Lecture Notes Week 4
Lecture Notes Week 4 COMM370010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Jackson on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM370010 at University of Delaware taught by Angelini,James R. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Theories of Mass Communication Week 4 Recap from Last Lecture Erie County Voting Study 1940 0 Opinion leaders more exposed to election information from radio newspapers and magazines 0 An opinion leader can be anyone that you turn to or trust for advice 0 Hypothesized the Two Step Flow from the way information trickled down from the media to these opinion leaders to the followers Two Step Flow Healthy view of a people in democracy 0 People were reliant on the views of other individuals instead of just the mass media 0 They could engage in conversations with real people who had their own ideas Impact of mass communication is less automatic and potent than earlier thought 0 Opinion leaders act as filters for information 0 People wouldn t just spit out what was spread by the media Changed view of society not isolated mass audience but networks of interconnected people 0 Supports the idea of social networks because people had to talk to one another to get information and form their own opinions Criticisms of Two Step Flow Mass media can reach people directly Media might not always be primary source of information o The opinion leader can have an opinion leader themselves if they don t have direct access from the media 0 This then becomes nstep ow with multiple layers of opinion leaders 0 Essentially this model is an oversimplification More often it is opinion sharing not opinion giving 0 Model does not allow for much reciprocal conversation 0 Model makes it seem like ow only goes from OL to follower with no back and forth to exchange ideas Diffusion of Innovations Diffusion spread of information throughout society system Innovation new and or improved idea practice or product Primary theorist Everett Rogers 0 Examined nearly 4000 diffusion publications to revise them Dvorak Keyboard Different from typical keyboard in that placement of keys allows for quicker typing and less fatigue Theories of Mass Communication Week 4 This did not successfully diffuse 1 quot dill 3 l l y rquot i 1 2 3 E 4 5 6 7 8 I 9 0 Backspace 1nto soc1ety TabH A p Y F G C R L i A 0 Why 9 People didn t see A 0 i E U I D H T N S quot as or gt a need for 1t to them 3quot L k 2 there was nothing wrong t2quot E Q J K x B M w v z with the QWERTY keyboard cm Alt AltGr Menu cm How can these needs be created perceived o Advertisements 0 Period of crisis challenge Innovation that Spread Quickly Cell Phones 0 Early on in their development only select people had them 0 Over time they got more capabilities and came down in price Not just technologies spread quickly though 0 New medicines can spread quickly if there is a real need 0 Ideas that lead to a behavior ex wearing bike helmets Characteristics of Innovations Characteristics that affect rate of adoption 0 Relative advantage degree to which innovation in perceived as better than what is already in place 0 Compatibility degree to which innovation is perceived to be consistent with our values needs past experiences etc 0 Complexity degree to which innovation is perceived as difficult to understand or use I If it s too complex for the average individual the innovation will be unlikely to successfully diffuse o Trialability degree to which an innovation may be experimented with getting multiple uses to practice with it I Ex taking a car on a test drive 0 Observability degree to which results of the innovation are visible I We want to see or hear other success stories from people who have used the innovation Ex Laptop Computers 0 Relative advantage portable less separate components 0 Compatibility operates similarly to how a desktop operates 0 Complexity if you can use a desktop you can use a laptop pretty easily a majority of the population can use them 0 Trialability electronics stores let you try them out first 0 Observability you can read online reviews or talk to friends Ex Seat Belt Use 0 Relative advantage safer than not wearing one o Compatibility works with our values to keep ourselves safe Theories of Mass Communication Week 4 0 Complexity very simple to use Trialabilty you can try it on but you don t know if it s effective 0 Observability hard to actually get visible verification that it works it s more of a trust situation with the manufacturer 0 Stages of Innovation Decision Process Step 1 Knowledge 0 We have to be exposed to the innovation and have some understanding of how it works Step 2 Persuasion 0 You need to form an attitude about the innovation ideally positive Step 3 Decision 0 Either choose to accept or reject the integration of the innovation Step 4 Implementation 0 If you decide to accept the integration you need to then get it and use it in your life Step 5 Confirmation o Re ect back and ask yourself if you made the right choice and evaluate whether or not it can be reinforced that you ve chosen correctly 0 If it can t be reinforced you can change your mind and reject the innovation How is It Different from Two Step Flow Has evolved gradually from TSF Used in an attempt to describe new ideas and technologies 0 TSF describes more opinions