Notes on lesson 9-10
Notes on lesson 9-10 CHMY 141N - 00
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corymarie Notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHMY 141N - 00 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
HEMISTRY 141 NOTES ssssssss 10 HOW DO HEMISTS EXPRESS NAMES AND EORMULAS 0F SUBSTANHS PAM 1 Chemical Formulas representation of the composition of elements and compounds purposed by Berzelius lt3 gives the ratio of atoms in a compound Chemical Nomenclature the system by which substances are named o IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry for substances Compounds made up of atoms or ions of different elements Binary Molecular Compounds compounds formed by two nonmetals andor metalloid and a nonmetal O Binary in this case referring to two types of elements Naming Binary Molecular Compounds two words 0 First word is the name of the element appearing first in the chemical formula including a prefix to indicate the number of atoms of the element in the compound 0 Second word is the name of the element appearing second in the chemical formula modified with the suffix ide and a prefix to indicate the number of atoms of the element in the compound H20 is always called water for our use NH3 is always called ammonia for our use Ion when an atom gains or loses an electron giving the atom a charge 0 Cation positive charge result of losing an electron metal atoms lt3 Anion negative charge result of gaining an electron nonmetal atoms recommend common names I HOW DO HEMISiS EXPRESS NAMES ANDiOKMULAS 0i SUBSiANiiSPAii10Ni1wiD o Ionic Compound metal nonmetal atoms due to an attraction of opposite charges 0 Monatomic ion ion formed from one atom lt3 When naming monatomic ions Monatomic anions add ide to the element name followed by ion Monatomic cations element name followed by ion 0 Memorize zinc ion Zn2 and silver ion Ag 0 Acid molecular compound that reacts with water to yield a hydrogen ion and an anion o Oxoacid an acid that contains hydrogen a nonmetal and oxygen lt3 The name of the ion formed when all of the hydrogen ions are removed from the acid is the acid name and add the ending ate The charge on the ion results from the number of hydrogen ions that leave the neutral acid molecule 0 xoaCIds carbonic acid H2003 Charges of element ion in corresponding group nitric acid N03 phosphoric H3PO4 Group 1A 2A 3A 5A 6A 7A aCId sulfuric acid H2804 Charge 1 2 3 3 2 1 chloric acid HC03 Compound 1 Compound 2 Name Formula dinitrogen pentoxide N206 disilicon hexachloride SizCle Name Formula sodium chloride NaCI calcium chloride CaCI2 iodine heptafluoride F7 tribromine octaoxide Br306 magnesium sulfide MgS aluminum chloride AICI3 tetraiodine nonoxide I409 potassium phosphide K3P disulfur decafluoride 82F1o Know These elemenTs Their formulas and Their aluminum oxide A203 sTaTe aT 2539C and 1 bar Be familiar and know these charts gt 23 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A H2 9 He 9 N2 9 02 9 F2 g Ne 9 P4 s Se 9 0392 g Ar 9 gm 0 Kr 9 I2 3 Xe g Hg I Rn g ESSON 10 HOW DO HEMISTS st3 NAMES AND mwuus or Sumwas mm Oxoacids System based on the number of oxygens compared to the ic acid 0 Each memorized acid is in a different familygroup in the periodic table therefore when a new acid with an element in the same group it follows the same names as the memorized acid because it has the same amount of hydrogen and oxygen just different main element Example phosphoric acid H3PO4 and Arsenic Acid H3AsO4 The formula of the ions from the acid is the formula minus all the H leaving it negatively charged that number of H o if the acid ends in ous then the ion ends in ite enormous bite o if the acid ends in ic then the ion ends in ate ick I ate it acids end with acid ions end with ion Polyprotic Acids acids with more than one hydrogen ion total dissociation means that all of the acids hydrogen ions have been removed 0 however acids lose their hydrogen ions one at a time therefore creating an intermediate ion the stage before the final ion 0 Number of hydrogens stil on the acid ion is named in front of the ion Example AcidCarbonic Acid H2504 Intermediate ionHydrogen carbonate ion HCO3 Final ion Carbonate Ion CO32 for more than one hydrogen ion AcidPhosphoric Acid H3PO4 intermediate ion Dihydrogen Phosphate ion H2PO4 continues Memorize Ammonia NH3 ammonium ion NH2 and Water H20 Hydroxide ion HO Ionic Compound compound made up of ions that yield a crystalline solid formula unit is the smallest ratio of the cations to anions 0 name of an ionic compound is the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion same in their formula 0 The net charge of an ionic compound is zero so when the elements combine they need to cancel each other39s charges Example Potassium bromide KBr K Br so the net charge is O ES HOW DO CHEMISTS EXPRESS NAMES ANDlORMULAS 0F SUBSTANlES PART 2 Example Aluminum sulfate Al2SO43 Al3 5042 so there needs to be a common denominator which is the two charges times each OtheFWmstthetimw which is 6 So for each element to get there there needs to be 2 Al atoms and 3 04 making a net charge of zero Hydrate an ionic compound that contains water in their crystal structure O for naming them the same prefixes that are used for naming binary molecular compounds are used to indicate the number of water molecules example Al203 3H20 is aluminum trihydrate When a hydrate is heated the water molecules are driven out of the crystal as water vapor the solid that remains is an anhydrouswithout water ionic compound Oxoacid Nomenclature System memorize chart of oxygens relative to PrefixSuffix Example Formula Example Name the ic acid one more per ic HCIO4 Perchloric Acid same memorized ic acid ic HC03 Chloric Acid one fewer ous HCIOz Chlorous Acid two fewer hypo ous HCIO Hypochlorous Acid l No Oxygen hydro ous HCI Hydrochlorous Acid of Al needed A little cheat to Ionic Compounds 04 charge of Al ion always comes 1st of SO4 needed 7 Charge of 804 ion always comes 2nd Aluminum sulfate When you place the number of the charge of the ion to the number of molecules on the other ion the compound balances to have a net charge of 0 It will also tell you what type of transition metal you have by knowing its charge if there is one in the compound
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