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Final Study Guide New Spain Spanish colonized Central America and Caribbean Conquered huge populations and became wealthy Found lots of gold and silver stolen from conquered people and natural reserves o Goal was to bring back as many riches to Spain as possible Used native peoples as miners worked them mercilessly Encomienda System Used as enforcement of colonization System of slave labor Spaniards awarded quotencomiendas for military victories Sometimes villages of people Tribute Labor in the form of digging mines domestic Encomiendas had to pay it Only really worked in urban areas Protection What encomiendas got in return for their servitude Mission System System of control for non urban areas To spread Catholicism and convert natives spread Spanish frontier Very interested in quotsaving their souls o quotmake them Spanish o ie making them good Spanish citizens by turning them into farmers Missions were in Texas Northern Mexico California Proselytizing Converting someone to your faith Duty of the missions Jesuits Franciscans and Dominicans Catholic orders most involved in the Mission System Priests all swore oaths of poverty and celibacy California One of the last areas Spain colonized Franciscans were active in creating missions Completely changed the life of the Chumash o Wiped out many with disease o Brought others into missions for conversion o Changed their diets quotmaking them Spanish o Baptized their children Changed California39s culture countryside Sacred Expedition The establishing of missions in California Transatlantic Transference Most people in Latin America speak Spanish Largest religion in Catholicism Spanish succeeded in making everyone Spanish to an extent English Colonies Mercantilism Trading companies would follow explorers Take raw materials from colonies process them in England sell them in the Colonies Roanoke England39s first attempt at colonization Failure All people disappeared after a year No one knows what happened to them Navidad 1 Spanish colony Established by Columbus When Columbus came back all the people had been eaten by cannibals Jamestown Virginia Est 1607 Had trouble adjusting to their environment almost starved Discovered tobacco from Native Americans Starving Time Between resupplies from England in Jamestown Ate rats and human flesh Pilgrims Wanted to get away from Church of England Pur ans Also wanted to flee Church of England Spanish came to Americas to spread Catholicism Puritans and Pilgrims came to Americas to separate from Catholicism Established Protestantism in North America Also brought women and children as opposed to Spanish Brought in English ways and technology o Fur industry New England Where Puritans settled Middle Atlantic Colonies East coast of US Less religious control Settled in perfect place for trade Financial engine of English Colonies New York City and Philadelphia All money from England funneled through there African Slave Trade Turned to this after indentured servants proved unreliable Captured in Africa and taken to colonies of slave ships Southern Colonies Lots of African slave labor Tobacco rice and indigo Southern cash crops Used slaves to farm The British Isles First modern industrialized power in the world 43 AD year Romans came to the Isles Celts Druids First people in British Isles Migrated from Germania had good ships Advanced culture had germs and steel as well as horses Warlike Druids were the highest level priests Developed trade with the Romans London was formed as a trading center for Rome Hadrian39s Wall Built to keep uncivilized people Scots out of Roman Britain Built in 1 century AD Angles Saxons Next people to arrive in England Germanic warlike Came to unsettled parts of England as Rome was declining Good farmers England was becoming a wealthy well fed part of Europe Many British people were converted to Catholicism after Rome began to fall 19 miles of water between Britain and mainland Europe military and cultural advantage Norman Conquest Duke William From Normandy Originally Vikings King Harold Killed by William in Battle of Hastings ID Normans wreaked havoc on countryside William became quotWilliam the Conquerer ID Domesday Book Census of England by William the Conquerer Used to cement his authority Scribes visit every last farm and write down what was there Count everything that was in it how large the land was Legitimized his control of England Knowing how many people were in their kingdom was a big step forward environmentally Magna Carta Issued in 1215 Originally was supposed to protect power of nobility King died writers decided to include rights to common people Eliminated absolute monarchy New freedoms slowly leading to industrialization environmental manipulation Industrial Revolution Happened through low slow process Political situations had to be changed 19 miles of water kept them from being bulldozed during wars with mainland Europe Had to develop naval power sea based trade Enlightenment Educated mass of people who believe everything can be solved by reason Moving towards secularism We are rational beings who can solve our problems without God Promoted industrial growth