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Week 5 Notes - HIST 1302

by: Amanda Haynes

Week 5 Notes - HIST 1302 Hist 1302

Amanda Haynes
GPA 3.82
History of U.S. since 1865
Ransom P. Cross

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About this Document

These notes cover the beginning of the progressive era through Theodore Roosevelt's presidency.
History of U.S. since 1865
Ransom P. Cross
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Haynes on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Ransom P. Cross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
HIST 1302 History of the US Since 1865 Week 5 I Progressivism A Defined 1 Idea of Progress a Claims that growth in science economic development technology and social grouping are extremely important 1 Only way to improve the human condition B Questions theories and ideas thought to have been set in stone C All progress can be interpreted in many diverse ways 11 The Protestant Spirit and Progressivism A Early progressives were predominately young middleclass males 1 Called ministers of reform B Social Gospel Movement 1 Consisted of a Christian intellectual movement a This movement applied fundamental principles of Christianity to solve society s problems 1 Problems addressed in this movement include poverty inequality liquor crime bad hygiene racial tensions slums poor schools and the danger of war 2 The leaders of this movement were post millennialists a They believed that Christ would not come again until humankind disposed of all social evils III Muckrakers Magazines and Realism A Original definition 1 The individual responsible for cleaning out horses stalls B During the progressive era 1 Journalists who were trying to sell their stories to the public would often stretch the truth invent problems and elaborated on an article in order to make the content more interesting and sellable a Big elaborate and interesting stories sell more than stories containing strictly facts 1 This is still true today C Many individuals including Theodore Roosevelt criticized and disavowed the muckrakers D This style of news became known as Yellow Journalism Yellow Press IV Yellow Journalism Today A Prime example Presidential campaign politics 1 Donald Trump Hillary Clinton Ben Carson Bernie Sanders and the media a The press doesn t cover their plans for the country nor the issues they are going to address b The press only sensationalizes their actions 1 Prime example Hillary Clinton s e mails B If an individual is in the spotlight anything they say can and will be sensationalized by the media C Yellow Journalism will continue as long as profits remain high V Muckrakers A Mass circulation has helped yellow journalism spread to the far reaches of the country 1 Realism aided this new form of journalism make more headway at a faster rate a Emergence of check out line tabloids Other results of realism a Another intellectual movement that focused on detachment objectivity and skepticism 1 History is never objective due to the fact that history is written by the winners b Motivated reform for the middle class VI The Emergence of Settlement Houses and Women s Activism A The settlement houses were created to help immigrants especially the poor ones survive and adapt to the harsh realities of urban life 1 Based on the belief that some people will volunteer with no thoughts of a reward just to help someone else a This concept is never seen in politics 1 It s always scratch my back and I ll scratch yours B Hull House 1889 1 The first of many settlement houses 2 Created by a community of university women a These women would teach the immigrants about the US s culture laws and government in order to protect them from being cheated and taken advantage of 3 The community and corporations soon jumped on the settlement house bandwagon a Why 1 An educated worker can do a lot more tasks than an uneducated one can 2 Benefits were universal 4 There were multiple programs to help immigrants get more adjusted to life in the US a Many immigrants attended language courses in order to survive 1 They needed to speak English in order to answer questions follow instructions etc b Food banks emerged to help feed the poor AKA food banks c Employment agencies came about in order to ensure an immigrant who had valuable job skills before moving to the US could be put in the field their skills are used for 1 No skills teach you a skill and find you a job 5 Many immigrants were encouraged to take part in government regulation and intervention gifts a This was done due to the fact that immigrants had first hand experiences with government regulations Through progressivism people began to realize the value of immigrant a Example Some immigrant musicians knew how to make violins b Today the immigrant s gifts are discounted Progressivises were conservative in the aspect of culture 1 They spurned any acts of feminine sexuality a Women had to dress in the Victorian style 1 ankles Dresses that covered everything up to the neck wrists and 2 In essence no skin showing They rejected the consumption of alcohol a Alcoholism was a huge issue at the time A laborer would walk into a bar at the end of the week with 1 his paycheck and spend it all on booze b Progressives were strong supporters of the Women s Christian Temperance Union and the Anti Saloon League 1 These leagues predominately composed of women would walk into bars with baseball bats and destroy every bottle of alcohol in the place c Due to the pressure from these organizations the 18th Amendment was passed 1 Prohibition of alcohol except for prescription use 2 This caused the Mafia to become major crime bosses in the 1920s D Women s Clubs 1 These organizations main focus was not on prohibition of alcohol alone 2 They worked to reform areas of what was deemed traditional female concerns a Such as education playgrounds libraries fire and sanitation codes and health and safety legislation 3 Pushing for reform empowered many women to get involved in the political sphere of the US a This unified women under one cause that they all believed in 4 Many men started to accept the fact that women were involved in so much of the country that it only made sense that the road would lead to women s suffrage a Women finally obtained suffrage in the 19th Amendment VII Socialism and Progressivism A During the Progressive Era Socialism was at its highest 1 Eugene V Debs a A strong believer in socialism