Chapter 5 Key Terms
Chapter 5 Key Terms GEO 101-007
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101-007 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. William Lambert in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see The Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
GEO 101007 92115 Chapter 5 Key Terms H a lava ow with a rubbly surface Accretionary Lapilli hailstonelike clumps of wet ash that fall from a volcanic eruptive cloud Active Volcano a volcano that has erupted within the past few centuries and will likely erupt again Ash tiny glass shards formed when a fine spray of exploded lava freezes instantly upon contact with the atmosphere Block large angular pyroclastic fragments consisting of volcanic rock broken up during the eruption Blocky Lava lava that is so viscous that it breaks into boulderlike blocks as it moves typically such lavas are andesitic or rhyolitic Bomb blocks form when soft lava squirts out of the vent and then solidifies Caldera a large circular depression with steep walls and a fairly at oor formed after an eruption as the center of the volcano collapses into the drained magma chamber below Cinder Cone a subaerial volcano consisting of a coneshaped pile of tephra whose slope approaches the angle of repose for tephra Columnar Jointing a type of fracturing that yields roughly hexagonal columns of basalt columnar joints form when a dike sill or lava ow cools Crater 1 a circular depression at the top of a volcanic mound 2 a depression formed by the impact of a meteorite Dormant Volcano a volcano that has not erupted for hundreds to thousands of years but does have the potential to erupt again in the future Effusive Eruption an eruption that yields mostly lava not ash Eruptive Style the character of a particular volcanic eruption geologists name styles based on typical examples Extinct Volcano a volcano that was active in the past but has now shut off entirely and will not erupt in the future GEO 101007 92115 Fissure a conduit in a magma chamber in the shape of a long crack through which magma rises and erupts at the surface Flood Basalt vast sheets of basalt that spread from a volcanic vent over an extensive surface of land they may form where a rift develops above a continental hot spot and where lava is particularly hot and has low viscosity Ignimbrite rock formed when deposits of pyroclastic ows solidify Lahar a thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water either in rivers or from rain or melting snow and ice on the ank of a volcano Lapilli an pyroclastic particle that is 2 to 64 mm in diameter ie marble sized the particles can consist of frozen lava clots pumice fragments or ash clumps Large Igneous Province a region in which huge volumes of lava and or ash erupted over a relatively short interval of geological time Lava Tube the empty space left when a lava tunnel drains this happens when the surface of a lava ow solidifies while the inner part of the ow continues to stream downslope Magma Chamber a space below the ground filled with magma Pahoehoe a lava ow with a surface texture of smooth glassy roplike ridges Pumice Lapilli marblesized chunks consisting of frothy siliceous igneous rock that fall from volcanic eruptive cloud Pyroclastic Debris fragmented material that sprayed out of volcano and landed on the ground or sea oor in solid form Pyroclastic Flow a fastmoving avalanche that occurs when hot volcanic ash and debris mix with air and ow down the side of a volcano Scoria Cone an accumulation of a lapillisized or larger fragments formed from a volcanic eruption that spatters clots of basaltic lava cinder cone Shield Volcano a subaerial volcano with a broad gentle dome formed either from lowviscosity basaltic lava or from large pyroclastic sheets Stratovolcano a large coneshaped subaerial volcano consisting of alternating layers of lava and tephra Tephra unconsolidated accumulations of pyroclastic grains GEO 101007 92115 Tuff a pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice formed when accumulations of the debris cement together Vesicle open holes in igneous rock formed by the preservation of bubbles in magma as the magma cools into solid rock Volcanic Debris Flow a mixture of water and pyroclastic debris that moves downslope like wet concrete Volcaniclastic Deposit an accumulation of large quantities of fragmental igneous material including both pyroclastic debris and watertransported debris Volcano 1 a vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planet s surface 2 a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock