Lessons 3-5 (Art and Philosophy, Empire and Pax Romana, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire)
Lessons 3-5 (Art and Philosophy, Empire and Pax Romana, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire) Hist 150
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Hamke on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Lesson 3 Art and Philosophy in the Polis groups of people who practiced philosophy Critical of religion and justice 0 Universal truth and its controversy 0 quotMans is the measure of all things 0 Human beings create viewpoints that put them at the center of all things Protagoras 0 Truth is relative to the wants and needs of the person 0 Relative to wants and needs of the individual Universal Truth does not exist Socrates 0 Teacher of wisdom had various students 0 Mind and reason confined Universal Truth Socratic Method The method he used to find Universal Truth 0 Consisted of asking thought provoking questions such as quotWhat is courage and then making his students think about what it means to possess courage until the group could come up with a generic definition of the question to be applied to Universal Truth posed questions to come up with universal definitions How to lead a good and virtuous life Classical Greek Art your personal definition of beauty 0 Representation o Humanistic celebration of humanity mostly through sculptures Greeks fascinated by Egypt Greek artist known for his statue of Aphrodite 336 BC Alexander the Great from Macedonia 0 Taught by Aristotle o Built a huge empire 0 Spread the Greek ideas in the East Lesson 4 Empire and the Pax Romana quotPeriod of Roman Peace The Muses divine figures who inspired artistic inspiration Toga symbol of citizenship and manhood formal wear Epic poem written by Virgil aka Augustus 0 Had a problem of legitimacy o Adopted son of Julian family in Rome to become his successor Roman Empire 0 Italy 0 Germa ny o Turkey raq 0 Israel 0 Portugal 0 England Problems 0 Communication issues 0 50 miles per day to move information from one location to another Lots of issues with rebellion o Revolts in Britain and Gaul 0 Jerusalem o Worried about slave revolts Strategies to unify empire 0 Built many roads 53000 miles of Roads 53000 miles Hadrian s Wall in England to protect borders from Scotland tribes Used roman army and engineers to create roads during times of peace i Slaves maintained the roads Military purposes Tradecomme rce Faster communication 2 Roman Army a b c d quot250000300000 troops Danube and Rhine Rivers areas ofgreatest risk Dealt with civil unrest Way of spreading language and culture 3 The Spread of Latin Culture and Roman Citizenship g h ThrDslosr i Signed up for fixed terms of service Career ladder Regular pay Standardized training Organized Uniforms and training equipment i Shield ii Sword iii Spears Experience Retired veterans received either a pension of plot of land Going to establish defensive lines specificallyalong high risk areas such as the Danube and Rhine rivers o 75 Miles along modern day England 0 Wanted to keep out the aka The Painted Barbarians from Scotland Lesson 5 The Decline and Fall ofthe Roman Empire 0 Rich people held exotic banquets top 1 o Constructions of elaborate architectural structures such as the coliseum and amphitheatres 0 Entertainment I Naval battles I Gladiators I Races 0 Mostly prisoners of war slaves criminals some volunteers I The problem of Political Succession a No constitutional way of transferring political power b Could have passed of ce through hereditary succession c Could have held elections d Romans came up with an informal way of transferring power e quotFive Good Emperors 96180 i Emperors would select capable younger men and would train them to take over office n 1 named his son his successor 2 Commod us complete opposite of his father Had not named a successor because he was murdered His death led to civil unrest Commodus death brought forth decades of Civil War as hundreds named themselves the new emperor o 26 different emperors in a span of 15 years Constantine the Great o Brought forth a reign of peace a Population went from 70 million to around 50 million i People would marry less often because of wars and had fewer children 1 Fertility dropped tremendously ii Outbreak ofsmallpox and gonorrhea iii Major drop in overall productivity iv Decline of towns and cities b Taxes became unreasonably high a Army wasn t doing its job to protect the empire b Less people are joining military i Romans then instituted a draft to gain more men 1 Very unpopular with people and many young men attempted to evade the draft by cutting off their thumbs to they could not fight
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