a founder of the International Labor Union political leaders etc b Bolshevik Revolution dashed any hopes of getting elected into office 1 Why a Socialism and communism are viewed as the same i They are not ii Communism a Has components of socialism Within its theories b Examples of communism today i Cuba No growth or ambition of its workforce and economy ii North Korea Isolationists iii China Only in its politics its economy is capital based iii Socialism a Has nothing to do With Communism b Based on a utopian society viewpoint c Some Democratic societies use some elements of socialism i Britain Their medical system is free to everyone and the costs of the operations are divided equally amongst the people through taxes not very effective in maintaining employed doctors Appeal to Reason 1 An article pointed out the horrid conditions of food production companies a Resulted in the Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 C The many variations of socialists 1 gas and water socialists medical socialists etc 2 Socialists and progressives were extremely close a Sometimes progressives and socialists would jump from one to the other without a second thought 3 The key feature that was in uencing both ideologies was utopianism a They believed that a utopian society could be a reality in the future through progress VIII Municipal Reform and the Growing Necessities of Society A B The growth of cities causes an in ux of necessities in society The first battles of transportation and utilities 1 Robber barons bought out other companies to create a powerful monopoly on their market of interest a More monopolies means more power 2 Government intervention was required in order to keep these superpowers in check a The government could only get involved to a certain degree b Carnegie and Rockefeller monopoly owners who caused the government to have difficulty legislating and enforcing monopoly laws 1 Why a They gave their excess wealth to charity they started educational organizations and were overall good people with the desire and the means to help their fellow man Monopolies of the press 1 The government put an immediate stop to these monopolies due to the fact that the government did have the right to protect the rights stated in the 1st Amendment a Freedom of the press D The city government was reformed by creating and implementing structural reforms 1 Implemented to meet the growing cities needs 2 City commissions and city managers positions were created a Unfortunately these positions were held by very corrupt individuals b These people would devalue the minority and poorer voters c Also implemented new political machines which implemented 1 Cronyism politicians would hire their friends for protection and support 2 Nepotism politicians would hire their family for protection and support a Blood is thicker than water 3 Spoils System if you want something what will you do for me a AKA You scratch my back I ll scratch yours b This sort of system was illegal yet it still went on for many years IX Political Reform in the States A This occurred in the states in order to take power from party bosses and return it to the people 1 The people elected the senators instead of senators getting elected through nominations 2 All the reforms were meant to turn political power back to the people a Power to the people if an elected official was not doing their job correctly the people have the power to recall that official from office B Attempts to maintain a well informed honest electorate 10 1 Secret ballot an individual s voting is under the same confidentiality as the confidentiality of Confession 2 Personal registration laws gave truth and enforced one person one vote 3 Citizenship came before voting rights 4 The South still put restrictions on African American voters Women s Suffrage 1 Direct opposite of the government trying to limit the electorate 2 Men recognized the differences between women and men however they believed that women were so involved in society that the next logical step would be the vote 3 19th Amendment 1920 Finally gave women the right to vote Robert La Follette and the Wisconsin Idea 1 Progressivist opposed to railroads bossism World War I WW1 and the League of Nations a Many Americans during this time frame were Isolationists 2 Created an extensive political agenda focused on reform a Tried to dampen the power of corporations b The government agreed that the major corporations had too much power and therefore they created a law to destroy monopolies 3 Worked with the social scientists from the University of Wisconsin in order to create the Wisconsin Industrial Commission in 1911 Progressive Reform in New York 1 Instituted by Governor Charles Evans Hughes 2 The reforms aspired to regulate business and stop political corruption 3 Also worked towards social justice regulations Please note All laws made by our government are in reaction to something 11 1 It has never been proactive and most likely never Will be X Campaign for Civil Rights Reborn A Criticisms of Booker T Washington s theories of accommodation grew significantly B W E B DuBois and the Niagara Movement 1 His theory focused on no surrender until their demands were met a Raise hell in order to be heard 2 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP formed in 1910 a The Crisis written by DuBois outlined the problems and solutions of civil rights b Resulted in the National Urban League and other organizations forming to 1 Achieve better economic and social conditions c DuBoise fought against Washington s theories constantly 1 Polar opposite beliefs XI National Reform A Many issues that arose during this time frame required government intervention therefore many of the decisions came from the executive branch rather than the legislative branch B Theodore Roosevelt s Square Deal Government Business 12 Workers Consumers 1 1St Progressive president of the US 2 He strengthened the government through corporations a The business of the government is business b Anthracite Coal Strike 1902 c Hepburn Act 1906 1 Interstate Commerce Commission received power from the national government 3 Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 a Lead to the Meat Inspection Act 1906 4 Roosevelt believed that the US needed to support the environment for future generations a Started the National Park Service 1916 and Public Lands Commission 1903 13


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