Mercantilism England went out and populated colonies Colonies gathered raw materials would be brought back to England reprocessed sent back to colonies Capitalism We39re producing more than our colonies can consume Use resources to promote trade with other countries Most means of production are privately owned by people with lots of money Producing consumer goods for distribution and sale Mass production consumption The more you sell the more people consume the more you make Drew working poor out of farms into factories More workers more products more profits Leaving farms for the city was a change in human history Had to use wages to buy food and clothing since they didn t produce anything Manufacturers sold their employees cloth food etc Mass production led to mass consumption since people weren t making their own goods anymore Applied Technology steam Textile mills created most of the country39s cloth o Power first by water then steam James Watt Pioneered applied steam technology Big power innovation of the early Industrial Revolution Usually used for spinning wheels James Fulton American observed steam technology in England Brought it back to America to fit American needs Put steam engines into boats Eli Whitney Used steam engine to shape metal manufacture guns Pig iron Best metal at the time Harder than regular iron not as hard as steel What Whitney made his gun barrels out of Early Externalities Externality an industrialized activity that the market doesn t capture Ex air pollution England had severe air quality problems in big cities Coal was main source of power Smithian Revolution Based on work of Adam Smith Economics professor at University of Glasgow Went to Oxford Liked to go to Paris and philosophize with different people One of the first people to look at what people to look at what people were doing to the Earth set the framework for environmentalism Political Economy Combined politics with global economic activity Wealth of Nations 1776 Translated into 34 different languages Smith defines basics of modern economics market capitalism How are resources allocated properly resource allocation ID How can we make sure they go to the right place o Smith s answer let the market decide Market Capitalism ID Government Role Smith thought gov t should have limited role in economy Role was to have courts enforce laws have a police force and national defense Other than that gov t has no role in market economy Gov t involvement is messing up production signals deciding whether to produce more or less Laissezfaire Means hands off refers to the gov t Gov t messes up the quotinvisible hand ID of the market which manages the economy Thought this would lead to world peace since everyone would depend on each other for economic prosperity Thought there were unlimited resources thought the Earth could prosper under any level of economic activity If something gets bad enough there will be profit in solving it therefore the market fixes all problems Against UN other regulatory forces telling them how to manage environmental resources Smith called for free trade getting rid of import duties when trading with different countries o Chalked it down as gov t interference Thomas Malthus Countered Smith s optimism Born into upper class family trained to be a minister Became a political economist England was place to study for political economics o Quicklyindustrializing o Population growing Pioneer of modern population theory Thought world needed to limit population growth Didn39t think people would be abstinent or use birth control to limit births Saw vicious cycle of population growth eventually outrunning food supply o Leading to famine death o Opposing view of Smith39s view of sharing prosperity Robert Heilbroner Wrote about Malthus in Worldly Philosophers An Essay on the Principle of Population Book where Malthus wrote down all of his views Doubhng Malthus said because of population doubling food supply couldn39t keep up with modern expansion Poverty Poor will become poorer o Resources will become too expensive for them to afford Thomas Carlyle Read Mathus s essays Called economics quotthe dismal science ID quotHow big can the economy get before it uses all its resources Is it sustainable Malthus thought people were living beyond their sustainable means According to Malthus economies can get too big and populations too large Applied Technology Fertilizer pesticides etc have increased food supply Delayed Mathus s predictions Birth control Slowed down population doubling Delayed Mathus s predictions ZPG zero population growth movement Started by Paul Ehrlich Malthusian Think we39re living past our means David Ricardo Asks quotWho gets what in a capitalist society Questioned optimism of Adam Smith Good investor Workers capitalists landlords Thought capitalism would not benefit everyone equally Capitalism does not distribute everything equally Workers capitalists andords basic groups of capitalism Calls capitalism a quotjungle of avarice greedy The Escalator Supposedly every person rises through class equally Ricardo says the poor crank the elevator Capitalists fight in the escalator for better position Landlords smoothly rise to the top Sheep