose 6 carbon compound gets broken down into 2 3 carbon compounds pyruvate Every step after glycolysis has to happen twice pyruvate oxidation amp citric acid cycle because of the 2 pyruvate molecules Substrate Level Phosphorylationsmall amount of ATP is made I Pyruvate Oxidation amp Citric Acid CycleKrebs Cycle 0 O O 0 Located in the mitochondrion where the rest of cellular respiration takes place Pyruvates are oxidized to 2 acetylCoA The acetylCoA s then move into the Krebs Cycle Losing electrons that go to the electron carriers NADH I Oxidative Phosphorylation O O Requires ETC Found in inner mitochondrial membrane 9212015 O O 0 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 Requires the process of chemiosmosis The stage where almost all of the ATP is made and captured The ATP is made through the process of oxidative phosphorylation I Chemiosmosis O O CO The process in which an ETC helps us obtain ATP Creates a hydrogen ion gradient a lot of potential energy that is then formed into ATP Electrons move down ETC moving between electron carriers and from a high to low energy state Energy is released as the electrons are moved between carriers The energy is used to pump hydrogen ions into the inner membrane space ATP synthasemultisubunit that allows hydrogens to come back in a controlled manner to convert ADPPATP BIG PICTURE I Figure 66 Page 93 I Glycolysis BIG PICTURE 0 Starts with glucose and makes 2 pyruvate it is then reduced to 2 molecules of NAD freeing enough electrons to go to the ETC the NET production of 2 molecules of ATP Figure 67A Page 94 ATP is made through SubstrateLevel Phosphorylation Has a substrate that has atleast one phosphate that then is removed to add to ADP to make ATP Figure 67B Page 94 Two Main Stages I Energy Investment Phase I Requires 2 ATP to break bonds in glucose 0 By the end the glucose is split 0 Steps 14 I Figure 67 C 11 Page 95 I Energy Payoff Phase I Creates 4 ATP 0 Figure 67 C 22 Page 95 0 Water is created as a waste product I Do not have to know all pathways for the test I UNDERSTAND start with 6 carbon compound2 3 carbon compoundslose some energy start with one and end with two I 2 ATP can be used immediately but the 2NADH cannot be used until you get to oxidative phosphorylation I Only 2 ATP net gain because you had to put 2 in at the beginning I Pyruvate Oxidation O Occurs in the mitochondrion 9212015 O 0 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 Pyruvate has to be changed to go to the citric acid cycle 3 step process I Carboxyl group is removed from the pyruvate I NAD is reduced to NADH I Coenzyme A combines With NADH to form Acetyl CoA I Figure 68 Page 96 0 KrebsCitric Acid Cycle 0 00000 0 00000 Hans Kreb Finishing breaking down of organic molecules Using electrons from NADH and FADH2 molecules Oxidation is completed Figure 69A Page 96 Series of reactions that starts With citrate and then a bunch of redox reactions happen and then it ends With more citrate When something is being oxidized something has to be reduced Figure 69B Page 97 FADH2 comes out of the citric acid cycle 1 glucose32 ATP 4 ATP comes from the first part 2 from glycolysis 2 from Citric Acid Cycle The other 28 comes from 2FAD H2 10 NAD H 5 through oxidative phosphorylation I Oxidative Phosphorylation O O O 0 3rd step Requires an electron transport chain and chemiosmosis Oxygen is required Oxidative phosphorylation has to use all of the energy that comes out of the first two steps Oxygen is required and it involves organisms that regularly grow in the presence of oxygen Inner membrane of the mitochondria 2 forms of electron carriers I Proteins that can move around I Proteins that cannot move around It is very important that FAD and FAD H2 are recycled Chemiosmosis I Dependent on a hydrogen ion gradient Figure 610A Page 98 Analogy I DISTRUBUTION CENTER Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Krebs CycleTRANSPORT TRUCKS NADH FAD H2 trucks are heavy so 9212015 0 Glycolysis Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 2 add H ionsSTORE electron transport chain ez dumps off electrons and recycles them back to the distribution center 0 Evolved