abstract concepts Diffusion of innovation is a multi step process 0 Info is passed along through many different social groups Homophily vs Heterophily o Homophily degree to which pairs of individuals are alike and share similar attributes such as socio economic background religion etc TSF o Heterophily degree to which pairs of individuals are different wow no way didn t expect that D01 0 In uence coming from these different kinds of sources can change your perceptions Opinions vs change agents 0 Change agent professional who attempts to persuade you to adopt the innovation I Often heterophilous from their clients which is why they have to attempt to change their views to adopt it Internet Relatively new medium computers have only recently proliferated in our lifetime Theories of Mass Communication Week 4 Research primarily uses theories already in place and applicable for other technologies New methods have been created and developed specifically for the internet Mediamorphosis The transformation of communication media usually brought about by the complex interplay of perceived needs competitive and political pressures and social and technological innovations o Primarily applied to new media technologies and how they impact our lives and spread through society 0 Started with studying the expansion of the internet as a new technology 0 Some people have even used it retroactively to view the history of television radio etc o What pressures and barriers a new technology must pass to become adopted by society Six fundamental principles 0 Coevolution and coexistence new technology over time in uences new media filled roles of TV and radio 0 Metamorphosis new media comes about by evolving from old media slowly over time not all at once 0 Propagation emerging formats of communication technologies use some of the dominant traits from earlier forms not 100 unique and incorporates some good parts of other technology 0 Survival all forms of comm media are forced to attempt to adapt to survive as technology advances o Opportunity and need if there s no perceived need purpose the new tech will fail and not diffuse spread o Delayed adoption takes one human generation to go from proof of concept 9 diffused application in society Delayed Adoption The 30 Year Rule is another name for this 0 Proof of concept takes about 30 years to become widely adopted in society Three stages of the 30 Year Rule 0 1st decade lots of excitement not much penetration into society I ie not many people are buying it because of price uncertainty etc 0 2nd decade beginning of penetration into society I Prices begin to fall b c technology can be produced for cheaper 0 3r01 decade standard technology that everyone has I Considered commonplace and people wonder why you don t have it Theories of Mass Communication Week 4 Technomyopia inability to see the future of a technology 0 Manufacturers tend to worry about the now and not the future and will not invest as much time money into the new product 0 This slows up the spread of the technology Supervening Social Necessities ways that society and tech interface that can help spread a new technology throughout society 0 Needs of companies what companies need to do to survive and adapt 0 Requirement of old technologies actual equipment needs to adapt in order to survive 0 Regulatory and legal actions laws and practices assist in evolution of the technology 0 General social forces actions in society that deem a new technology to be necessary Law of Suppression of Radical Potential societal forces that can slow down stop the spread of new technologies 0 The same 4 reasons above can also slow down or sti e advancement of technology for opposite reasons depending on how companies government reacts Mass Media and Society Mass Media is one of society s basic institutions 0 Societal institution things that are established or valued within our society and shape the beliefs of many members of society family education religion are examples 0 Mass media can play a central role on society Mass media differs from those other institutions in o How it operates 0 Its relationship to each individual within a society 0 How it relates to other societal institutions It is interconnected with all other institutions 0 Ex there are many different kinds of television programs about family different kinds about religion etc Mass media acts as general centers of knowledge in society It operates as a part of the public sphere people interact with it on a daily basis 0 It acts as a network that transmits information to society while showing a variety of points of view Open accessible in theory to all members of society Reaches more people than other institutions 0 99 of homes in the US have at least one television Have long term in uences 0 Changing buying habits values etc Media Society Links Window physical way to see the world as it s happening Mirror re ects what has happened in our society Theories of Mass Communication Week 4 Filter or gatekeeper those responsible for media determine what you will hear or see Signpost guide interpreter mass media digests information and makes it understandable to audience Platform or forum way to get messages opinions out to a Wide audience Screen barrier elitist mechanism that only serves certain segments of our population