dogs and pigs From Orwe s Animal Farm Variation of workers capitalists and landlords Sheep workers always expendable o Paid in wages o Wages go up and down Dogs capitalists o Hire workers to work in factories Make profits Use profits to buy more workers increase economic assets In constant competition with other dogs to take out competition make more profits Success depends on health of economy Paid in profits OOOOO Pigs Skim money right off the top Doesn39t matter how the economy is doing Paid in rent Rent isn t affected by economy o Make the best living off the work of others Rent wages profit ID OOOO The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation 1817 Where Ricardo wrote down his ideas Corn Laws Tariffs protecting English grain Importing grain was cheaper Gov t made tariff to make foreign grain more expensive than English grain Distribution Ricardo believed landlords did not feel quotinvisible hand Profit Maximization Objectifying the Earth for larger profits Crucial for competitive businesses How o Lower wages o Lower standards regulations worker safety insurance etc o Reduce environmental safeguards Karl Marx Strict economic determinist Grew up in feudal central Europe Prussia AustroHungarian Empire Place of birth Had absolute rulers forms of feudalism 97 peasants 3 nobility and others Area began to industrialize Need to educate peasants to get them to work industrially Led to revolutions 1848 Revolutions Against monarchy and merchant classes in Central Europe Threatened old social structure Georg Hegel Influenced Marx Came up with theory of dialectical materialism ID o Sweetening complete progressive change Fredrich Engels Marx39s writing partner Communist Manifesto 1848 Written by Marx and Engels Said history would eventually favor the working classes 97 would overthrow the 3 Caused them to be banished from Europe after 1848 revolutions Moved to New York and kept writing Das Kapital Three volumes from 18671894 Hunter gatherers v farmers Struggle of opposites Farmers eventually won First struggle Farmers v Merchants Merchants become dominant after Columbus Farmer culture fades out Merchants win Merchants v capitalists bourgeoisie Happening during time of writing Capitalists are winning Bourgeoisie v proletariat workers Last struggle Happening in middle 1800s Said workers of the world will eventually triumph Will happen after years of conflict and war Will be end of history Socialist Utopia Will happen when workers control the world No struggle everything is fine and taken care of No need for gov t royalty money authority title 1 Russian Revolution 1904 After last Das Kapital was published Educated Russian peasants 1917 Revolution Created Marxist Soviet Union Resource valuation Resources have no value unless improved by humans Environmentalists say resources are important while not in use Economic determination Eventually workers are going to get everything Looking at things through who s going to get what Iron Horse What Native Americans called trains The first big business Railroads Had lots of employees diversified outputs Transportation Revolution Very few roads in Europe hard to get around Improvement of waterways easier to transport things by water Stagecoaches Railroads took it to new level Could carry literally tons of cargo and people First built in UK Used steam power to power locomotives First appeared in 1820 in Britain Replaced water transportation as main form of transportation Fastest form of mass transportation Spinoff Industries Ex iron and steel industry Used to build trains and railroads Grew with the railroads but were separate companies Also a need for precision machinery for accurately repairing trains Bessemer Process Blowing air through molten pig iron Greatly reduced impurities created steel Used for trains London Smog Coal smoke in London People would breathe it in and die from infection Led to awful air pollution problems Environmental externality Profit maximization Involved tracking all money flowing in and out of the railroads Constantly trying to approve efficiency First time a business paid that much attention to profit Hierarchical Management Different classes of employees managers Railroads were the first to do this Used in corporations today Time zones Created by railroads Were crossing them constantly Stocks and bonds Railroads started selling securities to generate more profit Railroads literally invented Wall Street and the modern stock market The Great Resource Gobbler Railroads need fast quantities of wood iron and coal Never been used in such vast quantities in the history of the world Transatlantic Transference All facets of railroad industry transferred from Britain to US Luddism Luddites were English workers who broke textile machines because they felt threatened that they would be replaced by them Weavers stockingers and croppers Skilled workers thought they had security Made cloth for textile industry Against the Machine About Luddites For Luddites Ricardo s model meant capitalism was against them Textile industry was hit hard by famine lack of resources Corn laws made it harder to sell British goods abroad hit textile industry especially hard Plant managers