Chapter One Notes
Chapter One Notes PSYC 2300
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Seth Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
The Ohio State University Psychology 2300 Research Methods in Psychology Chapter One Notes Psgchologg mag sometimes be labeled as soft science or seen as squishg People often claimed that psgchologg isn t a real science lillte Phgsics So is Psgchologg a science You betcha it is Because it is a domain in which scientific inquirg can be conducted But not all psychological claims are scientifically supported Phrenoloau Example Franz Joseph Gall gt Phrenologg is a theorg that measurements of the skull could tell us more about the size of various parts of the brain 9 therefore inform us about a person s capacitg for different traits Psucholoau s Side Claim the shape of the skull indicates both underlging brain structures 9 a person s traits Is this a scientific claim Whg or whg not Astronomu Example Claim the sun 9 stars revolve around Earth Is this a scientific claim Whg or whg not Claim vs Method Some points to consider a The truth value of a claim doesn t make it scientific b A false claim doesn t make an entire subject area nonscientific Another example of a false claim Bu adding chemicals into a mixture with leadl can provoke a chemical reaction that will produce gold It s not scientificallg supported Does that mean Chemistrg isn t a science The claim can be scientificallg tested gt The science is in the method of examination Differences So whg does Psgchologg seem soffer fhdn some of fhe hord sciences like Chemisfrg or Phgsics Some pldusible onswers A The forgeffs of inquirg respond fo observofions endcfing individudllg dnd sifudfiondllgvoridble mofives B The sources of cousdfion con be more numerous more complex dnd less edsilg medsured C The domdin is more dccessible gt People mdg feel more comforfdble mdking cldims dbouf fheir own dnd ofhers psgchologicol sfdfes whefher or nof fhose cldims ore scienfificollg supporfed The frulg scienfific cldims con be hdrd fo sorf ouf from fhe resf Psgchologicol cldims con be scienfific dnd scienfisfs hove builf d scienfific founddfion for expldining psgchologicol phenomend We coll fhis scienfific sfudg of such phenomenons lt9 cloims Psychology Science is d rigorous wdg of fhinking lt9 exomining fhese phenomend dnd inferesfs Producers ore fhe people who create fhe resedrch gt Theg use fhe empiricol mefhod sgsfemdficollg collecfing ddfd fo fesf refine fheories Consumers ore fhe people who wdnf fo undersfdnd psgchologicol phenomend gt Theg dpplg fheir knowledge fo fheir work fdmilg hobbies persondl growfh efc Commondlifg gt Proficiencg in redding lt9 evoludfing resedrch is imporfdnf for bofh producers dnd consumers we wdnf evidencebdsed fredfmenfsl Theorg Sfdfemenffs describing generdl principles dbouf how voridbles reldfe fo one dnofher ngofhesis Specific sfdfemenfs dbouf whdf we expecf fo see if our ddfd is occurdfe m Sef of observofions Tesf fhe fheorg gt Going bdck fo fhe sfudg of Phrenologg exomple gt Working from d fheorg resedrchers develop 0 specific hgpofhesis I People egtlthibifing profrusions in d pdrficuldr dred of fhe slltull ore more benevolenf I We need fo define fhis dred we re folllting dbouf dnd operdfiondlize whdf more benevolenf medns Collecf fhe ddfd gt fhis involves empiricism or using evidence from fhe senses lt9 fools fhdf ossisf fhe senses ds bdsis for conclusions gt Are fhe ddfd consisfenf wifh inconsisfenf wifh fhe fheorg I This will usudllg involve sfdfisficol dndlgsis The resedrch process sfdrfs w on egtltisfing or formuldfed fheorg Ulfimdfelg whdf mdlltes 0 good fheorg Supporfed bg evidence ddfd Folsifidble Q There musf be pofenfidllg observoble ddfd fhdf would chdllenge fhe fheorg gt Exomple of d cldim fhdf is nof reddilg fdlsifidble onlg silenf invisible people con see ofher silenf invisible people Porsimonious O Occom s Rdzor if dll else is egudl d simpler expldndfion is fhe besf O Simpler fheories fhdf expldin fhe some ddfd is preferdble Good fheories dlso hove resulfs fhdf ore replicofed gt Resedrchers don f simplg conducf d sfudg lt9 sfop fhere Theg perform dddifiondl sfudiesl Why Replicofions ore designed fo reduce fhe chdnce fhdf we will ulfimdfelg end up believing somefhing fhdf is incorrecf lVlodificofions of fhe sfudg lt9 differenf resedrch designs help fo exfend fhe resulfs eifher generdlizing fhe fheorg or credfing bounddries for if v Confexf offen mdffer d gredf dedl l v Science is on occumuldfion of evidence Can We Prove Our Theories Ndh Proof should generdllg be reserved for logic 9 mdfh nof empiricol resedrch Resedrch is focused on observing chordcferizing ddfd fhe drdwing ouf implicofions We want to accumulate evidence for or against a theorg lt9 judge that theorg based on the weight of the evidence For that reason we use this language gt The weight of the evidence gt Supports suggests is consistent with gt Do not support Inconsistent with complicate Basic Applied and Translational Research a Basic Research gt enhancing the general bodg of knowledge b Applied Research gt Solving a specific practical problem c Translational Research gt Bridge from basic to applied gt Uses lessons from basic research to test applications in the real world gt A continuum Example from the class textbook Basic research of a studg in which conditions do people experience a rubber hand as their own hand Translational research of that studg can lessons from the rubber hand illusion be applied to the design of prosthetic hands Applied research then considers which prosthetic hand design works best for the clients El This can be found in the book on the bottom of page 14 in Figure 16 CI lf gou don t have the book there s a video on YouTube that describes what the Rubber Hand lllusion is in a different concept gt httpswwwgoutubecomwatchvsgtltwnlw7lVlJvllt Scientists Publish Research Scientists don t simplg conduct research and then file awag the results in a vault Theg share the methods theg used along with their findings Peer Reviewed Journals Conference Presentations Blogs Press Releases Popular Media Peer Review Process gt Scientific journals where researchers tell the world about their results Usuallg peer reviewed 0 A number of experts 2 to 5 read the article before it s pubHshed I Give criticism recommend publishing or not I Verg rigorous in an ideal world From lVlanuscripf fo Journal Arficle gt Seek close colleagues for informal feedback gt Send complefe manuscripf fo journal gt Journal edifors ask reviewers fo provide anongmous egtltperf feedback gt Journal edifors fhen make a final publicafion decision 0 Accepf wifh minor revisions O Revise lt9 Resubmif condifioned on cerfain changes 0 Rejecf no invifafion fo resubmif fhaf journal Popular Press Coverage Research findings can be picked up bg fhe popular media gt This can be beneficial bc fhe research findings can reach fo people who would never have heard abouf if ofherwise gt There can also be cosfs gt somefimes fhe findings are nof reporfed accurafelg or fheg are reporfed wifhouf addifional qualifiers fhaf reallg should be sfafed 0 Examples lVlozarf Effecf Happiness Across Cifies in UK Journal fo Journalism Benefist Disseminafion of knowledge Tips for improved life New ideas for researchers Two considerafions 1 Is fhe sforg imporfanf 2 Is if accurafe End of Chapter One Notes
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