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by: Courtney

Notes 3410

GPA 3.2
Intro to Criminology

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Intro to Criminology
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3410 at Ohio State University taught by Bellair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminology in Sociology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Why do selfreport database start at 1973 The NCVS was started then so information does not go back any further started due to worry of quotdark shadow of crimequot fear UCR wasn t getting the whole picture Citizen reporting varies across the fence If anything citizen reporting has slightly increased over time It remains stable in general You CANNOT contribute citizen reporting to the reasoning on crime rate decrease over the years Arrest data UCR Part 2includes all crimes reported to police including Part 1 crimes 0 Data on offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means age sex race 0 Percentage of crimes cleared by arrest of exceptional means 2008 Murdermanslaughter 636 aggravated assault 549 continues to go down for each crime NationalIncidentBased Reporting System 0 NIBRS The Future of the Uniform Crime Report 0 5 year redesign beginning in 1982 0 Includes a brief account of incident arrest victim and offender 0 Covers 46 speci c offenses including Part 1 crimes and 11 lesser offenses Includes data on hate and bias crime Implemented by 20 states 0 Full implementation will improve accuracy and uniformity of official crime data includes all crimes during an incident and not just most serious offense 0 Not widely used in research but tends to indicate more crime than traditional UCR UCR data an overall positive assessment but need to acknowledge some problems UCR continues to be the most widely used source of crime statistics in US 0 Collected in a systematic way and published early 0 A good rule of thumb is that it re ects roughly 50 of the index crimes included re ects largely serious crime BUT NOT ALL OF IT 0 It therefore underestimates the true extent of crime A good measure of serious crime re ects crime peoplt think is serious enough to report Murder is widely considered to be the most valid UCR measure because a body is found in the vast majority of cases It is AVAILABLE whereas other sources of crime data are harder and more expensive to gather OO 0 Hard to remember that there is now much pressure to reduce crime in most jurisdictions 0 National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS 0 Survey Research People are asked about attitudes beliefs values characteristics and experiences with crime and victimization lnvolves sampling Nationwide survey of individual and household victimization conducted by the US Census Bureau for the Bureau ofjustice Statistics Originated in early 19705 Conducted by phone but with some face to face interviews and other methods In general need a phone for chance of inclusion in study 0 ADDRESSES THE BIG PROBLEM WITH THE UCR Citizennon reporting the dark gure of crime 0 Sample size 40000 households and 73000 individuals age 12 and older 0 Households stay in the sample 3 years with new households rotated into the sample on an ongoing basis 0 Information provided by NCVS Victim information age sex race ethnicity marital status income education level Crime information time place use of weapons nature of injury economic consequences Victim experiences with the criminal justice system Selfprotective measures used by victims Substance abuse by offenders Redesign 1993redesigned to provide detailed information of frequency and nature of rape sexual assault personal robbery aggravated and simple assault household burglary theft motor vehicle theft 0 Validity of the NCVS o More complete picture of the nation s crime problem addresses the nonreporting issue by measuring the crimes that citizens did not report less serious offenses o Helps us to understand why crimes are not reported to the police Overreporting due to victims misinterpretation of events Underreporting due to embarrassment fear or forgetfulness o Inability to record criminal activity of those interviewed 0 Sampling errors 0 Inadequate question format that invalidates responses 0 The future of NCVS UCR and NCVS Data comparison yields conclusion that they are both relatively valid measures of crime trends OO Which is the best measure of serious crime UCR especially homicide Which is the best measure of the total amount of crime NCVS Which would we use to study crime rate trends If we are talking about NATIONAL TRENDS we would examine both and we are looking for agreement between them before drawing conclusions If we are talking about smaller units cities or neighborhoods then use UCR because it s available Self report Surveys 0 0 Need to carefully consider whether people will admit illegal acts Survey Research People are asked about attitudes beliefs values characteristics and experiences with crime and victimization Involves sampling Asks people to describe their recent and lifetime participation in criminal ativity Some people exaggerate forget or incorrectly recall the timing of their criminal acts Most focus on juvenile delinquency and youth crime and collect data in schools quotMissing casesquot phenomenonAre the most serious delinquents included Many surveys inquire about trivial acts with little coverage of serious crime acts Selfreports may measure less serious occasional delinquents while ignoring hardcore chronic offenders who may be institutionalized That is they may study delinquency among quotnon delinquentquot populations Of cial Records The Uniform Crime Report UCR Part 1 Collected annually by the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Represents over 17000 police departments and the majority of the US population 0 Part 1 crimesoffenses known to the police the 8 most serious offenses many felonies are not on this list m urder and nonnegligent manslaughter forcibe rape r0bbery aggra va ted assault burgary a rcen y arson m0t0r vehicle theft 0 Police of cers verify that the crime has occured Unless speci cally stated otherwise crime is based on the UCR index top 8 offenses Newspapers measure crime based on the UCR indexonly 8 offenses are used Compiling the UCR O O 0 Part 2 Law enforcement agencies report Part 1 crimes monthly Unfounded or false complaints eliminated The number of actual known offenses is reported whether or not an arrest is made 0 All crimes reported to police including part 1 and number of arrest by age sex race 0 Part 2 offenses arrest data o Is the UCR valid 0 0 Rate re ects number of crimes per 100000 persons but should be per women cars or hh s The UCR s accuracy has long been questioned Many serious crimes are not reported to the police O 0000 Victims consider the crime unimportant Victims don t trust the police Victims do not have property insurance Victims fear reprisals Victims are involved in illegal activities themselves 0 Police de nition and recording practices 0 Police recording scandals have been common ex Atlanta preceding the 1996 summer OIympicsAtanta had an extremely high rate of crime 5 in country makes people not want to attend the Olympics out of fear and concern police of cers stopped reporting some crimes which made the crime rate in Atlanta drop so they were no longer in the top 5people involved were red 0 Violent crime has declined almost 50 there is not a sharp decline in citizen reporting in fact it s slightly increasing 0 It s the procedure of measuring crime that changes the way crimecrime rate looks rather than the citizen reporting Two systems for tracking crime 0 FBI UCR Reporting CompStatwhat police and city of cials use in public discussion of crime trends 0 Fuzzy math they use their own rules to determine crime rates often show much larger variations larger drop in crime and is shown to the public 0 Room for manipulation of crime statistics How do crimes get reclassi ed Case Managementcrimes can get reclassi ed by several people and at several stages


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