increased profits by using machines in factories Capitalists cut the wages of skilled and unskilled workers Luddite Rebellion Response to wage cutting in textile industry Ned or King Ludd D leader of Luddite Rebellion o May be legend existence is uncertain Nottingham Where the first rebellion took place Men broke into a lace factory at night started smashing machines with sludge hammer Machine Breaking Began happening more often Attracted other people from other industries for rebellion o Argued they would soon be replaced by machines too Managers hired armed guards spies Had the gov t passed laws making machine breaking punishable by death Managers won successfully infiltrated the movement Some were executed Luddites were put down Modern Luddism Elements of Luddism in environmentalism Aversion to modernity ID o The old ways are better Liking the natural world better than the human developed world Touches on issues like genetically engineered food Fear of the machine Fear of becoming obsolete because of technology Technology is becoming more and more prevalent in our lives Fear of capitalism Uncontrolled capitalism Environmental movement says gov t and business are quotunholy alliance destroying the environment o Worried about globalization Anti big government Early Environmentalism Response to the industrial revolution Intellectuals in rapidly industrializing Northern European cities thought civilization was advancing too quickly The Romantics What these people called themselves Looked at natural world of Greco Roman times Preferred it to modern times Wrote romantically about it Thought the world was losing open space wildness Primitivism Savages were better than civilized people lived closer to nature Written on by Jean Jacques Rousseau Found audience in highly urbanized areas Transcendentalism American primitivism Founded by Emerson Talked about sef improvement being an individual Staying away from mainstream thought Staying close to nature Greed and avarice are worst enemies Margaret Fuller o Could overcome this through Transcendentalism closeness to nature Thoreau was another founder Talked about need of simplicity in life Preservation Movement Arose from Transcendentalism About preserving as much wild land as possible Spiritual side of environmentalism Conservation Movement Scientific side of environmentalism Thought industrialization might lead to environmental problems Might destroy human race other species Ex near extinction of American buffalo Worried about resource depletion o Running out of coal forests Worried about water pollution George Perkins Marsh called humans quotthe new glaciers o We could change the planet irreparably if we keep on our path Gifford Pinchot Thought gov t s role in environmentalism was crucial Proponent of idea of world conservation John Muir Wrote about need to preserve nature in its natural state Ypres World War 1 Overview Militarism of small countries looking for resources Environmental impacts of global warfare o Toxic messes o Led to nuclear energy and weapons o Tons of resources used Ypres small city in Belgium o Many battles fought there in WWI Germans seen as major antagonists o Thought they mess with France and get no response from the UK Sum of old regional hatreds brought to the forefront Lots of drafts first brought by France Alliances formed to maintain peace and security before the war started WWI also called the Great War ID Assassination of Franz Ferdinand ID o Heir to throne of AustriaHungary o Shot in Bosnia by Serbian terrorist o Brought back ethnic hatred 0 Extensive alliances got tons of people involved WWI began Western Front Western side of Germany Included Belgium France Holland and Luxembourg Germans wanted to make it to North Sea ID Ypres was key location to make it there 1 Battle of Ypres Mostly British vs Germans in early 1914 Winston Churchill ID fought as a foot soldier in that battle 238000 casualties Machine guns ID responsible for devastation Weren39t used extensively until WWI 2 39 Battle of Ypres Poison gas ID used o Also blister tear and vomiting gas ID o Technology had been around no one had used it until the Germans in the 2quot 39 Battle o Caused massive casualties o Wind could move gas towards those who were using it unreliable 105000 casualties Flamethrowers First used in WWI 2 39 Battle of Ypres 3quotquot Battle of Ypres Juy November 1917 570000 casualties Still digging up toxic chemicals and weapons in Ypres today 900000 casualties for all battles of Ypres Reminder for how big war had gotten Influenza Outbreak of 191819 killed 25 million worldwide Spanish Flu What influenza was called high mortality rate in Spain Questionable origins Asia ID Carried by swine Tons of people are involved in a war moving around the world really fast Wartime conditions Health care hygiene clean water disrupted Food shortages Alfred Crosby America39s Forgotten Pandemic Albert Mitchell Patient zero in the US Soldier at Camp Funston KS ID Became sick soon 107 more soldiers were sick Within a week reported in every state 1 wave of virus Spread to Europe with troops 2 39 wave started in New England Deadlier mutation 3quot wave 191819 US Public Health Service Supposed to guard