in the early earthone of the oldest pathways 35 billion years ago Little to no oxygen Only prokaryotic organisms 0 Evidence All 3 domains use glycolysis 0 Eukarya 0 Bacteria 0 Archaea LUCA last universal common ancestor 0 Capable of glycolysis 0 Last to exist before the domains broke up Glycolysis itself does not require oxygen 0 Only breaking apart into two pyruvates 0 There was no oxygen 35 billion years ago Glycolysis is not dependent on membrane bound organelles because it occurs in the cytoplasm 0 Oxidative Phosphorylation Review 0 Happens in the mitochondrion 0 Has an outer and inner membrane that has a folded inner membrane with more surface area which leads to more electron transport chains which then makes more ATP 00 Electron Transport Chains are anywhere in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion Mitochondrial Matrix inner most part 0 Gets NADH and FADH2brings them to ETC where it can be used Needs to be recycled and reused NADH comes in at first electron car erEloxidizedElreduced FADH2 becomes oxidized to FAD and is then reduced Redox reactions going from one carrier being oxidized to the next which is reduced Energy is released to drive the movement of hydrogen ions across the intermembranel leads to gradient of hydrogen ions with a large amount of potential energy that the cell cannot access Hydrogen ions go through ATP synthase changing shapes of the proteins letting ADP and a phosphate bind forming ATP chemiosmosis If you don t have oxygen there is no force to move and create energy 0 ATP Synthase Conformational changes 9212015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 I Phosphates come from other reactions occurring in the cell I Things are trying to even out but help is needed to get the hydrogen ions across the membrane I The only place to cross in this case is through the ATP synthase I Have to have e entering the electron transport chain I Figure 610B Page 98 0 More on ATP Synthase O Rotenone Cyanide Carbon Monoxide DNP and Oligomycin all block transport and Oligomycin specifically blocks ATP synthase Figure 612 Page 100 Would a hydrogen be created by each of the drugs Can you form a proton gradient If so can you still get ATP There is only on subunit Where the hydrogen ions can ow moving the gamma subunit causing conformational changes in the beta subunit binding ADP with a 000 phosphate to make ATP releasing and returning back to normal confirmation 0 OVERVIEW OF ALL 3 STEPS 0 Figure 612 Page 100 Sections 513614 Fermentation Anaerobic Harvesting of Energy 0 What happens When oxygen is lacking 0 Does not require oxygen 0 Just like cellular respiration Fermentation uses glycolysis and gets the same products 0 Produces 2 ATP molecules 0 Reduces NAD to NADH 0 This provides an anaerobic path to recycle NADH back to NAD 0 If you don t have an electron transport chain then how do you recycle the NADH 0 Example 0 Figure 613A Page 101 O The top is the same as before 0 Difference pyruvate becomes reduced 0 Oxidize NADH to NAD loses electrons 0 End product lactate 0 Alcohol Fermentation 0 Figure 613B Page 101 0 Final product 2 ethanol 0 Types of prokaryotes that might use fermentation O Obligate Anaerobes I Special group of microbes that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen dies in the presence of oxygen 0 Facultative Anaerobes I Ecoli 9212015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 39 Can grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen and can change their processes if they need to Sections 615616 Connections between Metabolic Pathways 0 At multiple points of cellular respiration things can leave and come into the cell 0 It is not a linear process 0 Cells can use any type of nutrient to feed into the process of cellular respiration O O O O O Carbssugars Fatsglycerol fatty acids Proteinsamino acids Body is capable of using nutrients in any form not just one from certain foods Figure 615 Page 102 0 Opposite direction 0 Glucose doesn t always need to be used for cellular respiration it can pull out some glucose to use in biosynthesis 0 Figure 616 Page 103
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