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Chapter 3 Notes

by: Maria Apostolescu

Chapter 3 Notes PSYC-20651-003

Maria Apostolescu
GPA 3.555
Child Psychology
Jenna wall

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Chapter 3 notes
Child Psychology
Jenna wall
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Apostolescu on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-20651-003 at Kent State University taught by Jenna wall in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 3 Animaliculists Believed humans were preformed in the head of a sperm Ovists Believed that humans were prefound in eggs and activated by the male s sperm Kasper Friedrich Wolff Supported the gradual building of structures theory Groups of cells that were initially unspecialized differentiated into varioustissues organs and system Fertilization union of sperm and ovum to produce a zygote also called conception Zygote Onecelled organism resulting from fertilization duplicates itself by cell division to create a baby Women at birth have 2 million ova in their ovaries each contained in a follicle during ovulation when sexual maturity is attained a mature follicle is rupted and expelled from the ovary ovum is swept through the fallopian tube toward the uterus Men several hundred million sperm are produced in the testicles each day sperm enter the vagina through ejaculation and attempt to reach the cervix few will arrive in the fallopian tubes where fertilization takes place inability to conceive a baby after 12 months of trying women s fertility begins to decline in the late 205 men s fertility begins to decline in the late 305 Treatment hormone treatment drug therapy surgery In vitro fertilization IVF increases the likelihood of multiple usually premature births In vitro maturation IVM Diminishes the likelihood of multiple births performed earlier in the monthly cycle makes hormone injections unnecessary Male Infertility intracytoplasmic sperm injectionlCSl arti cial insemination arti cial insemination by a donor AID Gamete intrafallopian transfer GIFT Zygote intrafallopian transfer ZIFT Surrogate motherhood urrogate fertile woman impregnated by a prospective father by arti cial insemination Heredity genetic transmission of heritable characteristics from parents to offspring Genetic code sequence of bases within the DNA molecule set of rules the govern the formation of proteins that determine the structure and functions of living cells Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Chemical that carries inherited instructions for the development of all cellular forms of life Bases letters of the genetic code which cellular machinery read Adenine A Thymine T Cytosine C Guanine G Chromosomes coils of DNA that consists of genes Genes small segments of DNA located in de nite positions on particular chromosomes functional units of heredity located in de nite position on chromosome contains thousands of base pairs every cell except sex cells 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 in all Human genome complete sequence of genes in the human body Every cell in the normal human body except the sex cells has 23 pairs of chromosomes Meiosis type of cell division which the sex cells undergo when they are developing each sex cell ends up with only 23 chromosomes Mitosis Process by which the nonsex cells divide in half over and over again DNA replicates itself so that each newly formed cell has the same DNA structure as all the others Hereditary characteristics can be recessive carried by an organism that does not express or show it Dominant and Recessive inheritance every offspring gets a pair of alleles for each characteristic one from each parent Alleles 2 or more alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same position on paired chromosomes and affect the same trait Homozygous possessing 2 identical alleles for a trait Heterozygous possessing differing alleles for a trait when an offspring receives alleles for 2 contradictory traits only one of them the dominant one shows itself Heterozygous characteristic dominant inheritance pattern of inheritance in which when a child receives different alleles only the dominant one is expressed Recessive inheritance pattern of inheritance in which a child receives identical recessive alleles resulting in expression of a non dominant trait Polygenic inheritance pattern of inheritance in which multiple genes at different sites on chromosomes affect a complex trait traits may also be affected by mutations Mutations permanent alterations in genes or chromosomes usually produce harmful characteristics but provide the raw material of evolution Phenotype observable characteristics of a person Genotype Genetic makeup of a person containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics Multifactorial transmission combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce certain complex traits Mechanism that turns genes on or off and determines functions of body cells epigenetic changes can respond to environmental factors such as nutrition sleep habits stress and physical affection epigenetic modi cations may be heritable Dominant traits Achondroplasia type of dwar sm Huntington s disease Recessive Traits TaySachs Sicklecell anemia can be incomplete dominance incomplete dominance pattern of inheritance in which a child receives 2 2 different alleles resulting in partial expression of a trait Sexlinked inheritance pattern of inheritance in which certain characteristics carried on the x chromosome inherited from the mother are transmitted differently to her male and female offspring certain recessive disorders are linked to genes on the sex chromosomes male and female children affected differently carriers heterozygous females who carry one bad copy of a recessive gene and one good one errors in cell division extra or missing chromosome triple x syndrome klinefelter syndrome XXY turner syndrome XO Down Syndrome chromosomal disorder characterized by moderate tosevere mental retardation and by such physical signs as a downwardsloping skin to fold at the inner corners of the eyes clinical service that advises prospective parents of their probable risk of having children with hereditary defects Karyotype chart that can show chromosomal abnormalities indicates whether a person who appears normal might carry a geneUc defect that could be transmitted to a child Behavioral genetics quantitative study of relative hereditary and environmental in uences on behavior Heritability statistical estimate of contribution of heredity to individual differences in a speci c trait within a given population at a particular time Measuring heritability estimating how much of a trait is due to genetics and how much of a trait is due to genetics and how much is the result of environmental in uences Types of heritability studies Family studies measure the degree to which biological relatives share certain traits whether the closeness of the familial relationship is associated with the degree of similarity Adoption studies look at similarities between adopted children and their adoptive parents Studies on twins compare pairs of monozygotic twins with samesex dizygotic twin concordant describing the tendency of twins to share the same trait or disorder Developmental system from conception on a combination of constitutional social economic and cultural factors help shape development more advantages circumstances and experiences lead to increased likelihood of optimum development Reaction Range potential variability depending on environmental conditions in the expression of a hereditary trait Canalization limitation on variance of expression of certain inherited characteristics highly canalized traits eye color for example strongly programmed by genes with little opportunity for variance in their expression cognition and personality are not highly canalized Genotypeenvironment interaction effect of the interaction between genes and the environment on phenotypic variation Genotypeenvironment correlation tendency of certain genetic and environmental in uences to reinforce each other may be passive reactive or active also called genotypeenvironment covariance Genetically similar children often develop differently depending on their home environments Passive parents who provide the genes that predispose a child toward a trait also tend to provide an environment that encourages the development of that trait Reactive or Evocative children with differing genetic makeups evoke different responses from adults Active as children grow they select experiences consistent with their genetic tendencies niche picking tendency to seek out environments compatible with one s genotype Nonshared environment effects unique environment in which each child grows up consisting of distinctive in uences or in uences that affect one child differently from another effects of experience on development interactions of parenting nonfamilial in uences broader context in which families live physical and physiological traits monozygotic twins more concordant than dizygotic twins in risk for medical disorders obesity extremely overweight in relation to age sex height and bodytype intelligence heredity exerts a strong in uence on general intelligence and lesser extent on speci c abilities such as memory verbal and spatial ability personality genes directly linked with speci c aspects of personality temperament characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations psychopathology evidence for a strong hereditary in uence on such mental disorders as schizophrenia autism alcoholism and depression schizophrenia neurological disorder marked by loss of contact with reality hallucinations and delusions loss of coherent logical thought inappropriate emotionality


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