against pandemics Tried telling people to wear medical masks Shut down public gatherings movies parades etc Disease killed young people more than old people Disease killed about 1 of the world s population Woodrow Wilson Then president Went to Treaty of Versailles drafting Got sick got nothing he wanted in the treaty Survived had a stroke wife basically ran the country for the rest of his term Was he weakened by the flu Franklin Roosevelt Survived the flu Picked up polio after fighting WWI never walked again Was he weakened by the flu Stalingrad Interwar Period Period between WWI and WWII Adolf Hitler WWII began when he invaded Poland Took over much of Western Europe with Nazi ID army Launched surprise invasion of USSR ID o Wanted to destroy USSR Didn39t have oil wanted oil fields in USSR o Hated the Russians anyway Battle of Stalingrad 194243 Continuous battle series of sieges 1000s froze and starved to death as well as being killed in battle Nazis put everything into taking the city Now called Volgograd ID Oil fields all around Caspian Sea ID near Stalingrad Russians let Germans into Stalingrad then blew it to pieces Germans had to retreat after 8 months All of Soviet strength vs all of German strength Turning point of war in Europe Reversed advance of Germans 500000 Soviets 500000 Nazis dead 25 million casualties Lilya Litvyak Tons of missions over Stalingrad Great Patriotic War Name of WWII in Russia 1 out of4 Russians died in the war Environmental Impact Area destroyed Scorched Earth Reading The Ecology of War Vietnam Controlled by Japan until end of WWII French came back to try and claim old colonial lands War between North and South US sent half a million troops into Vietnam Thought we were fighting Communism Defoliation US was fighting in a jungle Thought getting rid of the jungle would eliminate hiding places and make it easier to fight Agent Orange Defoliate Weed killer used to destroy jungles Toxic Used mostly in late 1960s Contaminated water supplies Destroyed ancient mangrove forests Operation Ranch Hand quotOnly we can prevent forests Caused long term erosion Changed local ecosystem Rome Plows Bulldozers used to destroyjungles 20ft long spear in front of them 11 ft wide Destruction led to lots of erosion and flooding Jungle Fires Douse wet trees with kerosene or gasoline set them on fire Damaged atmosphere ground and surface water o Due to contact with gas burning wood Weather Modification Fill clouds with silver iodide Too much rainfall mess with enemies ability to regroup Carpet Bombing Used Napalm to destroy landscapes Jacksonville AR Where they made Agent Orange Old WWII chemical plant Residents had much higher rates of lymphoma and Hodgkin39s Disease Water supply contaminated Still cleaning it up Lots of population died Earned name Dioxinville ID dioxin is a form of Agent Orange when mixed with water Persian Gulf War Saddam Hussein ID said Kuwait belonged to Iraq Invaded Kuwait Invasion ID George HW Bush ID organized coalition of countries to take back Kuwait Hussein promised the Mother of all Battles ID if they tried to take Kuwait US and friends were much better armed and organized destroyed the Iraqis Hussein retreated scorched the Earth as he did so His men sabotaged oil wells set them on fire US threatened to cut off water flow to soldiers if battle kept going Oil Spills Oil from sabotaged wells made it into water Killed local animals Smoke got into soldiers lungs caused respiratory problem called Gulf War Syndrome ID o Led to memory and sleep loss Form of environmental terrorism ID Desert doesn39t repair itself very well HBomb Thermonuclear Warfare Nuclear weapons Create immense amounts of heat Power equivalent to 15 megatons o 1 megaton 100 pounds of TNT Atomic Cafe film with actual footage of nuclear tests and drills Civil Defense widespread fear consoled by installation of shelters People so afraid they justified the use of such a deadly weapon as civil defense Fallout Shelters large tubes placed deep in the ground with a chute entrance for citizens to take refuge in Dr Strangelove Movie by Stanley Kubrick Showed that an all out nuclear war is going to kill all life on earth Fail Safe Another movie about nuclear war Came of the same time as Strangelove but was overshadowed Atmospheric Tests Testing the H Bomb Damaged the environment Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Banned atmospheric testing Testing usually done underground now Ban the Bomb Started in early 1960s Came out of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Wanted to ban nuclear weapons Related to modern environmental movement preserving the planet Nuclear Fatalism Widespread People were convinced nuclear war was going to happen We werejumping from war to war Lots of apocalyptic literature came out The Bomb and Environmentalism Realizing we have the power to literally destroy our planet Fission fusion science Fission bomb splitting uranium or plutonium atom used on Hiroshima Eventually fission process used to create hydrogen bomb 0 Post War Shockers 1 Pollution wasn t even an issue in WWII Huge industrial infrastructure created during WWII Expanded after the war Cleveland OH Oil being drilled and refined there