Week Three Class Notes
Week Three Class Notes EDUC247010
Popular in The History of Education in America
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDUC247010 at University of Delaware taught by Hampel,Robert L in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see The History of Education in America in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
September 14 19th Century Childhood Middle Class Expectations Laboring Class Realities lmmigrants experiences Urbanization during the American Revolution there was no city with more than 30000 By the Civil War New York City has half a million people And that growth rate becomes even steeper aftenNards to the point that by the end of the 19th century it has several million people And most cities experience this sort of growth The majority of people still live outside of cities but this is the trend White collar families that live in cities are concerned about what city life will mean for their children These cities really expand public education with an emphasis on elementary school High school isn t that important Horatio Alger writes novels about growing up in this environment Middle class families wanted to earn enough so that their kids about 1415 years old won t have to work and can be sheltered from rough city life Religion is a central part of American life at the time Very broadly the direction is to see children as innately good blank slates As opposed to born evil This is still a very gendered world Expectations of education don t erase the differences between what you expect from boys and girls Opportunities for women to work outside the home are very gender specific Child labor kids could and would take a full time job around 10 11 or 12 Almost no state forbids child labor in the 19th century Most of these families couldn t make it without their child s paychecks Girls and boys had different jobs Girls would be servantsit was a good job it was clean respectable and much safer than a lot of the alternatives Boys worked in factories and coal mines Children often had to work 60 or 70 hours a week The idea was that family was most important children should be useful and help the family This was very different from the middle class child experience Westward expansion At the end of the Revolution Americans live to the east of the Appalachian mountains A hundred years later they ve made it to California Heading out west was not as idyllic as Life on the Prairie The trip alone would be brutal Schools were lacking There was one school that was made out of sodtwo years later it was eaten by cows The mid 1880sWWI saw the most immigration to the US They would have to go through a medical exam at Ellis Island to make sure they aren t sick School lunch got started as a response to immigrationhelp the assimilated by giving them American food People talked about the inferiority of immigrants There were more and more restrictions on the number of people who could come to America Women could work at home to help make ends meet Sewing was a big job Vocational education was big for girls especially immigrant girls They would learn a skill or a trade Immigrant parents also wondered about whether or not their children would assimilate 13 of Italian immigrants went back to Italy AntiCatholic and later AntiJewish fears were an issue for immigrants The emphasis was on assimilationhow well you can blend into America which was predominantly Protestant Many immigrant parents from southern Italy looked at American schools as being too frilly too full of play They couldn t understand the American emphasis on clotheswhy should you wear expensive clothes Dating was different as well In Italy an older brother would go with his sister on her dates to chaperone They weren t used to boys and girls being in the same school They didn t like American ideas of romance and falling in loveyou ought to find a Overall Jewish youth persisted in school much longer than other groups September 16 The Most Vulnerable Houses of Refuge Native American Boarding Schools Orphan Trains All Adolescents In the 1950s and 1960s about a half a million Americans were institutionalized not in prison nowadays it s about 13 of that The inclination now is not to institutionalize people but to help them outpatient Houses of refuge small communities used these to handle their challenges Poor people were boarded outsomeone would let them move in and the town would give them some money Orphans had the same sort of refuge Houses of refuge believed that you needed a life that was structured and organized largely because the children who were sent there came from chaos They lacked self control and discipline that reformers believed they needed This same idea is seen in early prisons It was believed that you couldn t coddle children In a house of refuge this believe can spiral into an abusive environment Native American Boarding Schools there was a widespread belief that white people were civilized and all Native American folks were savages Having schools for Native Americans wasn t enough because children would still go home to their parents at the end of the day With a boarding school these children would be completely separated from their parents and grow up in white culture Parents had to consent to this though not all did When the children came to the school they had cut their hair and don the school uniform They had to change their names They had to learn how to use table manners how to read a clockthey had to celebrate Columbus Day Education focused on vocational work and class work Vocational work was designed to teach kids a skill they could use in their household or to get a job For girls it was domestic work for boys it was farming or another blue collar training They spent four or five hours in a classroom where they had to learn English History geography math and sports were other big parts of the curriculum When they graduated most went back home and many of them then went back to their traditions Of those that didn t go back the boys mainly because farmers and the girls servants Orphan train orphans in the city are a major challenge One approach is to take children out west to farm families where they can be adopted Usually there was enough demand that they were all adopted About 200000 got new homes by the time the program ended in 1929 All Adolescents Maybe everyone is vulnerable New research at the time came out that said growing up was difficult He argued that everything children do is a product of our evolutionchildren playing in the sandbox is because we did that thousands of years ago He suggested that children stay in school and be nurtured Don t force them to rush through it or they won t be good adults It s one of the reasons why high school enrollment expands in the 1890s This view that adolescence was its own distinct period of life has different implications for girls and boys Girls are allowed to ride bikes which was considered unladylike earlier There was this crisis of masculinity for boysit was believed that boys weren t as manly as they had been because of urbanization This is when the YMCA is created when playgrounds are built etc We also have a new field of pediatrics The notion of public health arises Progressive period the role of the state expands There are laws against child labor pornography prostitution so on September 18 Movie notes Since the beginning of common schooling the goal of education in the US was to help cure society s problems Male teachers had a bad reputation which is part of the reason why women were more often teachers at this point Also it was assumed that women were better with children naturally nurturing and able to work for 13 of the cost It was believed that women were better suited to nurture morality in children As the 19th century progressed 70 of teachers were women Teachers helped spread education across the country They went out west and established schools Teachers are supposed to be leaders of the community so they ve been under scrutiny since the start Schools in the 1860s Thousands of northern teachers moved south after the Civil War to teach newly freed children The Penn school was one of the first These teachers were threatened by the KKK Charlotte Forten was one of the few African American teachers at the time She taught for a year and a half before she came down with TB and had to go home Between the 1880s and the 1920s industrial education expanded in the south African American teachers were only expected to teach basic ideas but many went farther to teach their students Later on people looked to schools to help immigrants assimilate Julia Richman was the first female Jewish principals in New York City She was determined to improve the lives of immigrant children Sometimes this process of Americanization was too complete it made children very different from their parents and kept them trapped between two worlds Still teaching became one of the best jobs for second or third generation immigrantsit was one of the most impressive jobs for them Starting around 1890 American high schools expanded
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