for years Big oil city Cuyahoga River Flows from Cleveland to Lake Erie Oil spill oil was set on fire River kept burning Burned for 9 straight days Burned for so long because it s polluted Hurt aquatic life Made people think about humanity39s effects on the environment Lake Erie Hotspot for oil Ships to Cleveland Santa Barbara Oil Spill Huge oil reserve off the coast Oil platforms leased to oil companies offshore Union Oil Co Platform A ID had a ruptured pipe spilled tons of oil into the ocean Hurt marine life many animals and birds coated in oil Union Oil tried to downplay it saying they were taking care of the problem Cost city 25 million in lost tourist revenue Inspired professors to start the UCSB Environmental Studies Program ID Exxon Valdez Sunken tanker spills oil in Alaska Spilled into Prince William Sound Covered 400 miles of coastline Would steam oil covered rocks but it hurt shellfish Huge environmental disaster Prince William Sound Where Trans Aaska pipeline ID begins o Carries oil long distances Bhopal India Experienced poisonous gas leak at Union Carbide ID plant chemical manufacturers Testing equipment had an explosion Were testing cyanide and other chemical gasses Large amounts of people died for a long period of time Gulf of Mexico Spill Lots of oil beneath ocean floor 31000 platforms in Gulf One that spilled was owned by British Petroleum Co ID Had an explosion at the bottom of the ocean oil spilled out Happened in March 2010 Oil slick contaminated Southern Louisiana very hard to clean up Tried to condense oil together with dispersants ID turned them into tar balls ID Post War Shockers II Nuclear power used to create electricity Harnessed with nuclear fission Nuclear power provides 20 of the world s electricity Still don t know how to get rid of waste Three Mile Island Big nuclear plant in Pennsylvania Plant owned by Metropolitan Edison ID near Harrisburg ID Maintenance in towers went wrong Cooling temp went to 5000 degrees reactor melted down Had to release radioactive steam to prevent plant blowing up Steam drifted to area where large population of people lived people were evacuated Media extensively covered it Created concern about nuclear power Chernobyl Nuclear power plant that completely exploded Another maintenance accident one of the reactors exploded Sent out plume of radioactive steam that went around the world USSR tried to hide in from the world other countries detected the radioactivity and figured it out Secrecy hurt career of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev ID o Hurt his efforts to be transparent Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Caused by a natural disaster 91 earthquake off coast of Japan Caused a huge tsunami 30 meters tall Hit Fukushima Daiichi ID nuclear power plant Japan doesn t have oil uses nuclear to create electricity Caused several explosions hurt both reactors Worst nuclear power plant disaster in history Was caused naturally quotan act of God NEPA and Sustainability After WWII US had long period of economic growth People started buying consumer goods more than they had before Demand for resources and energy increased Externalitiesz air and water pollution People called for laws regulating pollution National Environmental Policy Act 1970 Took more than 10 years to get through Congress Response to call for environmental law Most important piece of env legislation in history Rachel Carson Biologist with Bishop Wildlife Service Wrote Silent Spring book about harmful pesticide use Thought people needed better education on the issue Lady Bird Johnson Lyndon Johnson39s wife quotKeep America Beautiful campaign o Against littering More NEPA Philosophy development must be in harmony with the environment Nixon ID signed NEPA into law o Was strong believer in clean water and air Council on Env Quality Council advising the President on environmental issues Env Impact Statement EIS All developmental actions had to be assessed based on their impact on the environment Focus on sustainability Lynton Caldwell Wrote NEPA Political scientist Public Involvement Public meetings where people would share their opinions Developers would have to listen to will of people Interdisciplinary planning People from many different fields had to help with the projects Interagency Involvement Multiple governmental and public agencies involved All of this led to too much environmental regulation to get things done Stockholm Declaration 1972 Environmentally friendly development needs to be done Issue 1 from Taking Sides quotIs Sustainability Realistic More about sustainability of market capitalism ID than legislation Goods should be repaired and updated instead of thrown away Getting rid of things because they are quotobsoete is not sustainable Oil Well Analogy Oil company wants to build an oil well NEPA says you can do it as long as it s in harmony with the environment Opponents of oil well say that oil well isn t sustainable shouldn39t be protected by NEPA NEPA works within the system ID NEPA is about big development o Just trying to make it environmentally friendly Tragedy of the Commons Garrett Hardin Most famous writing Tragedy of the Commons o Warns of dangers of overpopulation ID o If we don t limit population growth we will face disaster Mandatory restrictions Hardin thought they were going to have to be placed on birth Mutual coercion ID o We must agree to limit birth because we will face dire consequences otherwise You only replace yourself 2 children per couple The Commons A place where all people of several villages graze their sheep metaphor No problem as long as everyone limits the amount their sheep grazes If one guy grazes more than he needs someone else will see his edge on the competition and increase his consumption If everyone adds one more sheep they will go beyond their carrying capacity ID Goal is to keep commons in equilibrium Lifeboat Analogy Not everyone can fit in the lifeboat If you try to put everyone in the lifeboat it sinks Lead to development of Lifeboat Ethics ID concerning overpopulation and carrying capacity Carrying capacity The limit where resources can just support population If we go beyond it we will run out of resources and experience disaster Jane Hardin Garrett had polio Jane had degenerate diseases to Both eventually went to the Hemlock Society ID and took their lives Julian Simon University of Maryland Taught economics there Cato Institute Conservative think tank in DC NeoSmithian Believes invisible hand of marketplace can fix everything Even things like pollution Simon thought everything was about people everything else is just a resource The Bible says People are more important than everything else Should be able to use as many resources as they want Economics rules Economics applies to everything Issue 7 Over consumption or overpopulation Population wouldn39t be a problem without our level of consumption Other side says it doesn39t matter still too many people Population of earth is growing dramatically A spirituaity Lack of spirituality No spirituality in Simon39s views Opposed to some modern environmentalists especially preservationists o Preserving nature Simon thinks we should control everything Biodiversity If it s not useful Simon doesn t care Didn39t care about protecting different species for the sake of biodiversity The Bet Between Simon and Ehrlich Simon bet that the price of 10 elements would be cheaper after a certain amount of time Simon won Just because something is becoming cheaper doesn t mean it is immune to scarcity Sustainability Simon says the market will make everything sustainable if you leave it alone How long will it take 500 1000 years Economists Adam Smith Aocation finding the most efficient use of resources Free market fueled by sef interest competition and supply amp demand Thought the free market would be best for efficiently allocating resources Laissezfaire little to no gov t interference in the economy Never thought Earth39s resources were finite nothing in his economic theories to limit their consumption Thomas Malthus Scae size of economy before Earth does not have enough resources to support us Exponential vs arithmetic growth Ecological economics trying to maintain high quality lifestyles without overuse of resources First to propose Earth had a limited ability to support us Balance of population and lifestyle better to have fewer people with higher quality lifestyles Said if we didn t curb overpopulation then warfare famine and diseases would limit it for us David Ricardo Who deserves the spoils of economic activity Discusses distribution of wealth among capitalists landlords and the proletariat Wages proletariat vs profits capitalists vs rent landlords Free trade Witnessed collective gains from free trade Said conflict between capitalists and proletariat could be calmed by lowering resource price only hurting landowners US gov t adopted policy of low resources prices based on Ricardo s philosophy Karl Marx Who deserves the spoils of economic activity Discusses distribution of wealth among bourgeoisie and proletariat Theory of dialectical materiaism among the first theories to put environment and economy at the cornerstone of civilization Never thought resources had any value labor of extraction added value Economists after Marx gave value to capital no one has really tried to find value of resources before they enter the market Philosophical Thinkers Garrett Hardin Overexploitation of resources Due to human apathy individual greed Need collective appreciation of public resources resource planning Tragedy of the commons 3quotquot wave of environmentalism Paul Ehrlich Overpopulation Reaching carrying capacity inevitable humanity screwed in the long run Wrote quotThe Population Bomb on this subject Birth control would help As per capita consumption goes up carrying capacity goes down Gifford Pinchot Conservationist Better distribution and use of resources We need the environment to provide us resources Utilitarianist John Muir Preservationist Founder of Yosemite Park Found value in nature romantic value thought it was necessary for the human condition Nature therefore has intrinsic value and should be protected Julian Simon Smithian Believed human innovation would overcome resource shortages Looked at resources from a pricing point of few No romanticism in his views
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